January 2011 Unit 4 Preparation
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January 2011 Unit 4 Preparation

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January 2011 Unit 4 Preparation Presentation Transcript

  • 1. January 2011 STEER Explore the varying impact of both volcanic (extrusive and intrusive) and seismic processes on landscapes. Research different locations to draw out the importance of tectonic activity in creating contrasting landscapesslide 1 1
  • 2. 1. Tectonic activity and causes 2. Tectonic hazards physical impacts 3. Tectonic hazards human impacts 4. Response to tectonic hazardsslide 2
  • 3. Concepts Processes Theories Models Range of hazards associated with Volcanism The Dregg Disaster model1.1 Volcanoes and Earthquakes Earth Movement Plate tectonics1.2 Event profile1.3 The causes of tectonic hazards Tectonic activity associated with different types of plate margins and the impact of1.4 this on the spatial distribution of tectonic hazards. The varying impact of extrusive igneous2.1 activity, including the formation of volcanic cones, fissures and lava plateaux. The formation and morphology of2.2 different types of volcano The varying impact of intrusive igneous2.3 activity, both major and minor. The effects that earthquakes can have on landscapes, such as fault lines, rift valleys2.4 and ground displacement, and the stresses and forces the ground is subjected to during such activity. slide 3
  • 4. Concepts Processes Theories Models The reasons why people live in tectonically active areas and how this3.1 might relate to thellevel of economic Occupancy Disaster risk equation development. Plate Boundaries The range of hazards associated with3.2 different types of tectonic activity. Constructive, destructive, conservative The specific impacts of a range of tectonic hazards at a range of scales and3.3 at locations in countries at different stages of development. Trends in frequency and impact over Park’s Hazard response model3.4 time. The varying approaches of individuals and governments to coping with tectonic4.1 hazards in countries at different stages of development. Specific strategies involved in adjustment: modifying loss burden, modifying the event and modifying4.2 human vulnerability; and the range of approaches and strategies used in locations at different stages of development. The effectiveness of different approaches and methods of coping and the way in4.3 which approaches have changed over time, and possible future coping strategies. slide 4
  • 5. Case studies neededResearch different locations to draw out the importance of tectonic activity increating contrasting landscapesCreate a table to show what case studies you will need. Tectonic Activity Landscape Example Source produced Go to Slide 21slide 5
  • 6. 1.1 Tectonic hazards and disasters and what makes tectonic activity hazardous. There is a rangeof tectonic hazards associated with both volcanoes (lava, pyroclastics, ash, lahars, etc) andearthquakes (ground shaking, displacement, liquefaction, tsunamis, etc). (Slide 8)1.2 Event profile of hazards, including frequency, magnitude, duration and areal extent. (Slide 9)1.3 The causes of tectonic hazards, including the pattern of tectonic plates, their movementsand possible causes of these movements. (slide 10)1.4 Tectonic activity associated with different types of plate margins (convergent, divergent andtransform) and the impact of this on the spatial distribution of tectonic hazards. (slide 11)2.1 The varying impact of extrusive igneous activity, including the formation of volcanic cones, fissures and lava plateaux. (slide 12)2.2 The formation and morphology of different types of volcano and the characteristics ofdifferent types of eruption. How these variations link to the processes at different plate marginsand at hot spots. (slide 13 and slide 14)2.3 The varying impact of intrusive igneous activity, both major and minor. (slide 15)2.4 The effects that earthquakes can have on landscapes, such as fault lines, rift valleys andground displacement, and the stresses and forces the ground is subjected to during such activity.(slide 16 and slide 17) slide 6 N.B. 1.1 is a hyperlink
  • 7. 3.1 The reasons why people live in tectonically active areas and how this might relate to thelevel of economic development. (slide 18)3.2 The range of hazards associated with different types of tectonic activity.(slide 19 and slide 20)3.3 The specific impacts of a range of tectonic hazards at a range of scales and at locations incountries at different stages of development. (Slide 21 Slide 22 and Slide 23)3.4 Trends in frequency and impact over time. (slide 24)4.1 The varying approaches of individuals and governments to coping with tectonic hazards incountries at different stages of development. (slide 25)4.2 Specific strategies involved in adjustment: modifying loss burden, modifying the event andmodifying human vulnerability; and the range of approaches and strategies used in locations atdifferent stages of development. (slide 26 slide 27 slide 28)4.3 The effectiveness of different approaches and methods of coping and the way in which approacheshave changed over time, and possible future coping strategies.slide 7 7
  • 8. 1.1 Tectonic hazards and disasters and what makes tectonic activity hazardous. There is a range of tectonic hazards associated with bothvolcanoes (lava, pyroclastics, ash, lahars, etc) and earthquakes (ground shaking, displacement, liquefaction, tsunamis, etc). • Tectonic activity can produce a very large range of hazard events • Not all of these events are ‘disasters’ • A natural hazard event becomes a disaster when the event causes a significant impact on a vulnerable population. Refer to the table in you have already made Volcano Earthquake Hazard Example Hazard Example Lava Mauna Loa Tsunami Banda Aceh Return to slide 6slide 8
  • 9. 1.2 Event profile of hazards, including frequency, magnitude, duration and areal extent. • Not all tectonic hazards are the same • Event profiles are a common way of comparing different hazards • In this example the 2004 Asian Tsunami and ongoing eruption of Kilauea on Hawaii are compared • Hazard profiles can be drawn for any event. The nature of the hazard creates the level of challenge Refer to the event profiles you have drawn for your 6 detailed case studies. Draw event profiles so you can compare and contrast your examplesslide 9
  • 10. 1.3 The causes of tectonic hazards, including the pattern of tectonic plates, their movements and possible causes of these movements. Tectonic processes are driven by radioactive decay in the core This decay generates heat inside the earth, which drives vast convection currents This convection is largely responsible for plate movement Constructive Destructive Conservative Transformslide 10
  • 11. 1.4 Tectonic activity associated with different types of plate margins (convergent, divergent and transform) and the impact of this on the spatial distribution of tectonic hazards.slide 11
  • 12. Earthquakes are not predictable, and their consequences can be catastrophic in terms of both human and economic loss. Large, vulnerable populations live in high-risk locations. In the developing world, the capacity to cope is often low.slide 12
  • 13. Volcanoes occur in well- known, localised areas. Monitoring and prediction can often reduce risk. The most devastating volcanoes are located on destructive plate boundaries in densely populated developing countries. A single volcano can generate a range of hazards, including lava flows, ash fall, pyroclastic flows and lahars, often occurring simultaneously.slide 13
  • 14. 1 • Tsunami are relatively rare events. • They are generated by submarine earthquakes, volcanic collapse, and coastal landslides, which suddenly displace huge volumes of water 2 • The 1993 Okushiri tsunami (Japan), 2004 Asian Tsunami and 2009 Samoa events are all useful as case studies. • Tsunami waves are radically different from normal wind 3 generated ocean waves. • When a tsunami hits a coastline, the effect is more like a devastating coastal flood than a single breaking wavesslide 14
  • 15. 2.1 The varying impact of extrusive igneous activity, including the formation of volcanic cones, fissures and lava plateaux. Silica Content Temperature Viscosity Extrusive Feature Basalt Andesite Dacite Rhyoliteslide 15
  • 16. 2.2 The formation and morphology of different types of volcano and the characteristics ofdifferent types of eruption. How these variations link to the processes at different plate marginsand at hot spots.slide 16 Go to slide 14
  • 17. 2.2 The formation and morphology of different types of volcano and the characteristics ofdifferent types of eruption. How these variations link to the processes at different plate marginsand at hot spots. Magma Generation Tectonic setting Hazards type Basaltic Dry partial melting of Oceanic Hot spot (Hawaii) Lava flow Low silica, low gas, low viscosity. upper mantle Constructive (Iceland) Andesitic Wet partial melting of Destructive plate margin Lava flow, ash and tephra, subducting plates (Andes) pyroclastic flow, lahar, gas Island arc margin emission Intermediate (Montserrat) Rhyolitic In situ melting of lower Continental Hot spot Cataclysmic explosion, High silica, high gas, high continental crust (Yellowstone) pyroclastic flow viscosity. (very rare eruptions) Continent collision zone (Himalayas) • Magma, molten rock in the earth’s crust, has an important relationship with volcanic explosivity and hazard level • Andesitic magmas, formed by wet partial melting at subduction zones produce highly explosive and destructive composite volcanoesslide 17
  • 18. 2.3 The varying impact of intrusive igneous activity, both major and minor. ExtrusiveMajor Volcano Fissure Lava PlateauLandformsExamplesMinor GeyserLandformsExamples Intrusive Major Batholith Sill Dike Landforms Examples Minor Lopolith Laccolith Stock Landforms Examplesslide 18
  • 19. 2.4 The effects that earthquakes can have on landscapes, such as fault lines, rift valleys and ground displacement, and the stresses and forces the ground is subjected to during such activity.slide 19 Go to slide 17
  • 20. 2.4 The effects that earthquakes can have on landscapes, such as fault lines, rift valleys and ground displacement, and the stresses and forces the ground is subjected to during such activity.slide 20