Cell Respiration Brandon Schroeder, Matt Gobel, & Julia Douglas
<ul><li>Oxidation:  is the loss of electrons </li></ul><ul><li>generally by gaining oxygen or losing hydrogen.  </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Mitochondrion have a large inner matrix, allowing for the Krebs cycle to occur.  </li></ul><ul><li>The inner membr...
Cell Respiration <ul><li>Cell Respiration : the controlled release of energy from organic compounds in cells to form ATP <...
Cell Respiration <ul><li>Anaerobic Respiration:  after glycolysis pyruvate is converted in cytoplasm into one of the follo...
Cell Respiration <ul><li>Aerobic Respiration:  after glycolysis pyruvate is broken down in mitochondrion into (both): </li...
Glycolysis <ul><li>Glycolysis is a ten-step process: </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose is phosphorylated into glucose-6-phosphate ...
<ul><li>6. Two molecules of PGAl are oxidized by 2 molecules of NAD+, creating 2 NADH + H+. The redox reaction provides th...
Krebs Cycle <ul><li>Acetyl CoA gives acetate to combine with oxaloacetate to form citrate Coenzyme A exits the cycle to be...
Krebs Cycle
Electron Transport Chain <ul><li>Electrons are given to proton pumps that are embedded in the membrane between the matrix ...
Electron Transport Chain
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Cell respiration

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Cell respiration

  1. 1. Cell Respiration Brandon Schroeder, Matt Gobel, & Julia Douglas
  2. 2. <ul><li>Oxidation: is the loss of electrons </li></ul><ul><li>generally by gaining oxygen or losing hydrogen. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction: is gaining electrons </li></ul><ul><li>generally by gaining hydrogen or losing oxygen </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Mitochondrion have a large inner matrix, allowing for the Krebs cycle to occur. </li></ul><ul><li>The inner membrane contains many electron transport chains of proton pumps and ATP synthase enzymes, allowing for the greatest yield of ATP to be produced. </li></ul><ul><li>The membranes are also structured to prevent the protons from diffusing though the membrane, forcing them to enter the matrix only through ATP synthase molecules. </li></ul>Mitochondria
  4. 4. Cell Respiration <ul><li>Cell Respiration : the controlled release of energy from organic compounds in cells to form ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Glycolysis occurs during cell respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose in cytoplasm is broken down into pyruvate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nets a small yield of ATP </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Cell Respiration <ul><li>Anaerobic Respiration: after glycolysis pyruvate is converted in cytoplasm into one of the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lactate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly produced in humans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethanol and Carbon Dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly produced in yeast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nets no further yield of ATP </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cell Respiration <ul><li>Aerobic Respiration: after glycolysis pyruvate is broken down in mitochondrion into (both): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nets large yield of ATP </li></ul><ul><li>strictly refers to the steps of Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Glycolysis <ul><li>Glycolysis is a ten-step process: </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose is phosphorylated into glucose-6-phosphate by hexokinase, turning one ATP into ADP(Adenosine diphosphate) in the process. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Glucose-6-phosphate is transformed into fructose-6-phosphate by phosphoglucoisomerase. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Fructose-6-phosphate is phosphorylated into fructose-1,6-diphosphate by phosphofructokinase, turning one ATP into ADP in the process. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Fructose-1,6-diphosphate is lysed by aldolase into dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde (PGAl). </li></ul><ul><li>5. Isomerase promptly transforms DHAP into a second molecule of PGAl. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>6. Two molecules of PGAl are oxidized by 2 molecules of NAD+, creating 2 NADH + H+. The redox reaction provides the energy for triose phosphate dehydrogenase to attach a phosphate group to each PGAl, yielding two molecules of 1,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG). </li></ul><ul><li>7. Two molecules of DPG are used to phosphorylate two molecules of ADP with the help of phosphoglycerokinase (substrate-level phosphorylation), yielding 2 ATP and two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate have their phosphate group relocated by phosphoglyceromutase, yielding two molecules of 2-phosphoglycerate. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Two molecules of 2-phosphoglycerate are transformed by enolase into two molecules of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) through the removal of water. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Two molecules of PEP are used to phosphorylate two molecules of ADP with the help of pyruvate kinase, yielding 2 ATP and two molecules of pyruvate. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Krebs Cycle <ul><li>Acetyl CoA gives acetate to combine with oxaloacetate to form citrate Coenzyme A exits the cycle to be recycled for further use. </li></ul><ul><li>Citrate is converted to isocitrate, which then loses a CO 2 and is then oxidized and forms α-ketoglutarate (C 5 ), reducing NAD + to NADH + H + </li></ul><ul><li>the remaining molecule is attached to Coenzyme A to form succinyl CoA. Succinyl CoA is then used to phosphorylate a GDP to GTP </li></ul><ul><li>The GTP then phosphorylates an ADP to ATP </li></ul><ul><li>The remaining C 4 compound, succinate, is oxidized reducing FAD to FADH 2 , and with the addition of water, forms malate </li></ul><ul><li>Malate is oxidized reducing NAD + to NADH + H + , and forming oxaloacetate </li></ul><ul><li>The Krebs cycle in total yields 2 CO 2 , 1 ATP, 3 NADH + H + , and 1 FADH 2 per pyruvate. </li></ul><ul><li>The NADH + H + and FADH 2 go on to participate in the electron transport chain. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Krebs Cycle
  11. 11. Electron Transport Chain <ul><li>Electrons are given to proton pumps that are embedded in the membrane between the matrix and inner membrane/cristae of the mitochondrion. </li></ul><ul><li>The pumps are reduced, giving them energy to pump protons into the inner membrane space. </li></ul><ul><li>The electrons are transferred along a chain of pumps, continuously losing energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Protons diffuse back into the matrix through facilitated diffusion of ATP synthase (channel protein and enzyme). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Electron Transport Chain

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