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CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
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CR346-Lec00 history

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A description of the history of computing. Short overview.

A description of the history of computing. Short overview.

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  • 1. Origins of Digital Computers earliest computing devices designed to aid numeric computation abacus, first developed in Babylonia over 5,000 years ago
  • 2. Early Calculating Machines William Schickard (1592–1635), mechanical calculator Blaise Pascal (1623– 1662), addition and subtraction decimal calculator G. W. F. Leibniz (1646– 1716), “Stepped Reckoner,” full-featured calculator, (“Leibniz wheel” for multiplication) Pascaline
  • 3. Charles Babbage (1791–1871)  first true pioneer of modern digital computing machines  built two prototype calculating machines  Difference Engine  Analytical Engine
  • 4. Charles Babbage Analytical Machine He was explicitly inspired by Jacquard’s use of punch cards to control a machine. Unfortunately the only way to build it was using rods and gears and it was never made to work. In addition, it was powered by STEAM !
  • 5. Babbage’s Difference Engine automated both the computation of tables and their printing employed the method of differences to calculate polynomials special-purpose calculating machine
  • 6. World’s First Programmer Ada King, daughter of Lord Byron wrote the programs for the Difference Engine, thus making her the first programmer ….ever
  • 7. Legacy of Babbage Designed the first, general- purpose digital computing device Unfortunately his ideas and achieve- ments were lost on his successors
  • 8. 1880-1901 The Birth of the Modern Mechanical Calculator ..x100TriumphatorCNser113763.jpg
  • 9. Early Pocket Calculators
  • 10. Claude Shannon 1916-2001 In 1937, Claude Shannon introduces the concept of binary logic for use in creating digital computing machines In 1948 he publishes “A mathematical theory of communication” which sets forth the principals for encoding information so that it might be transmitted electronically He is affectionately thought of as the Father of the modern information age
  • 11. Konrad Zuse (1910–1995) designed the “Z” series of automatic general-purpose computing machines electro-mechanical devices binary internal encoding Z3 (1941) was programmed using punched 35mm film
  • 12. Alan M. Turing (1912–1954)  led the WWII research group that broke the code for the Enigma machine  proposed a simple abstract universal machine model for defining computability  devised the “Turing hypothesis” for AI
  • 13. The Enigma Machine Invented in 1918, it was the most sophisticated code system of its day, and was a priority of the Allies to decipher before D-Day so that they could be certain that they had fooled the Germans about the Invasion of France
  • 14. Alan Turing and his Colossus constructed an electronic computing machine (1943) used to decrypt German coded messages
  • 15. IBM Harvard Mark I- 1944 The IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator after installation at Harvard University, 1944. It is 51 feet long, weighs 5 tons, and incorporates 750,000 parts, including 72 accumulators and 60 sets of rotary switches
  • 16. Mauchly and Eckert John W. Mauchly (1907–1980) and J. Presper Eckert (1919– ) headed the ENIAC team at the Moore School of Engineering, University of Pennsylvannia ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer), the first electronic general-purpose digital computer commissioned by the Army for computing ballistic firing tables
  • 17. ENIAC  noted for massive scale and redundant design  decimal internal coding  operational in 1946
  • 18. ENIAC• manual programming of boards, switches, and “function table”
  • 19. Early Computer Programming was slow, tedious andrepetitious
  • 20. John Von Neumann (1903– 1954) Von Neumann visits the Moore School in 1944 prepares a draft for an automatic programmable device (later called EDVAC) “stored program” concept publishes ideas (with Goldstine and Burks) in 1946 designed the IAS (Institute for Advanced Studies) machine which became operational in 1951
  • 21. Von Neumann Architecture “stored program” serial uniprocessor design binary internal encoding CPU–Memory–I/O orgranization “fetch-decode- execute” instruction cycle
  • 22. UNIVAC I  first commercial general-purpose computer system  delivered in 1951  used to forecast the 1952 presidential election
  • 23. Even in the 1950’s, computers got smaller over time Four different generations of tube computer circuits showing the reduction in size over several generations of systems during the 1950’s
  • 24. Early Bell Labs Transistor 1947 / 1952“The most important invention of the 20th century…”
  • 25. A hearing aid ! ….1953 Zenith Royal-T “Tubeless” hearing aid. 3” tall, 2.5” widexdftrd A prehistoric iPod?
  • 26. Followed immediately by the first “pocket radio” in 1954
  • 27. Jack Kilby - Invents the Integrated Circuit at TI….1957First commercial use of the IC was in a pocket calculator - 1961
  • 28. 1960’s….IBM System/360 built using solid-state circuitry family of computer systems with backward compatibility established the standard for mainframes for a decade
  • 29. Gordon Bell, Father of the Minicomputer, Digital Equipment Corporation  Developed the first “Mini” computers 1960-83  Brought computing to small businesses  Created major competition for IBM, UNIVAC, who only built Mainframes at the time
  • 30. DEC PDP series  “minicomputers”  offered mainframe performance at a fraction of the cost  PDP-8 introduced at $20,000! Vs. $1M for a Mainframe
  • 31. IBM fights back! IBM 1130, their “small” computer, designed to compete with DEC’s minis
  • 32. Specialized Supercomputers First developed in the late 1970’s high-performance systems used for scientific applications advanced special purpose designs Control Data Corporation, Cray Research, NEC, IBM and
  • 33. Intel 4004 Microprocessor - 1972 First commercially available micro- processor – first used in a programmable calculator This technology made the personal computer possible Contained 2300 transistors and ran at 100 khz
  • 34. Desktop and Portable Computers 1975- Microprocessors all-in-one designs, performance/price tradeoffs aimed at mass audiences personal computers workstations
  • 35. Developed in the family garage, SteveWozniak and Steve Jobs with the First Apple Computer 1976
  • 36. Radio Shack TRS-80, 1978  The first plug and play personal computer available at retail  Programmed in BASIC  Very successful  Very affordable  Limited commercial software  Created a cottage industry
  • 37. The Apple II - 1978 The first commercially available Apple Initially sold to Wall St. bankers who wanted the Spread- sheet program called Visicalc which ran on the Apple II Put Apple on the Map
  • 38. The Osborne 1 - 1981  The first “portable” personal computer  Came with lot’s of software bundled  Only weighed about 40 lbs and sold for $1795  Note the large 5” screen!
  • 39. IBM PC - 1982 IBM’s first PC Signaled a significant shift for the giant manufacturer Established a new standard which is still being built on today Operating system written by Bill Gates & Co. at Microsoft
  • 40. The Computer Company that Wasn’t, Xerox Many of the innovations that became part of the Personal Computer scene were actually invented at XEROX Parc (Palo Alto Research Center) Xerox was never able to successfully exploit those innovations that included the mouse, graphic user interface and the concept of WYSIWYG, (What you see is what you get)
  • 41. Apple MacIntosh - 1984 First PC with GUI interface Adopted from the work that was done at Xerox Designed to be a computer appliance for “Real People” Introduced at the 1984 Superbowl
  • 42. VideoMacIntosh 1984 Superbowl Adhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OYecfV3ubP8
  • 43. 1984 MacIntosh Ad Directed by Ridley Scott • (Alien, Blade Runner) Cost $1.5 M Shown ONCE during „84 Superbowl at a cost of $500K Considered to be the best TV ad ever! Launched the Mac in grand style! http://www.uiowa.edu/~commstud/adclas s/1984.apple_ad.mov
  • 44. Just Some of the Companies that definedthe Personal Computer Business early on Xerox Toshiba IBM Hitachi Commodore Sinclair Texas Instrument Hewlett Packard Osborne Sony MITS Apple AT&T Microsoft Compaq SWTP
  • 45. Comparison Shopping How do they rate in cost and performance?Year Name Performance Memory Price Price/Performance (adds/sec) (KB) (dollars) (vs. UNIVAC)1951 Univac I 1,900 48 1,000,000 11964 IBM S360 500,000 64 1,000,000 2631965 PDP-8 330,000 4 16,000 10,8551976 Cray-1 166,000,000 32,768 4,000,000 21,8421981 IBM PC 240,000 256 3,000 42,1051991 HP9000/750 50,000,000 16,384 7,400 3,556,188
  • 46. Moore’s Law• In 1965, Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors that can be integrated on a die would double every 18 to 24 months (i.e., grow exponentially with time).• Amazing visionary – million transistor/chip barrier was crossed in the 1980’s. – 2300 transistors, 1 MHz clock (Intel 4004) - 1971 – 42 Million, 2 GHz clock (Intel P4) - 2001 – 140 Million transistor (HP PA-8500) Source: Intel web page (www.intel.com)
  • 47. Clock Frequency Lead microprocessors frequency doubles every 2 years 10000 1000 2X every 2 yearsFrequency (Mhz) P6 100 Pentium ® proc 486 10 8085 386 8086 286 1 8080 8008 4004 0.1 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year Courtesy, Intel
  • 48. Growth Speed of Key Technologies Obeys Moore’s Law
  • 49. Today’s Price/Performance Over 3 Billion adds per second costs less than $1000 Memory is measured in Megabytes/Gigabytes….not Kilobytes Magnetic Storage is measured in Gigabytes, not Megabytes or Kilobytes…soon to be Terabytes Communications speeds are measured in Megabits per second, not Kilobits or even lower  And so it continues !!!
  • 50. Web Resources for Computing History http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/t http://www.digitalcentury.com/encyc lo/update/comp_hd.html http://www.hitmill.com/computers/c omputerhx1.html

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