Problem solving-model

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  • Go over agenda and discuss what is to come. /
  • Problem-solving is a process that includes systematic analysis of a student’s behavior or academic difficulty in the context of a functional assessment plan. Data gathered through the functional assessment plan are then used to develop an instructional plan / strategy specific to the problem. The implementation of this plan / strategy is then monitored and data are evaluated to determine effectiveness.
  • Using a collaborative problem-solving model to look at district/school wide data is a way to ensure we, as educators, are providing appropriate curriculum and instruction and, just as important, to ensure that students are responding to that curriculum and instruction. Using a collaborative problem solving by a multidisciplinary team to look at individual student data increases the legitimacy of referrals to special education. In other words, there are fewer referrals to special education and those referrals that are made are more likely to result in services. An approach to developing interventions and ensuring positive student outcomes, rather than determining failure or deviance (Deno, 1995). Research Data and philosophy. From 1977 to 1994 there was a marked increase in students identified with a disability, , despite school enrollment remaining constant. Collaborative problem-solving by a multidisciplinary team is a way to insure appropriate referrals.
  • RtI will look differently in different places. Learners will also look different. We are changing our mind set to get the whole picture of the child. We need to ensure that appropriate strategies meet the needs of the student. This model is designed to meet the needs of diverse learners within school districts Attempts to identify and implement best educational strategies to meet the needs of all learners
  • Change is needed: Change in mind-set; change in focus; change in ownership. What can we do differently? Questioning leads us to know what areas to assess. Instruction must address the learning needs that were identified. The intervention comes from looking at the data and making decisions based on the results of the data.
  • This model applies at all tiers of the problem-solving model. It is repeated as you move through the tiers. PSM is dependent upon the intensity of the problem and the intensity of the services needed to adequately meet the student’s needs The intensity of the problem drives movement through the tiers.
  • Let’s look at this seven-step cyclical process. Take out your colored handout and let’s talk about each step in this process.
  • Let’s look at this seven-step cyclical process. Take out your colored handout and let’s talk about each step in this process.
  • Defining the problem is an essential first step in a systematic approach to problem-solving. Research by Bergan and Tombari (1976) shows that when a problem is correctly identified and agreed upon by staff, a solution to the problem almost invariably results. Without a clear and operational zed definition, effective problem-solving is not likely to occur. The definition must be stated in concrete, measureable and observable terms. Can the identified problem pass the stranger test? Can someone else observe the student and identify the defined problem ? This is frequently the most difficult step in this process.
  • Let’s look at this seven-step cyclical process. Take out your colored handout and let’s talk about each step in this process.
  • First order of business: Decide what additional data is needed or is available. Additional data is gathered by working through four procedures Review, Interview, Observe and Test. These are commonly referred to at RIOT. As you began your training here with an assessment of your core, so should you begin your problem-solving process for students, by looking at core instruction for all. All relevant procedures should be considered but all may not be needed. Review: review all records, available work samples, previous assessments. Interview: Who can provide information about this student? Parent ? Previous Teacher? Literacy Coach ? Administrator? Student themselves ? Observe: Capture a lesson where the problem is being exhibited. What’s happening with the student ? Is the same problem exhibited in other settings or subjects ? Test: Administer informal assessments; look at universal screening or formative assessments. What does this information tell you ? There are four procedures that can be utilized. Review ,: text books (curriculum), products such as work samples(instruction), pacing guides or school rules (environment), cumulative and/or health records, work samples (learner) Interview : Teachers, curriculum directors (Curriculum), Teachers (Instruction), Parents (Environment), Learner (student, checklists or rating scales) Observe: Lesson plans (curriculum); Anecdotal recording or checklist (Instruction), systematic observation (environment), Checklists or anecdotal notes (learner) Test: Reliability of texts or core assessment (Curriculum), Informal assessments (Instruction), Review of assessment/ behavior during assessment (Environment), Curriculum based assessments, formative assessments (learner)
  • Let’s look at this seven-step cyclical process. Take out your colored handout and let’s talk about each step in this process.
  • Additional data is gathered by looking at the various domains that may impact learning: Curriculum, Instruction, Environment and finally the learner. Just as you began this training with an assessment of your core, you should begin your problem-solving process by looking at core instruction for all. Environment – how environment effects learning – arrangement of classroom, material, media equipment Curricular – is curriculum appropriate for student? Consider sequence of objectives, teaching methods, and practice materials provided Instructional – manner in which teacher uses curriculum – consider instructional techniques, presentation style, questioning, feedback techniques Learner – Student skill – necessary prerequisite skills Student process – capacity to learn and problem solving techniques These four procedures can be utilized in each domain. Here are some examples: Review ,: text books (curriculum), products such as work samples(instruction), pacing guides or school rules (environment), cumulative and/or health records, work samples (learner) Interview : Teachers, curriculum directors (Curriculum), Teachers (Instruction), Parents (Environment), Learner (student, checklists or rating scales) Observe: Lesson plans (curriculum); Anecdotal recording or checklist (Instruction), systematic observation (environment), Checklists or anecdotal notes (learner) Test: Reliability of texts or core assessment (Curriculum), Informal assessments (Instruction), Review of assessment/ behavior during assessment (Environment), Curriculum based assessments, formative assessments (learner)
  • Let’s look at this seven-step cyclical process. Take out your colored handout and let’s talk about each step in this process.
  • Letter Major Term [Minor Terms] S---Specific,[Significant, Stretching, Simple] M--- Measurable, [Meaningful, Motivational, Manageable] A--- Attainable , [Appropriate, Achievable, Agreed, Assignable, Actionable, Action-oriented, Ambitious, Aligned] R--- Relevant [Realistic, Results/Results-focused/Results-oriented, Resourced, Rewarding] T--- Time-bound [Time-oriented, Time framed, Timed, Time-based, Timeboxed, Timely, Time-Specific, Timetabled, Time limited, Time-bound, Trackable, Tangible ] How about SMARTER goals ???? E-- Evaluate [Ethical, Excitable, Enjoyable, Engaging] R-- Reevaluate [Rewarded, Reassess, Revisit, Recorded, Rewarding, Reaching]
  • Notes page 20-22
  • Let’s look at this seven-step cyclical process. Take out your colored handout and let’s talk about each step in this process.
  • Take 3 minutes and discuss with your team.
  • Let’s look at this seven-step cyclical process. Take out your colored handout and let’s talk about each step in this process.
  • PM does not always have to be on a graph. It can be observations/notes/samples.
  • Add notes from Amy
  • Let’s look at this seven-step cyclical process. Take out your colored handout and let’s talk about each step in this process.
  • Human Knot
  • 80% of students should have their needs met within the regular classroom through general or, when necessary, supplemental instruction
  • Take a few minutes to review this form and talk with your team.
  • Parent and teacher together brainstorm ideas for interventions Discuss what interventions look like Look at differentiated instruction Create a Parent/Teacher Log Develop progress monitoring plan Set time table for reconvening to evaluate interventions Implement intervention plan Evaluate Use progress monitoring Determine effectiveness of intervention Problem-solving model forms are completed to document the process.
  • Problem-solving model forms are completed to document the process.
  • Cycle repeats, but in a more formal and systematic way. May include the school-based problem solving team. Team may consist of referring teacher, parent, administrator, psychologist, EC staff member, counselor, regular education representative, anyone else needed Forms are completed to document each step of the process. Data are collected and charted to provide visual representation of skill acquisition. Problem-solving model forms are completed to document the process.
  • Team identifies areas to be addressed as concerns and determines that intensity of interventions require more than can be addressed in the regular classroom. Problem-solving model forms are completed to document the process.
  • Shift from focus on placement in special education as the intervention TO high quality interventions in general education
  • Problem solving-model

    1. 1. North CarolinaProblem Solving ModelPreparation & NC DPI 1 Summer 2010
    2. 2. • Welcome ! od ay forTP lan • Introductions • Review core assessment and Blueprint • What is RtI in NC ? – Problem Solving Model (PSM) – Assessment 2
    3. 3. Let’s review…..• Two National models of RtI – Problem-solving – Standard Protocol• North Carolina’s RtI Model  Problem-Solving Model (PSM) • Four tiers  Assessment • Includes Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM) and Formative Assessment (FA) 3
    4. 4. What is a Problem-Solving Model ? • Systematic analysis • Functional assessment • Data • Instructional plan • Plan implementation • Monitoring 4
    5. 5. Why use a Problem Solving Model ? (PSM)■ Ensure positive student outcomes, rather than determining failure or deviance (Deno, 1995) 5
    6. 6. Problem-Solving Model (PSM)• Core Curriculum assessment• Meet the needs of diverse learners within school districts• Identify and implement best educational strategies for all learners 6
    7. 7. So ………• You’ve assessed your core….• Identified gaps….• Strengthened your curriculum and instruction…• Differentiated instruction for all learners………..AND students are still struggling……… What’s next ? 7
    8. 8. Problem-Solving Model (PSM)Change in mind-set is necessary for all  Student problems are defined  Questions drive assessments  Engage in instruction that addresses learning  Intervention is derived from analysis of baseline data 8
    9. 9. Implementation of a RtI System  Seven step cyclical process ■ All seven occur throughout the process 9
    10. 10. Problem Solving (PSM) Process 1 2 Step 1 Define the 7 Problem Develop a behavioral Step 2 Step 7 (observable) definition Develop an of problem Analysis of the Assessment Plan Generate a hypothesis and Intervention Plan assessment questions make a team decision on the related to the problem effectiveness of the intervention 6 3 Step 6 Step 3 Implement the Analysis of the Intervention Plan Assessment Plan Provide strategies, materials, and resources: include Create a functional and multidimensional assessment to 5 4 progress monitoring test the hypothesis Step 5 Step 4 Develop an Generate a Goal Intervention Plan Statement Base interventions on best Specific Description of the changes practices and research-proven expected in student strategies behavior 10
    11. 11. Problem Solving (PSM) Process 1 2 Step 1 Define the 7 Problem Develop a behavioral (observable) definition of problem 6 3 5 4 11
    12. 12. Step 1:Define the Problem• Essential step• Develop a behavioral/academic definition• Concrete, Observable and Measurable• Stranger test ?• Most difficult step ! 12
    13. 13. Problem Solving (PSM) Process 1 2 Step 1 Define the 7 Problem Develop a behavioral Step 2 (observable) definition Develop an of problem Assessment Plan Generate a hypothesis and assessment questions related to the problem 6 3 5 4 13
    14. 14. Step 2:Develop an Assessment Plan• Generate a hypothesis – Why is the problem occurring ? – Formulate predictions of student’s behavior – Formulate assessment questions to confirm / reject hypothesis• Procedure (RIOT) – Review – Interview – Observe – Test 14
    15. 15. Problem Solving (PSM) Process 1 2 Step 1 Define the 7 Problem Develop a behavioral Step 2 (observable) definition Develop an of problem Assessment Plan Generate a hypothesis and assessment questions related to the problem 6 3 Step 3 Analysis of the Assessment Plan Create a functional and multidimensional assessment to 5 4 test the hypothesis 15
    16. 16. Step 3:Analysis of the Assessment Plan Domains that impact learning Procedure – Curriculum – Review – Instruction – Interview – Environment – Observe – Learner – TestConsider all that are relevantNot required to address all domains each timeI 16
    17. 17. Problem Solving (PSM) Process 1 2 Step 1 Define the 7 Problem Develop a behavioral Step 2 (observable) definition Develop an of problem Assessment Plan Generate a hypothesis and assessment questions related to the problem 6 3 Step 3 Analysis of the Assessment Plan Create a functional and multidimensional assessment to 5 4 test the hypothesis Step 4 Generate a Goal Statement Specific Description of the changes expected in student behavior 17
    18. 18. Step 4:Generate a Goal Statement• Essential step• Precise definition• Set before plan implementation• Goal statement- specific description of desired change in student behavior as a result of an intervention• SMART Goal 18
    19. 19. Doran, George T. "Theres a S.M.A.R.T. way to write managements goals and objectives." Management Review, Nov 1981, Volume 70 Issue 11. 19
    20. 20. Three Components of a GoalStatement 20
    21. 21. Problem Solving (PSM) Process 1 2 Step 1 Define the 7 Problem Develop a behavioral Step 2 (observable) definition Develop an of problem Assessment Plan Generate a hypothesis and assessment questions related to the problem 6 3 Step 3 Analysis of the Assessment Plan Create a functional and multidimensional assessment to 5 4 test the hypothesis Step 5 Step 4 Develop an Generate a Goal Intervention Plan Statement Base interventions on best Specific Description of the changes practices and research-proven expected in student strategies behavior 21
    22. 22. Step 5:Develop an Intervention Plan• Identify methods, procedures and materials that are research-based• Describe plan of action• Include specific goals• Progress-monitoring plans included 22
    23. 23. What’s The Difference ?• Modification- change in expectations of what a student is expected to know – fewer number of multiple choice items on a test – modified spelling list – fewer number of math problems 23
    24. 24. What’s the Difference?• Accommodation – a change that is intended to help the student fully access the general education curriculum without changing the instructional content. – large print books – preferential seating – sign language interpreters 24
    25. 25. What’s the Difference?• Intervention – academic or behavioral strategies used to teach a new skill, build fluency in a skill, or encourage the application of existing skills to a new environment – repeated reading – paired reading – behavior report card – Wilson Reading, Read Well, Reading Mastery, etc. 25
    26. 26. Discussion Time….• How does your team feel about intervention?• What’s happening now for you? – Using real data? – Have specific plans when? Who? What? – Progress monitoring ? 26
    27. 27. Problem Solving (PSM) Process 1 2 Step 1 Define the 7 Problem Develop a behavioral Step 2 (observable) definition Develop an of problem Assessment Plan Generate a hypothesis and assessment questions related to the problem 6 3 Step 6 Step 3 Implement the Analysis of the Intervention Plan Assessment Plan Provide strategies, materials, and resources: include Create a functional and multidimensional assessment to 5 4 progress monitoring test the hypothesis Step 5 Step 4 Develop an Generate a Goal Intervention Plan Statement Base interventions on best Specific Description of the changes practices and research-proven expected in student strategies behavior 27
    28. 28. Step 6:Implement the Plan• Multiple activities – Fidelity and integrity of intervention – Monitor the Intervention • Effect on student performance • Integrity of implementation – Make changes as indicated – Decisions ! 28
    29. 29. Progress MonitoringAn act of collecting data to determine the effectiveness of an intervention. 29
    30. 30. Intervention Plan• Continuation of hypothesis-testing step• Evaluate effectiveness of plan• Change as needed• Reasonable plan for implementation – Clear understanding of implementation – Personnel – Skills and materials**Retention is not a research-based intervention 30
    31. 31. Problem Solving (PSM) Process 1 2 Step 1 Define the 7 Problem Develop a behavioral Step 2 Step 7 (observable) definition Develop an Analysis of the of problem Assessment Plan Intervention Plan Generate a hypothesis and assessment questions make a team decision on the effectiveness of the related to the problem intervention 6 3 Step 6 Step 3 Implement the Analysis of the Intervention Plan Assessment Plan Provide strategies, materials, and resources: include Create a functional and multidimensional assessment to 5 4 progress monitoring test the hypothesis Step 5 Step 4 Develop an Generate a Goal Intervention Plan Statement Base interventions on best Specific Description of the changes practices and research-proven expected in student strategies behavior 31
    32. 32. Step 7:Analysis of the Intervention Plan EVALUATE the DATA• Progress monitoring is essential – Examine student performance – Evaluate the effectiveness of instruction 32
    33. 33. Let’s Practice 33
    34. 34. Discussion…. 34
    35. 35. School-Wide system of support for student achievementshould look like this: Intensive Intervention 5% Strategic Interventions 15% Core Curriculum 80%
    36. 36. The NC Problem-SolvingAmount of Resources Required to Address Need(s) Model Tier IV Consideration for Tier III EC referral Consultation with the Problem Solving Team Tier II Consultation With Other Resources Tier I Evaluate Identify Area(s) of Need Consultation Between Teachers-Parents Implement Plan Develop a Plan Significance of Need(s)
    37. 37. Tier IV Consideration Tier III ForAmount of Resources Required to Address Need(s) Consultation EC Referral With the Problem Solving Team Tier II Consultation With Other Resources Intensive Tier I Consultation Between Teachers-Parents Strategic Benchmark Significance of Need(s)
    38. 38. 38
    39. 39. Implementation of a RtI System• Tiers I-III call for implementation of PSM and CBM in the general education setting• Tier IV represents referral for consideration of Special Ed – the highest level of service intensity 39
    40. 40. Tier I  Examine the Core  Parent and teacher working together to define the problem • What is it? • When does it occur? • Why is this happening? • Analyze baseline data or develop plan for collecting baseline data? 40
    41. 41. Tier II – Repeat steps of cyclical problem-solving model – Additional school personnel are involved as needed • Parent • Teacher • Teaching peer, Counselor, school psychologist, reading teacher, administrator, social worker, nurse, etc. 41
    42. 42. Tier III• Steps of cyclical problem-solving model repeat• Team members may vary• Problem-solving model forms are completed • Collect : • Baseline, goal setting, and progress monitoring data • Data are provided as evidence for need of intervention 42
    43. 43. Tier IVReview all available data and– Continue interventions at Tier III OR–Refer for consideration of special education If referral is made:  Define the problem  Use progress monitoring data as baseline on IEPIEP (intervention) is developed based on data 43
    44. 44. Avg Classroom Academic Performance Level Discrepancy 1: Skill Gap (Current Performance Level) Discrepancy 2: Gap in Rate of Learning (‘Slope Target of Improvement’) Student ‘Dual-Discrepancy’: RTI Model of Learning Disability (Fuchs 2003) 44
    45. 45. Send us your tired, your hungry, your poor…. Your students who aren’t performing….• Shift from placement to high quality interventions• Progress of ALL students 45
    46. 46. Time for lunch ! 46

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