Physical: Voice recognition, switches and pointing sticks, touch screens
Same technologies but configured differently
Browser or system font size
Browser window size
A Short Demonstration
Fresno State University’s “Know Your Users” video
Classroom Activity: Fresno Video
Don’t show the video, recreate it.
Ask community leaders for the names of people who are blind, have limited visual acuity [macular degeneration, colorblindness, etc.], are deaf, or have limited motor skills and use assistive technologies.
Invite those people to your classroom.
Record the session.
Caption the video and post it on You Tube or Google Video
The W3C’s Web Accessibility Initiative group created before and after demonstration that shows the barriers imposed by an inaccessible web page.
Search for W3C WAI Before and After
Notice how the fixes in the “after” are transparent?
REMEMBER: Accessibility isn’t about accommodating disabilities. It’s about removing barriers for everyone.
THE LAW AND THE STANDARDS
The Legal Landscape
Section 504 Schools, colleges, and universities are “prohibited from discrimination on the basis of disability in public and private programs and activities.”
Sec. 504.(a) No otherwise qualified individual with a disability in the United States … shall, solely by reason of her or his disability, be excluded from the participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance …
(b) For the purposes of this section, the term "program or activity" means all of the operations of …
(2)(A) a college, university, or other postsecondary institution, or a public system of higher education; or
(B) a local educational agency (as defined in section 14101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965), system of vocational education, or other school system;
Section 508 16 Rules for Web Accessibility
Section 508 is an amendment to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and is NOT part of the ADA.
Section 508 prohibits federal agencies from buying, developing, maintaining, or using electronic and information technology that is inaccessible to people with disabilities.
508 and You
Section 508 applies to federal agencies, not schools and not you and me.
Public compliance with Section 508 is completely voluntary . You not required to comply with section 508 unless your state, district, or school requires you to comply.
Accessibility and the Classroom
If the audience is your students and you know that none of your students have a disability, you can most likely post your inaccessible content to the web without fear of reprisals.
Make your content accessible anyhow.
If your audience is the world or any group of people you don’t know, make your content accessible.
Section 508 Checklist
webaim.org/ standards/508/ checklist
Let’s hold off on that because I want to compare Section 508 to the WCAG standards.
WCAG The W3C’s international accessibility standard
Web Content Accessibility Guidelines is an international standard developed by the World Wide Web Consortium.
WCAG has 13 guidelines (and 60 success criteria) that are technology neutral
COMPARING WCAG 2.0 TO SECTION 508
WCAG 2.0 Principles
Perceivable - Information and user interface components must be perceivable by users
Operable - User interface components must be operable by users
Understandable - Information and operation of user interface must be understandable by users
Robust - Content must be robust enough that it can be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of user agents, including assistive technologies
Principle 1: Perceivable Information and user interface components must be perceivable by users
Provide text alternatives for any non-text content so that it can be changed into other forms people need such as large print, braille, speech, symbols or simpler language
Section 508 § 1194.22 (a)
A text equivalent for every non-text element shall be provided (e.g., via "alt", "longdesc", or in element content)
WCAG 2.0 Guideline 1.1
WCAG 2.0 Guideline 1.2
Provide synchronized alternatives for multimedia
Section 508 § 1194.22 (b)
Equivalent alternatives for any multimedia presentation shall be synchronized with the presentation.
WCAG 2.0 Guideline 1.3
Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example spoken aloud, simpler layout, etc.) without losing information or structure
Section 508 § 1194.22 (d, g, h)
(d) Documents shall be organized so they are readable without requiring an associated style sheet.
(g) Row and column headers shall be identified for data tables.
(h) Markup shall be used to associate data cells and header cells for data tables that have two or more logical levels of row or column headers.
WCAG 2.0 Guideline 1.4
Make it easier for people with disabilities to see and hear content including separating foreground from background
Section 508 § 1194.22 (c)
Web pages shall be designed so that all information conveyed with color is also available without color, for example from context or markup.
Principle 2: Operable User interface components must be operable by users
WCAG 2.0 Guideline 2.1
Make all functionality available from a keyboard
WCAG 2.0 Guideline 2.2
Provide users with disabilities enough time to read and use content
Section 508 § 1194.22 (p)
When a timed response is required, the user shall be alerted and given sufficient time to indicate more time is required.
WCAG 2.0 Guideline 2.3
Do not create content that is known to cause seizures
Section 508 § 1194.22 (j)
Pages shall be designed to avoid causing the screen to flicker with a frequency greater than 2 Hz and lower than 55 Hz.
WCAG 2.0 Guideline 2.4
Provide ways to help users with disabilities navigate, find content and determine where they are
Section 508 § 1194.22 (e, f, i, o)
(e) Redundant text links shall be provided for each active region of a server-side image map.
(f) Client-side image maps shall be provided instead of server-side image maps except where the regions cannot be defined with an available geometric shape.
(i) Frames shall be titled with text that facilitates frame identification and navigation.
(o) A method shall be provided that permits users to skip repetitive navigation links.
Principle 3: Understandable Information and operation of user interface must be understandable by users
WCAG 2.0 Guideline 3.1
Make text content readable and understandable
WCAG 2.0 Guideline 3.2
Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways
WCAG 2.0 Guideline 3.3
Help users avoid and correct mistakes
Principle 4: Robust Content must be robust enough that it can be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of user agents, including assistive technologies
WCAG 2.0 Guideline 4.1
Maximize compatibility with current and future user agents, including assistive technologies
Missing 508 stuff
A text-only page, with equivalent information or functionality, shall be provided to make a web site comply with the provisions of this part, when compliance cannot be accomplished in any other way. The content of the text-only page shall be updated whenever the primary page changes.
When pages utilize scripting languages to display content, or to create interface elements, the information provided by the script shall be identified with functional text that can be read by assistive technology.
Missing 508 stuff
When a web page requires that an applet, plug-in or other application be present on the client system to interpret page content, the page must provide a link to a plug-in or applet that complies with §1194.21(a) through (l).
When electronic forms are designed to be completed on-line, the form shall allow people using assistive technology to access the information, field elements, and functionality required for completion and submission of the form, including all directions and cues.
HOW TO MAKE YOUR CONTENT ACCESSIBLE
How to Make Accessible Web Sites
Images & animations: Use the alt attribute to describe the function of each visual.
Image maps. Use the client-side map and text for hotspots.
Multimedia. Provide captioning and transcripts of audio, and descriptions of video.
How to Make Accessible Web Sites
Hypertext links. Use text that makes sense when read out of context. For example, avoid "click here."
Page organization. Use headings, lists, and consistent structure. Use CSS for layout and style where possible.
Graphs & charts. Summarize or use the longdesc attribute.
How to Make Accessible Web Sites
Scripts, applets, & plug-ins. Provide alternative content in case active features are inaccessible or unsupported.
Frames. Use the noframes element and meaningful titles.
Tables. Make line-by-line reading sensible. Summarize.
Check your work. Validate. Use tools, checklist, and guidelines at http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG
How to Make Accessible Word Documents
Create structured documents [using Word styles]
Provide alternate text for images
Right-click > Format Picture …
Click the Web tab
Enter your text
Save as filtered HTML
Download and install the Illinois Accessible Web Publishing Wizard for Microsoft Office.
This works with Office 2003 or earlier but not Office 2007 (yet).
How to Make Accessible PowerPoint Presentations
Post the original .ppt or .pptx file
Convert the file to HTML and post that as well.
The Illinois Accessible Web Publishing Wizard for Microsoft Office converts PPTs to HTML.
Or, you can create a new HTML version of your presentation from scratch.
Web Accessibility: Web Standards and Regulatory Compliance (2006)
Jim Thatcher et al.
Section 508 http://www.section508.gov/
WCAG 1 http://www.w3.org/TR/WAI-WEBCONTENT/
WCAG 2 http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/
W3C Web Accessibility Initiative http://www.w3.org/WAI/
WebAIM http:// www.webaim.org /
National Center for Accessible Media [at WGBH Boston] http:// ncam.wgbh.org /
Accessibility Consulting and Training
Jim Thatcher http:// www.jimthatcher.com /
Knowbility http:// www.knowbility.org /
Web Accessibility Principles by Zoe Gillenwater ISBN: 1-5961-395-X Online training movies at Lynda.com $49.95 for CD / accessible online with a Lynda.com account Full disclosure: I am a Lynda.com author
Review some accessibility laws and guidelines
Demonstrate how you can make your content more accessible
Review some accessibility tools and resources
DO ALL OF THIS IN ENGLISH!
Accessibility 101: Cutting through the FUD a presentation by Patrick Douglas Crispen NetSquirrel.com
This work is licensed by Patrick Crispen to the public under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 3.0 license