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Using Social Technologies for Public Health

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Presented for the class "New Social Technologies for Health," at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Presented for the class "New Social Technologies for Health," at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

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  • We are not going to discuss: How to write a social media policy for your agency/group How to develop a communications strategy which specific tools to use or how to evaluate their use or develop metrics
  • According to Kaplan & Haenlein “social media is a group of internet-based applications that build on Web 2.0 and allow for the creation and exchange of user-generated content”Social media is a tool.Kaplan Andreas M., Haenlein Michael, (2010)., Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media, Business Horizons, Vol. 53, Issue 1, p. 59-68.
  • In the United States, according to Lee Rainie of the Pew Internet & American Life Project, 75% of American adults use the internet62% of American adults use broadband connections at home 80% of American adults own a cell phone55% of 18-29 year olds have accessed the internet wirelessly via cell phoneAfrican Americans adults are the most active users of the mobile web, and their use is growing at a faster pace than mobile internet use among white or Hispanic adults. 57% of online American adults 18 and older use a social networking site like MySpace, Facebook or LinkedIn73% of teens 12-17 use online social networksAs of August 2009, Facebook was the most popular online social network for American adults 18 and older. Teens are not using Twitter in large numbers. While teens are bigger users of almost all other online applications, Twitter is an exception.Understanding which tools are and are not being used by different age and racial groups is important in selecting the correct social media tools to use.Lee Rainie, April 2010 – CIL 2010 presentation “Information fluency and imagining the internet”http://www.pewinternet.org/Presentations/2010/Apr/Computers-in-Libraries.aspxLee Rainie, April 2010 – presentation: “Networked Individuals: How they are reshaping social life and learning environments “ - http://www.pewinternet.org/Presentations/2010/Apr/University-of-Connecticut-Library-Forum.aspxv
  • Nodes include Twitter, and Facebook
  • Nodes include Twitter, and Facebook
  • Twitter group chats offer a clever and effective way to meet people with like interests and to share insights into the topic of discussion. Chatters track their conversations using hashtags (#) followed by the name of the chat
  • Winner of the US Dept. of Health & Human Services 2009 Flu Prevention Video PSA Contest. Written, composed, produced, and performed by John D. Clarke, MD, FAAFP.
  • YouTube Insight is a self-service analytics and reporting tool that enables anyone with a YouTube account to view detailed statistics about the audience for the videos that they upload to the site
  • Google Moderator allows you to create a series about anything that you are interested in discussing and open it up for people to submit questions, ideas, or suggestions. These are called submissions. Anyone can come to the site and submit a question, idea, or vote, and anyone can vote. Google Moderator shows you a question in the box with the blue background. This is called the Featured Question.
  • Google Moderator allows you to create a series about anything that you are interested in discussing and open it up for people to submit questions, ideas, or suggestions. These are called submissions. Anyone can come to the site and submit a question, idea, or vote, and anyone can vote. Google Moderator shows you a question in the box with the blue background. This is called the Featured Question.
  • As we all may remember, 2009 included the arrival of the H1N1 type of A influenza virus. We passed the one year anniversary of its appearance in the United States in March 2009.
  • A pandemic is the worldwide spread of a new disease. After early outbreaks in North America in April 2009 the new influenza virus spread rapidly around the world. By the time WHO declared a pandemic in June 2009, a total of 74 countries and territories had reported laboratory confirmed infections. To date, most countries in the world have confirmed infections from the new virus.The new virus has also led to patterns of death and illness not normally seen in influenza infections. Most of the deaths caused by the pandemic influenza have occurred among younger people, including those who were otherwise healthy. Pregnant women, younger children and people of any age with certain chronic lung or other medical conditions appear to be at higher risk of more complicated or severe illness. Many of the severe cases have been due to viral pneumonia, which is harder to treat than bacterial pneumonias usually associated with seasonal influenza. http://www.who.int/csr/disease/swineflu/en/As of April 25, 2010, more than 214 countries, including over 17,919 deathsCDC estimates that between 39 million and 80 million cases of 2009 H1N1 occurred between April and December 12, 2009. The mid-level in this range is about 55 million people infected with 2009 H1N1.CDC estimates that between 173,000 and 362,000 2009 H1N1-related hospitalizations occurred between April and December 12, 2009. The mid-level in this range is about 246,000 H1N1-related hospitalizations. CDC estimates that between 7,880 and 16,460 2009 H1N1-related deaths occurred between April and December 12, 2009. The mid-level in this range is about 11,160 2009 H1N1-related deaths. http://cdc.gov/h1n1flu/estimates_2009_h1n1.htm In contrast, the seasonal flu kills about 36,000 people a year, with 90 percent of these deaths occurring in people 65 years and older.influenza-like-illness (ILI),
  • So here is our scenario for today, High risk groups include: pregnant women; immunocompromised; college students; young children.You also want to find out what the public is really saying about the vaccine, transmission etc.
  • Social media was used extensively during H1N1 in 2009 to disseminate information, respond to rumors, and promote resources.
  • You could use Twitter to:Limited to 140 charactersRumor control about vaccine availability; autism & vaccine Not everyone is using Twitter, so it should be one tool among many used to disseminate your messages.
  • Here are 2 of the CDC’s Twitter feeds on H1N1.Their feeds: pointed to their H1N1 webpages new clinical care guidelines statistics on cases, hospitalizations, & deaths press briefings, testimony, webcasts vaccine information
  • Flu.gov’s Twitter pageFlu.gov is the US Government’s central site for information on H1N1. The HHS Interagency Public Affairs Group on Influenza Preparedness and Response, is responsible for coordinating pandemic-related information across the federal government.Flu.gov repeats or leads back to the CDC H1N1 webpages, but also included information from other USG sources, WHO, webcasts, FAQs etc.
  • PAHO’s Twitter feed links back to WHO, PAHO & CDC websites, press briefings, new reports, statistics etc.
  • Vaccine clinic hours & schedulesWait timesEligible groupsNeed for volunteersStatistics on H1N1 in local communities or stateFlu prevention tips
  • Like Twitter, Facebook could be used to:Promote flu vaccination (HHS created a badge for people to post on their Facebook pages that were vaccinated)Point people to your H1N1 information page
  • Much of the information that can be shared on Twitter can also be posted to Facebook although more detailed information can be shared here (not limited to word count)
  • PAHO’s YouTube channel includes videos on H1N1 and other public health concerns; however, they are available in English & Spanish
  • So how do you keep track of all of the sources of information on a topic, or resources you are using?You could try the following that I used for H1N1 last year.Use RSS feeds to stream new content to an iGoogle tab. iGoogle is a customizable page attached to your Google account, but that you can also share with others.Use web browser apps to update, track, search Twitter or Facebook. You can also download and use apps for your smartphones and cellphones to post new content to Twitter or Facebook.Firefox apps for Twitter :Ping.fm (updating social media tools all at once)TweetScan (search keywords in Twitter)ShareAHolic (share pages via Facebook, Twitter, email, Gmail etc.)Deepest Sender (WordPress blog)Brizzly (Twitter & Facebook streams on 1-page)Monkeyfly (retweets & searches)Flicrk appsTwitPic (send pictures to Twitter)TweetStats (statistics for your Twitter account)TwitterBar (post to your Twitter account right from the FF toolbar)
  • Use RSS features & automated searches from Twitter, Google, YouTube, websites, journal TOCsBlog feedsPress release feedsCDC H1N1 flu update pageCDC YouTube channelGoogle search feedetc. to keep up-to-date on new postings, news or information
  • Live is more social, less serious more usefulFacebook is a “semi-protected environment” or “a semi-unknown place populated by semi-unknown users”.
  • Facebook and Twitter can be updated, posted to or followed via smartphone or cellphone using applications;Mobile internet access is only going to become more widespread and important in the future. In 2008, there were 4 billion mobile phone subscriptions, which reached 61 of every 100 people. While most mobile phone users are in the developed world, the developing world is rapidly increasing in number of users. This is where mobile internet access is important. Most people will access the internet and your content online via a phone not a computer.

Transcript

  • 1. Using Social Technologies for Public HealthPresented at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
    Alicia Livinski, MPH, MA
    Doug Joubert, MS, MLS
  • 2. Outline
    Introduction & Setting the Stage
    Scenario
    So does it work?
  • 3. Disclaimer
    The views expressed in this talk do not represent the views of or endorsement by the United States Government, US Department of Health and Human Services, or the National Institutes of Health.
  • 4. What is social media?
    “Group of internet-based applications that build on … Web 2.0 and allow for the creation and exchange of user-generated content”
    Kaplan Andreas M., Haenlein Michael, (2010)., Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media, Business Horizons, Vol. 53, Issue 1, p. 59-68.
    Social media are a new set of tools for the public health toolbox.
  • 5. Why?
    Reach out to people
    Let people reach out to you
    Do these things efficiently and effectively
  • 6. Social media usage in US
    75% adults use Internet
    62% broadband @ home
    80% own cell
    53% wireless internet
    55% 18-29yo wireless internet via phone
    African American adults mobile web users
    57% online adults use social networking sites
    73% teens use them
    19% adults use Twitter
    8% of teens use Twitter
    ~40% online adults get email/text alerts
    Source: Pew Internet & American Life Project
  • 7. Consumers want their information when they want it, how they want it, and in whatever quantitiesthey want it.
    Traditional Media
    New Media
    Price Waterhouse
  • 8. Traditional Media Ecology
    Adapted from: Tom Wolzien, Sanford C. Bernstein & Co
  • 9. New Media Ecology
  • 10. An Expansion of Social Connectivity
    2010 Wang & Wellman
  • 11. How the Landscape Has Changed
    “Two important concepts are online interaction and user engagement*.”
    Will you Friend Me?
    Follow Me!
    “You need to become a Node in their network**.”
    Like!
    Social Media is not a Spectator Sport
    *FedEx and Ketchum, 2010
    **Kristin Purcell, 2010
  • 12. A rapid review of social media tools with public health examples
  • 13. Social Media
    The Big 3s
  • 14. Social Media
    Everyone else
    Its About “Sharability”
    Add This has over 150 Social bookmarking sites
  • 15. Facebook
    Facebook © 2011
  • 16. Facebook – Portal to Your Site
    Facebook © 2011
  • 17. Facebook – Target by Audience
    healthcare.gov/[audience]
    Facebook © 2011
  • 18. Facebook - Pages
    More than 500 millionactive users!*
    28% of 2 billion** =
    560,000,000 people!!
    28% of all internet users get news via social networks such as Facebook!***
    *Facebook Press Room (02/2011) http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics
    Pew Internet (03/2010) http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Online-News/Part-5/2-News-as-a-social-activity.aspx
    ***http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=36492&Cr=internet&Cr1
  • 19. Facebook – Optimizing Pages
    Findabilityis everything, focus on SEO
    Make your contentworth sharing
    Make your content easyto share
    Make your content sharablefor Facebook
  • 20. Facebook – SEO Stats
    http://www.bruceclay.com/blog/2011/06/yes-virginia-facebook-is-seo-smx-advanced/
  • 21. Facebook – Optimizing Pages
    webpage title
    image from webpage
    webpage description
    Facebook © 2011
  • 22. Facebook – Optimizing Pages
    Create content that triggers engagement
    Engagement today – visibility tomorrow
    Ask questions in your posts
    Add a Fan Box to website home page
    Facebook © 2011
    http://www.bruceclay.com/blog/2011/06/yes-virginia-facebook-is-seo-smx-advanced/
  • 23. Twitter
    Twitter has 105,779,710 registered users
    300,000 new users sign up per day
    Twitter receives 180 million unique visitors per month
    There are 600 million search queries on Twitter per day
    Twitter gets 3 billion requests a day through its API
    http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/just_the_facts_statistics_from_twitter_chirp.php
  • 24. Twitter Basics
  • 25. Twitter Basics
  • 26. Press Release / Blog RSS
    Push communication
    Platform for communication
    Social communication
    Ways to use twitter
    (CC) davemott on Flickr
    Direct engagement (@mentions)
    #twitterchats
    Adapted from Holman, 2010
  • 27. How users interface with twitter
    Twitter.com
  • 28. Use Twitter to follow a conference
    Hashtag for panel discussion on 6/15/10 about public health and digital innovation
  • 29. How users interface with twitter
    Twitter Client - TweetDeck
    • 75% of Twitter traffic comes from third-party applications*
    • 30. 60% of all tweets come from third-party apps*
    • 31. There are over 100,000 Twitter applications*
    * http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/just_the_facts_statistics_from_twitter_chirp.php
  • 32. Twitter Examples
    Red River Floods
    Boulder, CO fires
    Type A H1N1 influenza outbreak
    Food outbreak/safety
    Australian bushfires
    Mumbai attacks
    Hurricane season
    Traffic accidents/road closures – fire departments
    Haiti earthquake
    BP oil spill
  • 33.
    • What are people saying about health?
    • 34. What are they saying about you?
    • 35. Do they even know you exist?
    Twitter & Blog Search
    Twitter search
    Icerocket.com
    Technorati.com
    Omgili.com
    Google
  • 36. Twitter Search (Simplified)
    http://www.commoncraft.com/twitter-search
  • 37. YouTube: Audience
    More that 45% of users are over the age of 35*
    YouTube is the #2 search engine (after Google) in the United States. The site has over 140 million unique monthly users in the U.S.*
    The average U.S. visitor spends more the 270 minutes per month on YouTube.*
    94 of Advertising Age’s Top 100 Marketers have run campaigns on the YouTube/Google Content Network.**
    *ComScore, Nov 2010
    **Fast Company, Jan 2011
    Adapted from Houghteling, 2011
  • 38. YouTube: Content
    Be relevant
    Be informative
    Be genuine and engaging
    Build a community
    Adapted from Houghteling, 2011
  • 39. YouTube: Be Relevant
  • 40. YouTube: Be informative
  • 41. YouTube: Be genuine and engaging
  • 42. YouTube: Build a community
  • 43. YouTube: Tech Tips
    Use Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and Promotion
    Use Google Moderator
    Use Annotation
    Use Insight
    Awesome Resources
    Tips for optimizing videos on your YouTube Channel
    Adapted from Houghteling, 2011
  • 44. YouTube: SEO/Promotion
    Subscribing & connecting
    Leverage Social Media (sharing and commenting)
  • 45. YouTube: Connect
  • 46. YouTube: Insight
  • 47. Use Google Moderator to…
    …engage the community
    …let your audience frame the conversation
    …make sure everyone's voice is heard
    How it Works
    Create a series
    Open the series for submissions (questions, ideas, or suggestions
    Use Voting and Featured Questions to guide the conversation
  • 48. Use Google Moderator to…
    Adapted from Houghteling, 2011
  • 49. Other Social Media Tools
  • 50. Mashups
    Combine separate data/content from multiple sources into a new product/tool
    Typically mashups function using an Application Programming Interface (API)
    Mashups also allow you to search for and locate information and services. They also can help you track information such as disease outbreaks.
    Maps are frequently used for mashups, connecting to online mapping resources from Google, Yahoo, or Bing
    http://aids.gov/using-new-media/tools/mashups/
  • 51. Mashups - HealthMap
  • 52. Mashup - Resources
    Mashup Tutorials
    100 Things to do with Google Maps Mashups
  • 53. Blogs
    Website with periodic updates (posts)
    Usually one author or a few authors who represent a single organization
    Usually has a particular theme…but within a theme may cover recent publications, conferences, websites, random thoughts, etc.
    Usually allows public comments
  • 54. RSS
    Web feed format to publish updates to a blog, news headlines, audio/video, new journal tables of contents
    AKA “feed” or “web feed”
    RSS = “Really Simple Syndication”
    Subscribe to an RSS feed
    Timely notification of updates to a favored site
    RSS feeds read using “RSS reader”, “feed reader” or “aggregator” – can be web-based, desktop-based or mobile device-based
  • 55. Why Use RSS?
    New issues of journals /Table of Contents alerts
    Breaking news stories/headlines
    Reduce email volume
    Web-based readers available from anywhere
  • 56. Wikis
    A kind of web page that is easy to edit
    Several people can be editors
    Changes can be tracked and undone
  • 57. Scenario: a “practical application” of social media tools for public health
  • 58. H1N1
    CDC/ C. S. Goldsmith and A. Balish (2009)
    CDC/ C. S. Goldsmith and A. Balish (2009)
  • 59. Brief (A)H1N1 Timeline
    Early outbreaks in North America in April 2009
    WHO declared a pandemic in June 2009 & 74 countries and territories had reported laboratory confirmed infections
    As of April 25, 2010, more than 214 countries, including over 17,919 deaths
    39-80 million cases of 2009 H1N1 occurred between April-December 12, 2009 in USA (CDC)
    7,880-16,460 2009 H1N1-related deaths occurred in USA between April and December 12, 2009 (CDC)
  • 60. H1N1 + Social Media
    You want to disseminate your public health messaging for H1N1 to the general public and target the high-risk groups
    Messaging focused on:
    Prevention
    How transmitted
    Treatment
    Vaccine
    Find out what the public is really saying about H1N1 “ground-truthing”
  • 61. Social media tools used for H1N1
  • 62. Twitter
    Use to:
    Push out your message – must be “short & sweet”
    Rumor control (H1N1 vaccines)
    Correct misinformation (pork & swine flu)
    Direct people to your website or tel # to call
    Monitor school closures
    Find out what the public is doing (swine flu parties)
    Know who you’re trying to reach, not all of your target audiences will use Twitter
  • 63. Twitter + H1N1: CDC
    http://twitter.com/CDCemergency
    http://twitter.com/CDCFlu
  • 64. Twitter + H1N1: Flu.gov
  • 65. Twitter + H1N1: PAHO
    http://twitter.com/H1N1Comm
  • 66. H1N1+Local PH Dept Examples
    Contra Costa, CA recent tweets and posts included announcements on the expansion of groups eligible for vaccine, a call for volunteers at flu clinics, food handling tips, flu clinic schedules, and statistics regarding fatalities and hospitalizations.
    Howard County, MD used Twitter and Facebook as tools to reach one of the CDC target groups for H1N1 vaccination—college students.
    Fairfax County, VA Health Department let their constituents know about H1N1 vaccine clinic wait times by tweeting. They used social media as an interactive tool, taking comments and questions online.
  • 67. Facebook
    Use to:
    Push out your message (wait times, clinic location)
    Rumor control (H1N1 vaccines)
    Correct misinformation (pork & swine flu)
    Direct people to your website or tel # to call
    Monitor school closures
    Find out what the public is doing (swine flu parties)
    Know who you’re trying to reach, not all of your target audiences will use Facebook
    Sermo for physicians
    Facebook © 2011
  • 68. Facebook © 2011
  • 69. Facebook © 2011
  • 70. YouTube + H1N1: PAHO
  • 71. YouTube + H1N1: CDC
  • 72. YouTube: Fairfax County, VA
    videos about flu season safety tips, flu vaccine shipments, and clinics
  • 73. Ushahidi.com
    Combines SMS, Twitter and Google Maps
    Anyone with a mobile phone can text about voter fraud, health dangers, human rights abuses, etc.
    Administrators can view incoming information on a map and send back information to original sender
  • 74. haiti.ushahidi.com/
  • 75. Ushahidi.com
  • 76. Ushahidi.com
  • 77. What to do with all of this stuff?
    RSS
    iGoogle
    Web browser apps (Firefox)
    Smartphone/cell phone apps (iPhone, BB)
  • 78. iGoogle + H1N1
  • 79. So what works?
    Does it make a difference?
    What can we learn?
  • 80. Advantages
    Fast
    Less formal
    Personal face for impersonal institutions
    Interactive
    Engaging
    In-depth training not necessary
    Hip, modern, cool, etc.
    “engage in the conversation”
  • 81. Disadvantages (or concerns)
    Potential for misinformation or bias
    Privacy
    Security
    Demographics of users
    A lot of noise
    Time involved
    Tech requirements & tech support
    Blocked by many agencies and hospitals
    Lots of mostly non-interoperable systems
    Additional marketing required
    Like every group project
  • 82. Should I Try Social Media?
    Leaves a trace that can be read, shared, and analyzed
    Different sites have unique aspects that influence connections and usage
    Twitter posts are public, Facebook posts and comments are semi-private
    LiveJournal has “moods”
    Yahoo Answers requires categories while MS Live uses tags
  • 83. Engaged & Empowered
    Engaging people and answering their questions is important
    “…. staff has taken the time to listen to feedback and addressed issues such as vaccine availability.”  
    Open Government initiative
    New content can be sent to cell phones as text messages, it is an easy way to reach mobile locations
    And an easy way for them to reach you
  • 84. Sick City: A Cautionary Tale
    March 2009: Lots of buzz about a new website that tracks people's tweets about being sick, having sore throats, and other physical maladies.
    March 30: Onset of first confirmed H1N1 case in US 
    May: "The tool went from being marginally useful, though still a bit noisy, to totally drowned in noise and hence useless, in the space of a day.... At one point SickCity was processing over 1500 tweets a minute related to flu (almost none of them by people who actually had flu)."
    ??: Site taken down.
  • 85. JHUSPH has >28K followers but they don’t seem to reply, mention, or retweetJH much
    icerocket.com
  • 86. There is a lot of noise
  • 87. So what?
    New technologies allow rumors and alternative views to spread quickly.
    You may think blogs and tweets and facebook are silly, but people are using social media to talk about public health issues and find information.
    The policies, analysis, justification, etc. aren’t evolving as quickly as the tools themselves.
  • 88. Thank you!
    Alicia Livinski
    Livinski76(at)hotmail(dot)com
    Doug Joubert
    doujou.dc(at)gmail(dot)com