Constructive Convergence:    Imagery and Humanitarian Assistance                     Doug Hanchard    Center for Technolog...
The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and do not reflect official policy or position of theNational De...
ContentsForeword ............................................................................................................
     iv
Foreword     In the past few years—especially since the 2010 Haitian earthquake—Geospatial Information System (GIS)product...
     vi
Executive Summary         Imagery assessment is a vital tool for humanitarian responders when disaster strikes. Whether de...
I. Introduction                           “Imagery is like fish—best when it’s fresh.”                  —Major General Joh...
The immediate aftermath of a disaster is chaotic, and post-event imagery can provide relativelyunbiased logistical informa...
and ideas with recommendations for consideration. Imagery does not often lie and only rarely is it misconstrued.Each image...
at risk when imagery-related needs are at odds. The existing inter-agency and government compliancerequirements that, in s...
Volunteer and Local Community        The public no longer relies on conventional news organizations as their primary sourc...
Urban Search and Rescue, CrisisCommons, and the U.S. European Command. More than 12,500 volunteers andorganizations partic...
Sensing. 13 However, these standards do not imply interoperability or transferability from one software orhardware platfor...
Software ApplicationsGeographic Information Systems         A geographic information system (GIS), sometimes referred to a...
streams, plotting data onto a map, and then publishing a finished map either on the Internet, on paper, or storedin a comp...
Object Notation (JSON), XML, Geography Markup Language (GML) and Keyhole Markup Language (KML),all described below.       ...
Geographic Markup Language (GML)         GML is an XML-based API to link GIS data and a Coordinate Reference System (CRS)....
hash-tagging, the process of using a hash mark [#] before the word) often used with GPS coordinates. Currently,there is no...
Data ManagementOptions and Obstacles         Although there is a lot of technology designed for use in the field, optimal ...
governments and commercial entities do share datasets, the terms and conditions are often very strict, or they areonly ava...
Standards for Cartography and GIS datasets        GDACS retrieves open source or non-restricted data by subscribing to RSS...
Reit- und Wanderkarte                           walkers and riders                            Austria, Germany, Switzerlan...
be understood that Google Earth (and other similar programs) were never intended for HA/DR use. Google’sdisaster response ...
Mobile Smart Devices: Situational Awareness for Humanitarian Responders and the GeneralPublic        Mobile devices such a...
In February 2009, Apple filed a patent that enables users to be identified when jailbreaking its devices,including iPhones...
Samsung                                 23                     7.6%     5.5      3.2%                   318.2%HTC         ...
As these devices become part of the social fabric, Global CDMA 78 and GSM smart phones with mapapplications are becoming a...
Figure 4. Blackberry Playbook by RIM 82         The tablet market was once thought to be a specialized market segment used...
Figure 5. Motorola Xoom            Figure 6. Samsung Galaxy        Every major manufacturer now has a tablet model either ...
V. Communications Networks         Communications networks, including satellite, terrestrial wireless, and landline voice/...
Figure 7. GSM and UMTS Product Roadmap Illustrating Data Download Speeds 92 (data from the 3rd                            ...
Wide Code Division Multiple Access (W−CDMA)      Japan’s largest mobile network is based on W−CDMA technology and has esse...
Figure 9. Coverage Map 3G Illustrating W−CDMA and UMTS Coverage with HSPA Availability 95Wireless Resiliency        In the...
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief
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Constructive Convergence:Imagery and Humanitarian Relief

  1. 1. Constructive Convergence: Imagery and Humanitarian Assistance Doug Hanchard Center for Technology and National Security Policy Institute for National Strategic Studies National Defense University February 2012  i
  2. 2. The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and do not reflect official policy or position of theNational Defense University, the Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. All information and sourcesfor this paper were drawn from unclassified documents.Google, Google Earth, KML are registered trademarks of Google. All Google Images created using GoogleEarth and Google Maps created and published with written permission from Google.Other product names mentioned herein are used for identification purposes only and may be trademarks of theirrespective companies.Content describing commercial, governmental, nongovernmental, nonprofit organizations, or agenciesdescribing devices, software, or intellectual property in this document are written under Fair Use per 17 U.S.C. §107 of the Copyright Act (1976).The Center for Technology and National Security Policy expresses appreciation to Ms. Jessica L. Block, Dr.Jeffrey Smotherman, Mr. Frank Hoffman and Ms. Isadora Blachman-Biatch for their editorial support.Doug Hanchard is the President of Rapid Response Consulting (Toronto, Ontario), an ICT consulting firmspecializing in telecommunication services for enterprise organizations and government agencies. Hanchard hasworked at Bell Canada, TELUS and AT&T implementing and delivering telecommunication solutionsworldwide in 57 countries. In memory of Ivan W. Hanchard Collaborator, negotiator, and, most of all, a father who taught wisdom based on experience.  ii
  3. 3. ContentsForeword .............................................................................................................................................................. v Executive Summary ........................................................................................................................................... 1 I. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................... 2 II. The Users of Imagery ................................................................................................................................... 4 III. Imagery: Types and Uses .......................................................................................................................... 7 IV. Computing to Enable the Use of Imagery ............................................................................................. 8  .V. Communications Networks ...................................................................................................................... 25 VI. Putting It into Practice ............................................................................................................................ 32 VII. Recommendations ................................................................................................................................... 34 Appendix A. Imagery, Maps, and Usage.................................................................................................... 41 Appendix B. Humanitarian Assistance / Disaster Relief (HA/DR) Events and MappingExamples: Lessons Learned .......................................................................................................................... 46 Glossary ............................................................................................................................................................. 74   iii
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  5. 5. Foreword  In the past few years—especially since the 2010 Haitian earthquake—Geospatial Information System (GIS)products, often based on imagery, have become critical enablers of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief(HA/DR) efforts. Much more imagery is becoming available to the HA/DR community, complemented byincreasing bandwidth to share it, more powerful “edge” devices to process it, global volunteer groups to helpmake sense of “crowd-sourced” information and high-level policy and doctrine that are becoming moresupportive of collaboration around GIS products in HA/DR environments. Doug Hanchard’s paper makes an important contribution to this field. He does not try to be all things to allpeople, but focuses on important technological aspects of imagery in HA/DR. The paper includes specificrecommendations, from transmission standards, to short message service shortcodes, to applicationprogramming interfaces and data search techniques. At the same time, he recognizes that technology alone is notenough: • Social networks need to be developed and trust built to encourage diverse groups to work together • Policy and doctrine need to be translated into effective field operating procedures so that people “on the ground” know what to do • Legal and regulatory constraints must be understood and challenged where necessary • Resources must be addressed and acquired • Trainers must be trained, units exercised and curricula adapted to achieve genuine lessons learned, instead of lessons observed, and re-observed, and re-observed. Importantly, the paper ties imagery to logistics and to local populations in their worlds, with their resources.This reinforces a model, developed from Haitian and Afghan experiences, which suggests that organizationsneed to build “bridges” to the “crowd” that is generating so much information. 1 Handling the volume andvelocity of information created by social media and the 24/7 news cycle will be essential for all organizationsgoing forward. At the same time, unless “transactions” are completed that make a difference on the ground(people pulled from rubble, supplies delivered, contracts fulfilled) improved situational awareness doesn’t helpmuch—hence the importance of logistics. Finally, “feedback” is needed, both to make the transactions moreeffective and to inform the “crowd” (the international community) about what’s happening. Doug repeatedly points out that “people save lives, not technology,” and his solutions emphasize ways thattechnology can help make people more effective, not be an end in itself. The complicated environments of mostHA/DR scenarios require that practitioners seek to achieve “unity of action” when there’s no “unity ofcommand,” and his recommendations provide tangible steps to help achieve this most difficult goal. —Linton Wells II Director, Center for Technology and National Security Policy, National Defense University                                                            1 L. Wells and R. Welborn, “From Haiti to Helmand: Using Open Source Information to Enhance Situational Awareness and Operational Effectiveness,” (Center for Technology and National Security Policy, December 2010), available at<http://star‐tides.net/sites/default/files/From%20Haiti%20to%20Helmand%2012%2011%2010%20v14_0.doc >.   v
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  7. 7. Executive Summary Imagery assessment is a vital tool for humanitarian responders when disaster strikes. Whether derivedfrom satellite, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or ground views, imagery offers event confirmation andimpact, an early assessment and a foundation on which to initiate response planning. The goal of this paper is toillustrate to the technical community and interested humanitarian users the breadth of tools and techniques nowavailable for imagery collection, analysis and distribution, and to provide brief recommendations withsuggestions for next steps. Over the past decade, the humanitarian community has found its growing access to imagery to bevaluable and organizational policies are changing to reflect that importance. Humanitarian responseorganizations have also paved new paths forward when the existing methods were antiquated (some of whichare described below). As new methods are adopted, changes in the use of imagery may alter organizationalcommand structures. Innovative technology, like imagery and the information derived from it, has long been a hallmark ofhuman evolution—but using it wisely has been a challenge. There are legal, political and ethical questions thatquickly arise around the use of imagery in disasters. In addition to the legal and ethical issues, humanitarianassistance requires teamwork and collaboration. Responders using imagery must overcome interoperabilitychallenges, develop technical standards, create governance structures and protect both personal privacy andintellectual property. In some cases, those posting or using imagery in the field may be at physical risk.Recognizing those needs, a growing number of volunteer technical groups have an opportunity to design toolsthat reflect current technical capabilities while addressing the full spectrum of requirements. We can nowinclude imagery contributions from affected populations to a degree never before possible, which raises furtheropportunities for the design of new tools and processes. Today’s technologies include public access to satellite and aerial imagery platforms; resilient networks;and larger and faster data storage capabilities at data centers, on smart phones and tablet computers that arecapable of manipulating imagery files using surprisingly high-performance applications that reside locally onthe device. Such a convergence of capabilities is uncommon. This paper is intended to stimulate discussion onthat convergence around the use of imagery in humanitarian response, and to inform readers about the resourcesavailable for research in more depth.  1
  8. 8. I. Introduction  “Imagery is like fish—best when it’s fresh.” —Major General John Hawley (USAF Ret.), U.S. Space Command Disaster Strikes  An earthquake occurs in a city of 375,000 people. As reports are digested the scale of the disasterbecomes clear, revealing an estimated $30 billion in damages and resources are overwhelmed. Compromisedenergy resources limit communications for situational awareness, and there isn’t enough manpower on theground. Volunteers from humanitarian groups, especially if they can help manage information, would be useful,but civil defense officials don’t have any experience integrating volunteers to a government response plan.Could volunteers be deployed? On February 22, 2011, Christchurch, New Zealand, did just that—urgently defining, over a matter ofhours, a new process for integrating a volunteer technical community into an emergency response. Professionalresponders in New Zealand used volunteers, private communications networks, Internet-based tools provided byprivate companies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to create a mesh that fed the emergencymanagement community the data needed to improve its response. That devastating 6.3 earthquake became alaboratory to carry out a complex, yet necessary, coordination of these technical efforts across the professionaland volunteer boundary. The results demonstrate how open-source maps, layered satellite and aerial imagery,and open-source information tools can be rapidly integrated into donated logistics software to empowervolunteer teams using any available mobile device. In close collaboration with the municipal government, avoluntary technical community delivered desperately needed information services with very little warning andwith a flexible, adaptable model that may be worth replicating. The success of the volunteer coordination in Christchurch was largely due to the converging uses forimagery among the humanitarian assistance and disaster relief (HA/DR) community. Imagery can be derivedfrom sensors on satellites, planes or even from cell phone and digital cameras, and provides a picture of a placeon earth at a point in time. The ability to acquire and share these images with coordinated response groups hasbeen revolutionized by recent efforts that led to several successful rescues and rapid community healing inChristchurch. Christchurch is unique: two severe earthquakes occurred separately. The events happened quickly,without warning. This paper presents a brief overview of the growing power of imagery, especially from volunteers andvictims in disasters, and its place in emergency response. It also highlights an increasing technical convergencebetween professional and volunteer responders—and its limits.The Power of Imagery Imagery for HA/DR is used for three primary purposes: situational awareness assessments by thescientific community, government and the community; response logistics for search and rescue, medicalassistance and essential service assessments; and recovery management for clean-up, interim essential servicedistribution and post-disaster reconstruction efforts.  2
  9. 9. The immediate aftermath of a disaster is chaotic, and post-event imagery can provide relativelyunbiased logistical information for rescue operations. Traditionally, there have been significant limitations togaining access to imagery for people responding to an event since civil and military governmental agencies usedto be the sole owners of satellite imagery. But now high-resolution imagery (in both space and time) iscommercially available, providing nearly real-time situational awareness. Further, with the creation of suchorganizations as OpenStreetMap (OSM) and Ushahidi, we are beginning to integrate cartography into what canbe best described as social mapping, breaking the bi-directional barriers to accessibility. However, the casestudies below have shown that access to this imagery has created challenges in management and distribution. Imagery for far-forward situational awareness began to become broadly available during hurricanesKatrina and Rita in the Gulf of Mexico in 2005 (Figure 1). NGOs, international organizations (IOs), andvolunteer groups began to leverage this new access to convey information to the general public. Since then itsuse has accelerated. After the 2010 Haitian earthquake, the use of imagery by non-government groups changedhow HA/DR communities approached many typical disaster response issues. During those 5 years, imageryaccess began to affect how government emergency operations, policies, procedures, search and rescue planning,and logistics services were developed and how humanitarian assistance teams trained and deployed. Technological advances in other domains have co-evolved with the access to imagery. Film-basedcamera systems have been replaced with next generation charge-coupled device (CCD) chips integrated withnext generation photographic lenses in aerial and satellite platforms. These advances have increased theresolution and thus the size of the image files and the demand for space to archive it. The data centers nowrequired to manage these file sizes must be accessible in the region where the disaster occurs and in reach backareas not impacted by the event. That requires broadband connectivity. At the same time, first responders mustbe ready to use low bandwidth methods, such as text-messaging if bandwidth is limited. Open source mapping tool add-ons, such as KML, PATH, GRAPH, KML Color Converter 2 for GoogleEarth, use imagery as a foundation for layering field data. But with this availability the amount of informationthat can be collected is skyrocketing, which means the risk of information overload is also rising. Techniques tomanage and use these tools must be carefully assessed and coordinated. Network providers are experiencingdaily impacts to voice and data networks by the demands for data sharing, which are made worse in a disasterzone. Advancements in handheld devices now enable network connectivity in the disaster-affected area. Theserugged devices are now capable of transmitting and consuming vast amounts of information. In addition,satellite and emergency terrestrial wireless networks are able to deploy within hours. While mostcommunications systems today generate decent connectivity on the ground in normal circumstances, care mustbe taken as to how organizations and volunteer groups compile and publish information over limited and fragiledata pathways in a disaster. That requires a degree of understanding and cooperation not yet common in anurgent response. To coordinate efforts in a disaster environment, a few social networking tools are being integrated byHA/DR groups. Those tools offer knowledge sharing opportunities that did not exist 10 years ago but contributeto information overload. This allows critical pieces of information to be easily overlooked, and there isadditional danger in automating the data filtering. To collect, optimize, and deploy satellite and aerial imagery successfully, we must consider these issuescarefully. Each section in this paper will guide the reader through current and future challenges, opportunities                                                            2 Open source (freeware) tools: http://www.sgrillo.net/googleearth/   3
  10. 10. and ideas with recommendations for consideration. Imagery does not often lie and only rarely is it misconstrued.Each image or map in the appendix tells a story. What is driving the story is the converging use of imagery onthe ground. Figure 1. Hurricane Katrina NOAA Image. Original Size: 1,114 Kilobits − 4077 x 4092 Pixels 270359.85 m E − 3350705.72 m N − August 30, 2005 15:58:54 CDT 3This image was taken and published by NOAA on its Internet website. However, its value to first responders was minimalbecause information that could have helped analyze the image was not embedded was not, and no geospatial standard wasused to allow the image to be exported to other mapping services and technologies.II. The Users of ImageryHA/DR Community: Learning New Visualization Concepts When a disaster strikes, the organizations that deploy to respond have different objectives. Thus theirneeds, policies and procedures are different when addressing the “who, what, when, where and why” of theevent. What they want out of an image is different and it is unlikely that any one solution to imagery will everbe found to address everyone’s needs. Moving forward, care must be taken so as not to put useful cooperation                                                            3 http://ngs.woc.noaa.gov/storms/katrina/24334501.jpg  4
  11. 11. at risk when imagery-related needs are at odds. The existing inter-agency and government compliancerequirements that, in some cases, are in conflict with demands for information generated by the event, whichfurther complicates matters.Government (Civil) Some government structures are based on local culture and historical precedents. Some are based onreligious beliefs and some are tribal or ethnic in nature. Some are autocratic, devoid of oversight or cooperation.In some regions of the world, abstract technical sophistication is limited and interpreting a basic map is beyondlocal capabilities. But in virtually every country, there is a sense that civil government should provide usefulservices to people. Imagery of various kinds is emerging as a potentially valuable service. Governance structures at many levels are beginning to recognize the value of post-crisis and near real-time imagery as well as pre-crisis planning. Static web pages no longer meet the needs of constituents nor ofemergency operation centers. New dynamic sources of information such as social media and open sourceimagery can inform but also overwhelm planning and response mechanisms. The challenge for governments isoften to address the legal limitations that hinder new approaches to information sharing with volunteerorganizations. Economic conditions often further limit government financial support for internal training andworkshops even when sharing is allowed and volunteers welcomed.Government (Military) The armed forces are often the most valuable resource on which any government can to lean during andimmediately after a catastrophe. Every executive government branch will be tasked for communications,transport, and power. But the military may also be able to provide: Field medical services, emergencyconstruction capabilities, additional essential supplies, engineering, field coordination, logistics operations andmanagement and aerial surveys. Host-nation militaries often own, or have access to, the highest resolution post-event imagery in the country. In some countries they may provide the only emergency services available.Humanitarian operations frequently are integrated as multi-national, civil-military deployments as was the casein Indonesia and Haiti. Militaries, therefore, are exploring new approaches to HA/DR as demands escalate. TheU. S. Department of Defense (DOD) clearly recognizes the requirement for collaboration and how it mustfunction in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. This is reflected in a series of DOD directives andinstructions. One of most forward leaning is DOD Instruction 8220.02, Information and CommunicationTechnology (ICT) Capabilities for Supporting Stabilization and Reconstruction, Disaster and HumanitarianAssistance and Civic Operations. 4 Similar themes are found in: DOD Directive 3000.05, Military Support forStability, Security, Transition, and Reconstruction (SSTR) Operations, November 28, 2005, 5 reissued onSeptember 16, 2009 as a DoD instruction on Stability Operations. 6NGOs/IOs When a major disaster strikes the developing world, there are more than 40,000 different NGOs and IOsthat may consider responding. They deploy to address specific needs and goals defined by the organization, andusually must leverage existing resources to do so. Collaboration with other NGOs is often indispensible.                                                            4 http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/822002p.pdf   5 http://www.usaid.gov/policy/cdie/sss06/sss_1_080106_dod.pdf6 http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/300005p.pdf  5
  12. 12. Volunteer and Local Community The public no longer relies on conventional news organizations as their primary source of information.The ability to go directly to the source of information online, post comments and offer assistance is growingwith every new disaster through the capabilities of mobile phones, short message service (SMS), multimediamessaging service (MMS), Flickr, Facebook, Twitter, Kiva, tools from the NGO "Innovative Support toEmergencies, Disease and Disasters” (InSTEDD), Ushahidi, OSM, and others. This publically generated datapresents challenges to managing unverified information. Contributions from a diaspora of globally distributedpeople familiar with the impacted area have also proven valuable, but their use needs refining.Working Together: Simulation and Coordination Groups Some groups have recognized the need to collaborate and be formally organized in order to prepare foranticipated events. Here are some (of many):Net Hope Net Hope—a consortium of 32 of the largest global NGOs—was established in 2001 to researchinnovative approaches to cooperation, knowledge sharing, 7 defining technology and services required toaccomplish their goals. 8 Many of the most recognized NGO information technology (IT) departments havejoined this consortium. 9 For Net Hope, accurate geospatial information applications are a critical need. One ofthe group’s goals is to develop standards for solutions that can be replicated to reduce capital costs, increaseefficiencies and simultaneously expand their capabilities. They are generating internal standards and protocolsfor imagery, data flow guidelines, network communications, device usage, and ancillary systems.Exercise “Pacific Endeavor” Field trials and planning for multi-national humanitarian civil-military response teams are occurringwith multi-national integrated military exercises such as Pacific Endeavor. 10 The program commonly involves16 different countries around the Pacific Rim and focuses on establishing communication networkinteroperability across voice and data network services. In the recent past, the military was the sole owner andsupplier of post-event imagery. Now imagery is produced by many organizations and the military role is beingreversed from producer to consumer of not only imagery, but maps and new interfaces in which data is layeredon top of the imagery.Exercise 24 (X24) Military organizations—like their civilian brethren—are feeling financial restraints on research anddevelopment budgets while exploring next generation tools. San Diego State University developed an innovativeapproach to reduce the costs associated with running field exercises. Their solution was to simulate a disasterand run the exercise as a virtual event online. The program was tested in September 2010 using a scenario inSouthern California involving a large earthquake that generated a tsunami. In March 2011, the exercise wasrepeated, this time with a scenario in Europe and the support of the Red Cross of Germany, National Institute for                                                            7 http://www.nethope.org/about/us/8 http://www.nethope.org/9 Members of Net Hope: ActionAid, Ashoka, CARE, CHF, Christian Aid, ChildFund International, Children International, Catholic Relief Services, Concern Worldwide, FINCA, Family Health International, Heifer International, International Rescue Committee, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Mercy Corps, Nature Conservancy, Opportunity International, Oxfam, PACT, PATH, Plan, Relief International, Save the Children, VSO, WaterAid, Wildlife Conservation Society, Winrock International, and World Vision10 http://www.dvidshub.net/news/55232/pacific-region-militaries-join-humanitarian-community-pacific-endeavor  6
  13. 13. Urban Search and Rescue, CrisisCommons, and the U.S. European Command. More than 12,500 volunteers andorganizations participated from 79 countries in the first X24, and more than 18,000 from 92 countries in thesecond. 11 A key component of this new approach to training through an online simulator was the use ofcartographic applications that layered data published by volunteers. The military participants witnessed theavalanche of available information. It was reportedly an eye-opener for many and it appeared to be educationalfor participants at all levels. This exercise formed a Virtual Civil-Military Humanitarian Operations Center. Their design was notnew, but using data and software applications from civilian and volunteer organizations capable of infusing datain a rapid and accurate mapped fashion was new and had an impact. The next challenge will be integration;seeing how well these organizations can adapt to non-military designed services and applications, many ofwhich today fall outside of military network security regulations and policies.Imagery Sharing Organizations Various volunteer and commercial reach back groups are both consumers and distributors ofinformation. This is a significant issue as there are many different platforms that are being used to compile amap product. These organizations—like Ushahidi, All Partners Access Network (APAN), CrisisCommons andOSM—can serve as resources for disaster information, and they use imagery as a base on which to layer theirdatasets. If, however, the map product is created from a proprietary or classified software package, these datalayers are not easily distributable on other platforms, even if completely unclassified and non-proprietary (seefigures 7 and 8.) Some organizations have recognized this obstacle and do not use imagery at all because of thelegal and regulatory restrictions on devices mandated by their organization. If imagery is to be shared amongdifferent organizations, then international standards that meet corporate and governmental requirements arenecessary.III. Imagery: Types and Uses Imagery of disasters can provide critical information for search and rescue, medical services, shelter,and can support ancillary resources such as logistics planning. The source of the image and technology thatproduces them determines the spatial resolution of the resulting image. Resolutions are now available fromcommercial and military satellites down to 10 centimeters per pixel and finer.Satellite Imagery Satellite-based systems take images of the earth and transmit them to the ground upon acquisition. Theycan offer high spatial resolution and broad spectral resolution depending on the sensors on the satellite. Theadvantage of satellite imagery over aerial-based systems is that the orbit of the satellite is already known, andcan register the bounding coordinates of the image to it automatically. This allows users to project the image to a2D map, which enables geospatial data points to be plotted with it. The dominant handicap of satellite-basedsystems is that weather conditions can impact visibility of the ground. Vendors of advanced digital imageryavailable today comply with standards developed by organizations including the American Society forPhotogrammetry and Remote Sensing 12 and the International Society of Photogrammetry and Remote                                                            11 http://x24.eushare.org/ - The author observed and participated in this event.12 http://www.asprs.org  7
  14. 14. Sensing. 13 However, these standards do not imply interoperability or transferability from one software orhardware platform to another.Aerial Imagery Aerial imagery is acquired by a camera attached to a plane or an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV).Because it is not in a fixed orbit, aerial platforms can fly multiple missions over a disaster area, thus providingmuch more flexibility in temporal and spatial resolution. Aerial images are often supplemented with verbal andwritten situation reports, providing further metadata on the image. Advantages over satellite imagery include theability to fly below cloud cover, and improving the spatial resolution by altitude variation. Maximum aerialimagery resolution is now available at 10 cm or less using advanced digital imaging platforms. The mostcommon and difficult challenge is to geo-rectify images to the same accuracy as a satellite in near real-time.Commercial aircraft platforms are subject to wind-drift and unintended altitude variations, even withsophisticated autopilot and GPS managed flight navigation systems. Next generation systems now appear toaddress these issues effectively (see figures 43 and 44.) Advanced government aerial image systems eliminatedmost of these problems in the 1990s and are capable of registering imagery and embedding it into visualizationplatforms rapidly, but those tools are not commonly available on non-military platforms. Commercial mapproviders are beginning the move toward application program interface (API) tools to alleviate problemsexperienced in the field. Response times are improving, facilitating quicker publishing and manipulation of theimages.Images from Social Media and Hand-held Devices Modern humanitarian assistance groups draw on information sources that are no longer confined toofficial government sources. Today, individuals and local communities publish information during and after acrisis event using Internet-based social media websites such as Facebook, YouTube, Wikipedia, Flickr andTwitter. Pages and articles can now be extracted by HA/DR responders and exported as metadata to othersoftware applications. The social media sites have been both a source and destination for metadata duringdisasters. The use of social media applications has not gone unnoticed. The United Nations developed severalcourses on social media under its United Nations Institute of Training and Research that directly addressFacebook, Flickr, YouTube, Twitter and others. 14 With these tools responders can detect, monitor, report andrecord knowledge points within seconds of an event. These flows of information are compiled as datasets. Thedata is often open source and therefore exportable to multiple applications and platforms such as Sahana andUshahidi.IV. Computing to Enable the Use of Imagery It is clear to HA/DR map experts that imagery has significant value when correlated with other sourcesof information. But to do this in the field, responders need software to read, analyze and share the imagery.Below is a snapshot of some software tools that enable each.                                                            13 http://www.isprs.org/technical_commissions/14 http://www.unitar.org/ksi/innovative‐collaboration‐development  8
  15. 15. Software ApplicationsGeographic Information Systems A geographic information system (GIS), sometimes referred to a geospatial information system, is asystem designed to work with data referenced to spatial or geographic coordinates. 15 An early example was anepidemiological map of a cholera epidemic in London made by John Snow and colleagues in 1854. 16 The mapshowed the location of the outbreaks in relation to the water pumps and led to an effective intervention. A digitaladaptation to mapping was developed by the Department of Forestry of Canada 17 in 1960. The CanadianGeospatial Information System became the foundation for today’s computer GIS standards. It remainedprimarily a government set of tools for decades, and did not become widespread in commercial applicationsuntil the 1980s. With these standards in place and the use of computer-based maps now possible, newopportunities in cartography offered the ability to layer information for commercial and consumer applications.No longer confined to 2D maps, computers offered accuracy since data could be shown in 3D. It would takealmost 35 years to become known outside of professional communities, but the growth of GIS since 2005 hasbeen explosive.Global Positioning System and a Reference Standard Small-form factor Global Positioning System (GPS) map devices used in Marine and Aviationindustries started the digital field-mapping revolution. In the mid-1980s, these devices were built into consumerdevices such as small aircraft and pleasure boats as navigation tools, which spread quickly to automobilenavigation systems. In 2001, a small company named Keyhole developed an Internet-based cartographicapplication on a globe. Google acquired Keyhole in 2004, modifying it and renaming the Keyhole tool “GoogleEarth.” Google soon began working with authoritative bodies on projection and representation standards. NowGoogle Maps, OSM, Bing, and others use the World Geodetic System (WGS) 84 projection described further inthis book, 18 which has become the Web mapping projection standard around the world.Metadata Metadata is data about data, and is either embedded in the geographic data file or is made available asan independent file that the geographic data reads. It defines the object’s grid coordinates (such as latitude,longitude, and resolution) and it’s used to map geographic data accurately on a map. It also enables additionalgeo-referenced data to be layered over it. In the 1990s, metadata standards for commercial photogrammetryvendors were available for both digital and film formats, and they are still in use today. Metadata can alsoinclude attribution information, such as a description, of the geographic area being plotted. Examples ofmetadata for HA/DR response include when an image was taken, by whom it was taken and how many staffwork in the medical clinic seen in the image. The Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS), 19 operated by the United Nations Officeof Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA), uses GIS metadata to generate alerts that are then plottedonto a GDACS-provided map, and, in parallel, are then sent as information alerts by really simple syndication(RSS) 20 or email. 21 This is done through use of a mapping standard defining externally-sourced information                                                            15 Star and Estes by Jeffrey Star and John Estes, 1990  16 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Ghost_Map17 http://www.cdci.ca/HGIS_Mapping_v2.pdf18 http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/EPSG:385719 http://www.gdacs.org/20 http://www.rssboard.org/rss-specification  9
  16. 16. streams, plotting data onto a map, and then publishing a finished map either on the Internet, on paper, or storedin a computer as an archive. With those tasks accomplished, many subscribers of these maps then layer theirown metadata onto these “foundation” maps through Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), Java, orsimilar scripting languages that allow them to create their own maps and information elements (see below for adescription of APIs.)Web Browser Applications Many Web applications that were originally intended for social networking are now being used fordisaster response assessments. Advances have been made in Web application services that enableinteroperability between them. Examples include the ability to map satellite imagery and embed third-partydatasets from applications such as Twitter and Flickr. The third party datasets can be collected from a variety ofsources including smartphones, social network services and volunteer input data sets. Web portals informingHA/DR teams of current conditions in real time are being published on sites using Ushahidi, Riff, CrisisMappers Net and SwiftRiver. 22 An additional benefit to these sites being online is that they also provideinformation to the general public. These websites are integrating data streams from Twitter, SMS, 23 andvolunteer databases in addition to satellite imagery and open source maps. Some Internet applications havedesigned specialized versions of their services for mobile phones like Bing Maps, Google Maps and others arenow widely available.Web Map Service, Web Mapping Tile Service (WMS/WMTS) To share high-volume imagery on maps, the imagery can be published on the Web through a Web mapservice (WMS), 24 a standard protocol for serving geo-referenced map images over the Internet. A WMSgenerates images through a map server using data from a GIS database. WMS software reads the embeddedmetadata for an image—location, resolution, number of pixels—and places the image on a 2D map. Image setsare formatted as “tiles” or a series of strips that can be stitched together for easier data navigation. Somevendors, such as Google, use a WMS (such as Google Maps and Google Earth) that processes the imagery into aproprietary format that allows the user to view the processed imagery easily, but cannot extract the image foruse in another mapping software. In other cases, a WMS allows the user to download raw images and use themwith other applications. In order for image sharing to occur, other mapping standards are required (such as usinga common map projection). Some service bureaus use another Web mapping protocol called Web mapping tileservice (WMTS), which carries the same function as WMS, but is technically a different software application. 25WMTS uses extensible markup language (XML) (see below) to interface with the imagery metadata to tile theimages onto a digital map.Application Programming Interface (API) The ability to add additional geographic datasets from disparate sources with imagery is accomplishedby using API tools. An API takes data from its source and processes it into a dataset that can be read by thesoftware interface of your choice. They have become the backbone for integrating third party informationsources onto maps. Examples of common APIs are Java, Sensor Model Language (SensorML), JavaScript                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 http://www.gdacs.org22 http://swift.ushahidi.com/23 http://www.shortcodes.com/howto_short-codes.html24 http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wms25 http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wmts  10
  17. 17. Object Notation (JSON), XML, Geography Markup Language (GML) and Keyhole Markup Language (KML),all described below. Google has created an API for users to manipulate its maps. 26 This allows developers of databases(regardless of their format) to build datasets that work with Google Earth. Microsoft has a wealth of resourcesavailable to developers on the Microsoft Bing Map site and Bing Map Blog. 27 The company also offers asoftware development kit (SDK), which allows Bing Maps to work on Android devices (including RSS) usingits AJAX Control version 7.0 package. 28The First API: Sensor Model Language (SensorML) In 1998, the U.S. Government created the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites, endorsed byagencies including the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), NASA, the Defense Information SystemsAgency, and satellite manufacturers including General Dynamics and Northrop Grumman. This committee, incooperation with the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), developed SensorML. 29 SensorML offered the firststandard in which metadata associated with a digital cartographic image could be correlated and given adescription. Since the development of SensorML, other API standards have been developed such as XML 30protocol (see explanation for XML below), which is related to SensorML. Another API is GML, which offerssimilar features and protocol concepts. In 2005, OGC released version 3.1.1 of SensorML in which GML isencapsulated. This allows protocols like GML, GEO 31 (eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language [X-HTML]), 32JSON, XML and KML to add additional geographic data as new layers onto a virtual map.JavaScript Object Notation (JSON/GeoJSON) JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) is a software programming language that is a lightweight form ofthe JavaScript programming language. It can quickly parse data, including imagery, and import it into a textformat that is language-independent (in the programming sense) but uses conventions that are familiar toprogrammers from C, C++, C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, Python and others. 33 Its primary advantage is that it usesless code than XML. GeoJSON is the correlative mapping programming language used to plot data on a map. Itis used widely by the open source mapping community and supported by many GIS software packages.Extensible Markup Language (XML) XML is a protocol used to interchange data between different encoding formats. XML use is widespreadand popular for sharing documents between competing applications (e.g., Microsoft Office to Apple iWork).Software image processing applications can publish metadata into XML so it can be used immediately withWMS-formatted maps and with specialized survey maps and applications. Other XML applications usingexternal metadata layers into crisis maps include Twitter 34 , RSS 35 and YouTube. 36                                                            26 http://code.google.com/apis/maps/documentation/javascript/27 http://www.bing.com/community/site_blogs/b/maps/default.aspx http://www.microsoft.com/maps/28 http://www.bing.com/community/site_blogs/b/maps/archive/2011/03/31/bing-maps-android-sdk-available-on- codeplex.aspx29 http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/sensorml30 http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml/31 http://microformats.org/wiki/geo32 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XHTML33 http://wiki.geojson.org/What_is_JSON%3F34 https://dev.twitter.com/docs/using-search  11
  18. 18. Geographic Markup Language (GML) GML is an XML-based API to link GIS data and a Coordinate Reference System (CRS). GML is oftenused as the reference schema for geospatial objects. Google’s KML for example can extract data from a GMLfile but not the other way around because Google’s KML uses a different CRS and may not interoperate withKML-embedded metadata. GML is continually updated by community users. 37Keyhole Markup Language (KML) KML is also an XML-based interface that uses Java-based programming to bind data from a remotesource into a new data layer. Three different versions of KML are widely used because of the ease in which itcan be used in Google Maps and Google Earth. Google’s Earth and Map application resources can be found onits Lat Long Blog. 38Application Standards: An Impediment in the Making Data is no longer confined to static sources. The Internet social revolution offers data from a variety ofsites including Twitter, Facebook, RSS feeds, SMS and MMS, and many others. The structure of this data isoften extracted as simple Comma Delimited Value or Delimited Set Value format. This has created an explosionof possible sources of information that can be mapped. Developers have taken advantage of social media linkingtools and exported them to mapping solutions. Applications used for mapping start with the simplicity of plotting reference data. But there are nowmore than 25 different database variants, 75 database tools to import and export datasets, and 60 query toolsavailable for mapping. Some tools are specialized to only run on specific machines such as Microsoft, Apple,Linux or Unix operating systems. 39 Some databases are only accessible using proprietary software clients, whilethe ones that are based on Web browsers use different scripting languages such as ActiveX or Java. Almost any programming language can be used for mapping applications and the decision of which isoften a matter of personal choice. There is no single answer for which languages are used for specificapplications. This issue is particularly challenging when HA/DR mapping sites are operated by volunteers. Forexample, a volunteer helping with the publication of Twitter feeds onto a disaster map may use JavaScript, thenuse GeoJSON with Flickr and XML with SMS messaging data. Each of these creates multiple GIS layers thatare then placed on maps. But by using multiple programming languages, there are opportunities for errors andprogramming collisions. Similarly, APIs, which are often written to extract information from one location to be read by aninterface, are managed at the discretion of the owners. APIs will often be made available for specific operatingsystems and may not interoperate across platforms. Simplified and interoperable application standards for reading and understanding datasets need to bespecifically developed for imagery data layers, allowing for open source inputs from various news feeds andapplication platforms. Examples of some needed standards include keyword index taxonomies and tagging (or                                                                                                                                                                                                            35 http://www.rssboard.org/rss-specification36 http://code.google.com/apis/youtube/2.0/developers_guide_protocol.html37 http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/gml38 http://google-latlong.blogspot.com/39 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_database_tools  12
  19. 19. hash-tagging, the process of using a hash mark [#] before the word) often used with GPS coordinates. Currently,there is no standard for generating a time stamp identification or user ID (source) for export to a dataset, whichgets transcribed onto other application layers such as KML. KML is often the sole source input feed intovolunteer syllabus HA/DR data, because there is a large community of developers that use Google Earth fortheir source of maps and imagery. But there are serious issues with KML. When one portal uses imagery(example Google) and collects data from its own data sources (for example, the KML API version 2), it cannotbe reused on a different service provider source of imagery (say Microsoft Bing Maps) because they do notsupport KML natively. Additionally, the introduction of KML API version 3 creates new technical obstacleswith the different programming options available. KML directly links to the original source imagery as it isbeing served and cannot be interpreted or extracted. This means work is duplicated to export a data set todifferent APIs made for different image repositories. When supplemental image data is combined on differentplatforms, this step becomes necessary. One data portal may have updated imagery for Region 1 while a seconddata portal may have updated imagery for Region 2, but neither has both regions combined. Integrating the dataportals requires cycle time between the two service bureaus to enable interaction, which consumes valuabletime. Open standards have been created by the Global Disaster Alert Coordination System (GDACS) 40 inEurope, comprised of policies organized by UN-OCHA to format data that is collected, apply it to HA/DR mapsand send out the information to its members. The data is imported and exported using RSS and emailnotification. For commonality, WMS is the protocol the majority of service map providers use to layer theirgeographic reference datasets. Over the past year, a commercial firm in Germany called GeOps 41 created a non-profit organization to determine how well developer’s image/maps work to WMS standards. The companycurrently monitors 270,000 WMS layers published by more than 4,500 worldwide service bureaus. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) 42 is a voluntary standards body with no specific mandate andhas no recognized governance body managing it. The OGC works with associations that adhere tointernationally recognized standards groups such as the International Organization for Standardization, InternetEngineering Task Force (IETF) and World Wide Web Consortium, and has compiled roughly 30 differentapplication standards. 43 Adherence to these standards is not required and is often ignored for service deliveryreasons.Commercial Software Applications for Publishing Geographic Information on the Web • GeoBase (Telogis GIS software) • Smallworld’s SIAS • GSS –MapXtreme • PlanAcess • Stratus Connect • Cadcorp GeognoSIS • Intergraph GeoMedia WebMap • ESRI’s ArcIMS and • Autodesk Mapguide ArcGIS Server • SeaTrails AtlasAlive • ObjectFX • ERDAS APOLLO Suite • Google Earth and Google Fusion • MapServer • GeoServer                                                            40 http://www.gdacs.org  41 http://www.mapmatters.org/42 http://www.opengeospatial.org/43 http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards  13
  20. 20. Data ManagementOptions and Obstacles Although there is a lot of technology designed for use in the field, optimal implementation is not alwaysstraightforward. Stakeholders must align their needs collectively and convey them to vendors. Not only must thetechnical requirements be mutually acceptable, but they must be delivered within cost constraints. Image technology advances during the past 5 years have created exceptional opportunities throughlenses, chipsets (in particular CCDs), software and—in the near future—the ability to take multiple resolutionimages simultaneously. In particular, digital imagery used with cartographic techniques has enabled new typesof maps to be produced that can be densely layered with datasets. The amount of detail that can be extractedfrom an image has increased more than 100-fold since 2005. This capability has created innovation in theembedding of post-disaster images onto maps in four dimensions: height, width, depth and time. Images collected from the 2010 Haitian earthquake covered approximately 250 square kilometers (PortAu Prince is 32 square kilometers) from a variety of commercial and government agency service bureaus. InHonshu, Japan, the reconnoitered area was more than 5,000 square kilometers. The section of Miyagi Prefecturewhere some of the most severe damage occurred required 10 times the amount of imagery as Port-Au-Princedid. For each image, the file size and data that are transcribed and embedded or linked to it require vastquantities of storage. The higher the resolution, the more files to be recorded are required. Files of such imagery require storage services that scale rapidly into the terabyte size or larger. It shouldbe noted that storage of 10 petaBytes 44 at any one facility constitutes Commercial Data Center classification,requiring maintenance staff, backup power and redundant broadband access services. Data center services areexpensive to operate. Additionally, data of this scale and volume requires high performance network access. Anexample of a global scale mapping effort is Microsoft’s Bing mapping product. Every month, imagery updatesare loaded onto its servers and each global update is estimated to average about 10 terabytes in size. 45 Some disaster responders have argued that the ability to browse the Web in the field is undesirablebecause there is not enough bandwidth to access the data being served remotely, or the bandwidth that would beadequate is prohibitively expensive. Most platforms on the Web host their data with a client-server processingarchitecture, meaning that the client (in the field) is requesting data hosted on a server. That server will often belocated in a different country or even a different hemisphere than where the information is needed. Imageryservices may soon develop a standard that enables datasets to be compartmentalized and downloaded withupdate solutions that only change imagery data defined as required by each ground team.Data Sharing The Internet’s social capabilities have enabled hundreds of applications to be developed and integratedwith imagery, but that doesn’t mean they are all useful. Some social data streams are easily available but aredifficult to filter, or redundant, or are not informative. However, other datasets are highly valuable but notaccessible due to corporate or commercial interests, government policies, or law. Many government agenciesfurther complicate the issue by mandating software that cannot easily parse these data formats. Even when                                                            44 1000 TeraBytes = 1 Petabyte = 1015 Bytes / 1 Terabyte = 1,000 Gigabytes. / 1 Gigabyte = 1,000 Megabytes. Storage and file sizes typically are expressed in terms of Bytes in decimal form, while data transmission rates usually are in terms of bits per second (bps). One Byte = 8 bits. Binary formula equates; 1 Megabyte = 1024 kilobytes, 1 Gigabyte = 1024 Megabytes, etc.45 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bing_Maps  14
  21. 21. governments and commercial entities do share datasets, the terms and conditions are often very strict, or they areonly available through a proprietary API and not downloadable to other network data storage facilities.Copyright infringement, licensing rights, privacy regulations and proprietary data limits are additionalroadblocks to sharing data. The most serious issues overlooked involve liability protections by both the publishers and sources ofimagery and its data. As far as our research shows there is no universally adopted Good Samaritan law that canprotect volunteers who translate emergency help messages, map them and distribute that map to response teamsin the field. Another rising concern is who owns the finished product when data sources are published and used.Many non-profit organizations do have Creative Commons license 46 terms and conditions that waive anyproprietary rights. Commercial use agreements for software such as Google Earth, Google Maps 47 andMicrosoft Maps 48 should be reviewed with legal counsel to understand content rights, distribution restrictionsand other limitations.The Need for Data Interoperability Developers using APIs know that not all user devices (browsers, netbooks, tablets, smart phones) arecompatible with their interface tools. Users need to be aware that APIs are constantly being upgraded and thatupgraded code may affect the API’s performance on their device. As these APIs improve, backwardscompatibility becomes an obstacle to end user device capability. Google’s API, now available as API Version3, 49 is compatible with modern smart phones, where previous versions were not. The mobile version 3 is alightweight (small—32 kilobytes (KB) per tile) JavaScript design, enabling these devices to work withinacceptable operating parameters. As in all software development and vendor solutions, long-term support forthese APIs create some obvious concerns. Google plans to support Version 2 of the API until 2013. Microsoftoffers an API available in its SDK for Microsoft Bing Maps. 50 However, the ability to interoperate or integratewith KML is not easily accomplished. The need for consistent interoperability is clear, but it’s a recurrentproblem in many software services and not unique to mapping. Collaborative efforts to add data layers to imagery are a priority for both public and private entities. TheU.S. Government has created a website on the topic, centered on the use of XML 51 when integrating datasupplied by Government agencies. Options offer opportunities, but also risks conflict, errors and confusion.Single-use image production not exportable to other portals during a disaster event creates a regrettable demandfor multiple sets of imagery, and thus extra service and processing, plus added data downloads by end users.This creates congested networks and increased storage requirements.                                                            46 http://creativecommons.org/47 http://maps.google.com/help/terms_maps.html48 http://www.microsoft.com/maps/product/terms.html49 http://code.google.com/apis/maps/documentation/javascript/reference.html50 http://www.microsoft.com/maps/developers/mapapps.aspx51 http://xml.gov/  15
  22. 22. Standards for Cartography and GIS datasets GDACS retrieves open source or non-restricted data by subscribing to RSS texts from a variety ofsources and places them onto open source maps that UN-OCHA 52 created to help solve several problems inHA/DR response. The most commonly used map projection used in HA/DR mapping is the World Geodetic System(WGS). A projection is a transformation of the spherical or ellipsoid earth onto a flat map. There are manydifferent projections that can be chosen to preserve the area, shape or distance computations from the sphere tothe planar representation of a region. In order to take data from one projection and overlay it on a dataset with adifferent projection, a transformation must be performed on the data that warps the original data into the newprojection. Every time data is projected or transformed into a new projection, the accuracy and precision of theoriginal data is compromised. Prior to 1958, there were several different projections commonly used for chartingand publishing maps. A singular global map standard began with WGS60 (1960), updated in 1980 as GeodeticReference System 80, which evolved into the WGS84 standard in 1984. With these standards, maps werepublished with common reference points regardless of the scale or size of the map. Its adoption offeredinformation layering opportunities that could be transferable from one source reference map to another with noerrors. WGS84 has been updated to the Earth Gravitational Model(EGM)96. The United States GeologicalSurvey (USGS) uses WGS84 when mapping an earthquake’s epicenter and publishing location data. 53Open Source Map resources Open source applications exist, and enable developers to create new maps that layer over satelliteimagery. It is important to note that when using open source maps or layers, there is no specific support or real-time capability to troubleshoot any issues that may occur. The advantage to using open source maps as afoundation is the speed with which you can add data and the lack of legal copyright considerations. Since 2004,OSM 54 has been a pioneer in cartography and in the visualization of crisis mapping and continues to drive newinnovative technology concepts. OSM natively uses Openlayers Java. 55 There are several sources of open source cartography. With these maps, satellite imagery can beoverlaid using open standard software and APIs. Some commercial vendors have accepted this standard andallow these services to embed open source maps onto their devices. Garmin offers the ability to layer your ownmap 56 images onto several different models. Table 1 shows a few of the open source map providers registered inthe second quarter of 2011.Table 1. Open Source Map Providers Registered in the Second Quarter of 2011Map Theme AreaOpenStreetMap general, cyclists, debugging WorldwideInformation Freeway general, almost real-time WorldwideOSM WMS Servers general, Web map services WorldwideOpenSeaMap nautical chart Worldwide, multilingual: seas, oceans and waterwaysOpenStreetBrowser features highlighting EuropeFreeMap Walkers parts of the United Kingdom                                                            52 http://www.reliefweb.int/53 http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/glossary.php#location54 http://www.openstreetmap.org/55 http://www.openlayers.org/56 http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/OSM_Map_On_Garmin  16
  23. 23. Reit- und Wanderkarte walkers and riders Austria, Germany, SwitzerlandTopOSM walkers and riders United StatesOpenCycleMap Cyclists WorldwideYourNavigation Routing WorldwideOpenRouteService Routing EuropeOpenOrienteeringMap orienteering style WorldwideOpenPisteMap Skiing some European and USA resortsBing OSM “Map App” General WorldwideCloudMade general, mobile and various other custom styles WorldwideOpenAviationMap Airspace indexing and classification Braunschweig, GermanyMapQuest Open (beta) general, routing WorldwideNearMap up-to-date photomaps populated areas of AustraliaOSMTransport public transport WorldwideÖPNV-Karte, or OpenBusMap Public transport EuropeOSM Mapper Debugging maps by Ito World Ltd India (Chennai) [Bangalore and Delhi underBusroutes.in Public transport bus routes development stage]Source: Wikipedia 57HardwareThe Data Center The power of imagery brings a self-inflicted Achilles’ heel injury that is hard to overcome. The sheervolume of imagery available is becoming untenable for a variety of users and agencies, which is why it is nowas important to consider where the data is archived as it is to consider how to process it. The volume of storagespace required to house satellite and aerial image data now demands professional data center facilities, whichquickly becomes an accessibility problem. Reach back facilities that are out of harm’s way can provide highspeed access (10 gigabits per second [Gbps] and higher), but end up being retrievable at only 1 megabit persecond to those on the ground. Delivery of these modified resources to the field is a critical issue and can impacthow, when and where users retrieve files. Users can cache files on traditional devices such as laptops, notebooks and some tablets, while first-generation smart phones have limited capacity and current generation tablets can store up to 64 gigabytes (GBs)(iPad 2). Google Earth for personal computers (PCs) and Mac computers can cache up to 2 Gigabytes of datanatively before a call to a data center to load image files is required. There is no easy way to know how much ofthis cache is dedicated to global mapping files versus updating imagery that is downloaded. This caching featuredoes not cache KML or KMZ files (KMZs are collections of KML files compressed into single file) if the filesdo not include the images within the KML container, which most do not. There are free geographic tools thatassist users in creating customized cache settings and files. However, as Google Earth updates its application,there is no guarantee that customized cache settings and files will continue to work. The tools do not have abypass capability to exceed Google Earth’s 2 Gigabyte caching limit. 58 This illustrates the need for data serveraccess to be near to the disaster zone if intense imagery file retrieval and regular updates are required. It should                                                            57 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenStreetMap58 http://freegeographytools.com/2009/automating-the-google-earth-caching-process  17
  24. 24. be understood that Google Earth (and other similar programs) were never intended for HA/DR use. Google’sdisaster response team recognizes these severe shortfalls and is changing both data center policy and hardwareconstraints because of it. There are methods that can be used to get high volume image datasets on the ground faster; an exampleincludes the Map in a Box.Moving the Data Center: Using a Map in a Box Solution Data center mobility should be a key next-generation requirement to provide accessibility to imagery inthe field. The goal should be to ensure that large image data and associated datasets can be made available asclose to the disaster event as possible, saving valuable network connectivity to other critical application servicessuch as Voice over IP and real-time situation awareness needs. Reach back and forward operating access tolarge data storage facilities should be a priority for government and private institutions offering these services. It is therefore recommended that a mobile data storage system be considered early in a response. Theprocessing capacity and data storage (hard drive space) should be sufficient to contain enough imagery to holdthe pre-event and post-event aerial and satellite imagery with ancillary digital open source maps and ancillaryapplications required to cover a forward operating area of a disaster site. It should also contain two Ethernet 1-GB network cards for network access. The parameters of HA/DR forward operating headquarters should bedefined by NGOs, IOs, and government agencies to determine which groups are responsible for whichgeographic areas, and that will determine the mobile storage system requirements. An example is Port-au-Prince. Pre- and post-event imagery covering every square inch of the city would require approximately 24terabytes of data storage requiring approximately 3 compact devices and 1 optional network processing serverwhich can also host mapping software if required. Each unit consumes approximately 82 watts of power at itsmaximum operating performance. This system would be connected to multi-stacked Ethernet switches for localhigh speed local area network access and Wi-Fi Access Points. These systems can be configured to benetworking-neutral for easy access by Apple, PC Windows, and Linux computers. They can also be madeavailable with expanded memory cards with secure digital (SD) and micro SD slots. This allows the quicktransfer of data onto memory cards (and vice versa), which can subsequently be transferred into smart phonesthrough micro SD memory cards or tablet computers though SD memory cards. Updates to satellite imagery can be processed with open standard GIS metadata on hot swappable harddrives and can be delivered through the normal course of resupply that occurs at the forward operatingheadquarters. The hot swappable drives can replace or be added to additional files, be quickly installed intothese units, and be instantly made available to users on the network. The economics of supplying imageryupdates in this manner is likely to be more cost effective than consuming expensive satellite or mobile phonebandwidth and avoids congesting these networks unnecessarily. For mapping applications to work with a Map in a Box configuration, settings for files storage locationsneed to be configurable by the user. In addition, new or upgraded APIs may be required or new Java-basedscripts must be designed. This was prototyped during the Strong Angel III HA/DR demonstration in San Diegoin 2006 and worked very well. The level of computer performance and capabilities are superior today to whatwas available then.  18
  25. 25. Mobile Smart Devices: Situational Awareness for Humanitarian Responders and the GeneralPublic Mobile devices such as tablets and mobile phones are now the primary mode for both collecting andsharing information in a response effort. A January 2011 report published by the Mobile Computing PromotionConsortium of Japan surveyed users of smart phones. Of those who had smart phones, 55 percent used a mapapplication, the third most common application after Web browsing and email. 59 Android and iPhones both support Google Maps while Windows phones use Bing maps. Motorolaoffers the ability to use Google or Microsoft, depending on which operating system is installed on the device.MapBox, a custom map application on the Web, has created an application for Apple’s iPad 2. 60 Sometelecommunications providers prepackage imagery options on these devices with embedded software. Othershave exclusive software add-on contracts that may not offer alternatives to be installed on the device whenoperated on that mobile carrier’s network (figure 3 shows a map application on an iPAD.) The ability to overlayinformation on these mapping applications with any utility varies by manufacturer. For example, some mapapplications on smart phones do not recognize KML layers. In addition, not all wireless phone operatingsystems are compatible with the application foundation platform, such as Google Maps or Google Earth, and infact may only be compliant with a competitor’s proprietary version creating further export challenges. Also,smart phones vary by operating system, software ecosystem, application capabilities, memory capacity, networkspeed and energy consumption. Other variations in mobile phone compatibility are SMS character limits, MMScompatibility and other third-party extensions like GPS location services. Smartphone browser options vary aswell. Some have their own native Web browser, and others use downloadable versions. Not all browsers supportadd-on plug-ins such as Java, 61 Adobe Shockwave, 62 Flash or KML 63 layers (based on Java) or other specializedsoftware apps. To deliver imagery to every platform generates redundant cycles of content delivery, increasing costsand potential delays in publishing critical information. There are no international standards for devices,applications or hardware for HA/DR service delivery and, like public emergency telephone usage, standardsvary around the world. 64 Because of the application limitations, developers have created workarounds for a variety of smartphonedevices by “jail breaking” the devices away from their registered cell service provider. There is significant riskin doing so, including the manufacturer remotely “bricking” the device due to legal software agreements a usersigns at the time of purchase. Bricking a device is a process that completely disables the device from operatingand it is extremely difficult to repair or undue. 65 The Electronic Frontier Foundation claims that it is legal tojailbreak a device and the question is currently before the courts. 66                                                            59 http://www.mcpc-jp.org/english/pdf/20110128_e.pdf60 http://mapbox.com/#/61 http://www.java.com/62 http://www.shockwave.com/63 http://code.google.com/apis/kml/documentation/64 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emergency_telephone_number#Emergency_numbers65 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bricking66 http://www.eff.org/press/archives/2010/07/26  19
  26. 26. In February 2009, Apple filed a patent that enables users to be identified when jailbreaking its devices,including iPhones, iPods, and iPads. 67 Research in Motion’s (RIM’s) Blackberry devices that are capable ofusing the AT&T network to tether have software workarounds that are also under scrutiny. 68 Telecommunications carriers are also monitoring modified smartphones that are operating on theirnetworks. Several carriers have broadcasted to their customers that any modified (jailbroken) smart device willbe disabled if found operating on their network. 69 It is therefore critical that imagery services consider how this information is best served to the widestuser audience possible without creating multiple duplications of layer imagery. An important consideration isbattery consumption in these devices. As device processing power demands increase, the faster the deviceconsumes power, requiring frequent recharging, which in itself is a limited resource. For context, it should be noted that during the Miyagi Earthquake and Tsunami of March 2011,comScore found that 93 percent of all mobile phone users in the impacted region were not smartphone servicecapable. 70 In response, Google created multiple viewing options for the same data. Smartphone manufactures are not aligned to a single source of mapping technology and their operatingsystems do not always offer third party application plug-ins.  The Smartphone Global Market ShareTable 2. Top Five Smartphone Vendors, Shipments, and Market Share During the Fourth Quarter of 2010 (Unitsin Millions) 71 4Q10 Units 4Q10 Market 4Q09 Units 4Q09 Market Year-over-Vendor Shipped Share Shipped Share year GrowthNokia 28.3 28.0% 20.8 38.6% 36.1%Apple 16.2 16.1% 8.7 16.1% 86.2%Research In Motion 14.6 14.5% 10.7 19.9% 36.4%Samsung 9.7 9.6% 1.8 3.3% 438.9%HTC 8.6 8.5% 2.4 4.5% 258.3%Others 23.5 23.3% 9.5 17.6% 147.4%Total 100.9 100.0% 53.9 100.0% 87.2%Table 3. Top Five Smartphone Vendors, Shipments, and Market Share, 2010 (Units in Millions) 72 2010 Units 2010 Market 2009 Units 2009 Market Year-over-yearVendor Shipped Share Shipped Share GrowthNokia 100.3 33.1% 67.7 39.0% 48.2%Research In Motion 48.8 16.1% 34.5 19.9% 41.4%Apple 47.5 15.7% 25.1 14.5% 89.2%                                                            67 http://www.patentvest.com/console/reports/docs/app/20100207721.html68 http://crackberry.com/att-blackberry-bridge-download69 http://www.tipb.com/2011/03/18/att-cracking-jailbroken-mywi-users/70 http://www.comscore.com/jpn/Press_Events/Press_Releases/2011/2/Smartphone_Adoption_Continues_to_Grow_in_Japa n71 Source: IDC Worldwide Quarterly Mobile Phone Tracker, January 27, 2011.72 IDC - http://www.idc.com/about/viewpressrelease.jsp?containerId=prUS22689111  20
  27. 27. Samsung 23 7.6% 5.5 3.2% 318.2%HTC 21.5 7.1% 8.1 4.7% 165.4%Others 61.5 20.3% 32.6 18.8% 88.7%Total 302.6 100.0% 173.5 100.0% 74.4%Smartphones to Smart Tablets Smartphone and smart tablet technology offer advanced capabilities and uses for the HA/DRcommunity. Tablet computing, once thought to be a small consumer market segment, has exploded with thelaunch of Apple’s iPad. 73 The second generation release in 2011 created new market innovations in browsinginformation and computing power. Competitors have launched new products because of Apple’s tablet success.Table 4. 74 Global Shipments of tablet operating systems (os) Shipping Period Q3 ‘10 Q4 ‘10 2010 Apple iOS 4.2 7.3 14.8 Android 0.1 2.1 2.3 Others 0.1 0.3 0.5 Total 4.4 9.7 17.6Table 5. Global Tablet Operating System Marketshare (%) Evaluation Period Q3 ‘10 Q4 ‘10 2010 Apple iOS 95.5% 75.3% 84.1% Android 2.3% 21.6% 13.1% Others 2.3% 3.1% 2.8% Total 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% The three key breakthroughs in tablet developments are battery life, graphics and small form factor A5processors. The device claims to have up to 10 hours of operating capability before recharging is required.Apple’s iPad 2 is available with tri-mode network connectivity. This enhances the users’ ability to connect to avariety of communications networks that include Wi-Fi and third generation (3G) in code division multipleaccess (CDMA) 75 or Global System Mobile (GSM) 76 modes. With the added performance advantage of largesolid-state disk space, large software ecosystem performance is greatly enhanced. Google’s Android opensource software approach expands imagery applications opportunities that may be otherwise confined. Softwaredesigned for Blackberry’s new Playbook will run Android apps and connect with all Wi-Fi standards and nextgeneration wireless long term evolution (LTE) and high-speed packet service (HSPA)+ network protocols. 77                                                            73 http://www.apple.com/ipad/74 Source: Strategy Analytics75 Code division multiple access - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_division_multiple_access http://www.cdg.org/76 Global System for Mobile Communications - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_System_for_Mobile_Communications http://www.gsmworld.com/77 BlackBerry PlayBook with Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n BlackBerry 4G PlayBook with Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n + WiMax BlackBerry 4G PlayBook with Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n + LTE BlackBerry 4G PlayBook with Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n + HSPA+ http://us.blackberry.com/playbook-tablet/?IID=us:bb:homepage_Learn%20more  21
  28. 28. As these devices become part of the social fabric, Global CDMA 78 and GSM smart phones with mapapplications are becoming available 79 and should offer the ability to accept and view layered maps for HA/DRteams in conjunction with post event imagery to solve situational awareness for possible communicationsinfrastructure damage. The acquisition of this technology will initially be adopted by well funded NGOs andpublic safety agencies. It remains to be seen if such technology can cascade to smaller NGOs and governmentpublic safety agencies that have very long IT replacement cycles. Adoption in regions like Africa, SoutheastAsia and South America may use low cost versions by smaller vendors and may not be compatible with name-brand applications and may have limited network connectivity options. Figure 2. iPad with Health Pro software image 80 Figure 3. iPad with Jeppesen map 81                                                            78 http://www.cdg.org/worldwide/index.asp79 http://www.mobileworldlive.com/maps/80 http://www.apple.com/ipad/81 http://www.apple.com/ipad/  22
  29. 29. Figure 4. Blackberry Playbook by RIM 82 The tablet market was once thought to be a specialized market segment used for unique applications andservices. The idea was to use it for logistical applications such as medical and marketing surveys. No longer isthis the case as Apple has proven with the launch of the iPad 2, selling approximately 400,000 units in 26countries within 3 days. 83 RIM’s launch of the Playbook (above) integrates with Android apps, 84 offeringthousands of applications written for Android. RIM’s foray into the tablet market is clear recognition that thesedevices are a large segment of the “Smart” telephony and Internet access market. By offering features similar toApple and Motorola, the device offers rich graphics capability in addition to long battery life with wireless high-speed access including LTE and HSPA+. It is important to note that these devices offer critical advantages oversmaller form factors. Among them are interchangeable keyboard formats for language, large screens for Webapplications (such as Google language translator) and advanced graphics processing enabling the use of satelliteimagery to be viewed in the user’s desired resolution. A key feature is that it can tether via Bluetooth to anexisting Blackberry smartphone to use its network connectivity. If network connectivity survives a disaster,these devices will play an important role in HA/DR responses anywhere services are operational. With advancedcellular on wheels emergency communications platforms available in a variety of configurations, repair timesare reduced (see section V, communications networks.)                                                            82 http://ca.blackberry.com/playbook-tablet/83 http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704027504576198832667732862.html84 https://market.android.com/  23
  30. 30. Figure 5. Motorola Xoom Figure 6. Samsung Galaxy Every major manufacturer now has a tablet model either in the development pipeline or entering service.This includes Motorola (Xoom with Android) 85 selling more than 100,000 units (figure 5), as well as theSamsung Galaxy, which is selling well (figure 6). Verizon is offering CDMA–Wi-Fi/LTE networkconnectivity. 86 Samsung offers the Galaxy 87 tablet available in two different screen sizes and it is also availablewith Wi-Fi/HSPA+ connectivity. LTE and HSPA+ are capable of downloading at speeds of 22 megabits persecond (Mbps.) All claim to have more than 10 hours of battery life when network connectivity is enabled.Other manufactures such as Dell, Hewlett Packard, LG, and Viewsonic have thin-profile devices available in 7inches and larger sizes. The cost of these units ranges from $300 to $950 (U.S.).                                                            85 http://www.motorola.com/Consumers/US-EN/Consumer-Product-and-Services/Tablets/ci.MOTOROLA-XOOM-US- EN.overview86 http://www.motorola.com/Consumers/US-EN/Consumer-Product-and-Services/Tablets/ci.MOTOROLA-XOOM-US- EN.alt87 http://www.samsung.com/global/microsite/galaxytab/  24
  31. 31. V. Communications Networks Communications networks, including satellite, terrestrial wireless, and landline voice/data networklinks, are vital to transmitting all forms of information to decisionmakers for analysis and action. Imagery hasbecome a cornerstone of factual information for disaster response and requires capable communication networksto be shared. The explosive growth in telecommunication technology, networks, and devices has created newapplications within individual and group communities influencing consumer behaviors, business operations, andvolunteerism. These tools are driving network providers to develop faster network access services. Hardwarevendors are following suit with powerful handheld devices that rival regular desktop computers. Data isbecoming accessible to those who need it.Mobile Network Services There are three different technologies that are used for terrestrial-based mobile networks. Terrestrial-based wireless technologies include GSM, CDMA and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS).GSM is used worldwide while CDMA is generally focused in North America, Japan, China, and India. 88 UMTSnetworks are deployed in North America, Japan, Southeast Asia, Europe and Africa. Each has next generationhigh-speed data network capabilities including 3G, fourth generation, HSPA+ 89 and LTE. Over the next severalyears, these technology platforms may be paired down to two competing standards, GSM/EDGE and WideCode Division Multiple Access (W−CDMA)/LTE/UMTS, although this forecast is not certain given theconstantly changing market and nature of the industry. Wireless access technologies are now capable ofdelivering true high-speed broadband service to mobile phone devices; in particular, smartphone hardware isequipped with next generation chipsets. Ten years ago, the average mobile user connected at 14,400 to 28,800Kb per second. Today, smartphones can connect at speeds exceeding 20 Mbps with higher speeds becomingavailable within the next 3 years.Global System Mobile (GSM) The most popular mobile network solution used worldwide is the GSM technology platform with afollow on system called EDGE (Enhanced Data GSM Evolution). The technology is continually evolving asshown in figure 7. GSM uses time division multiple access limiting its maximum range to approximately 35kilometers from a tower, assuming ideal conditions are available. 90 It is possible to extend the range up to 120kilometers. 91                                                            88 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_mobile_network_operators89 High Speed Packet Service - http://www.gsacom.com/news/gsa_319.php490 http://www.allbusiness.com/electronics/computer-electronics-manufacturing/6838169-1.html91 http://www.allbusiness.com/electronics/computer-electronics-manufacturing/6838169-1.html  25
  32. 32. Figure 7. GSM and UMTS Product Roadmap Illustrating Data Download Speeds 92 (data from the 3rd Generation Partnership Project – 3 GPP)Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) The range of a mobile network depends on the frequencies used. In 2008, more than 180 CDMA mobilecarriers announced network upgrades to W-CDMA. 93 Backwards compatibility will be maintained for theforeseeable future. In 2010, the evolution continued with the addition of LTE. Overall CDMA will continue tobe supported for years to come. However, as devices migrate to next generation standards, use of generic first-generation CDMA will be gradually discontinued. This will allow for more efficient use of the wireless carrierspectrum, which currently uses it.Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) UMTS is primarily used in Europe. One of the drawbacks first generation UMTS/EDGE handsetscurrently experience is higher power consumption levels when compared to GSM or CDMA service. Thesedevices are still in wide use and production today. W−CDMA and UMTS can be interoperable, roamingbetween different mobile network operator customers if the handset is a dual mode model. Handsetmanufactures offer dual, tri-mode, and quad-mode phones.                                                            92 http://www.gsacom.com/news/statistics.php493 http://www.cellular-news.com/story/34083.php  26
  33. 33. Wide Code Division Multiple Access (W−CDMA) Japan’s largest mobile network is based on W−CDMA technology and has essentially the same structureas UMTS. Figure 8. Comparison of Bandwidth Speeds 94 Figure 8 shows the time needed to download different kinds of popular applications (songs, albums,DVD movies, HD Movies) under different communication technologies. Actual times vary based on thewireless carriers infrastructure backbone, tower capacity and investments made in the network architecture.                                                            94 http://www.gsacom.com/news/statistics.php4  27
  34. 34. Figure 9. Coverage Map 3G Illustrating W−CDMA and UMTS Coverage with HSPA Availability 95Wireless Resiliency In the 2004 Banda Aceh 9.3 earthquake and tsunami that killed 250,000 people, 60 percent of all mobiletowers in the region were destroyed leaving no CDMA mobile data and only partial GSM capacity (althoughSMS texting using analog transmission was still able to get through.) Repairs took more than a year tocomplete. 96 In some areas, 80 to 90 percent of all landlines were damaged or destroyed. 97Cellular on Wheels Mobile wireless telecommunications carriers now provide mobile cellular tower systems that can bebrought to a site to augment or replace damaged communications infrastructure and have it operating in severalhours, depending on environmental conditions. The January 2010 7.0 Haitian earthquake killed more than 200,000 people and took a terrible toll oninfrastructure. Only three cellular base stations survived. 98 However, within 6 months the system was fullyoperational to pre-quake service levels. The September 2010 7.1 Christchurch earthquake took down 24 cell                                                            95 http://www.gsacom.com/news/statistics.php496 http://www.kuna.net.kw/ArticleDetails.aspx?language=en&id=150069397 http://www.kuna.net.kw/ArticleDetails.aspx?language=en&id=1500693 - Author liaison with PT Telkom counterpart while employed with Bell Canada 2004.98 http://www.digicelgroup.com/en/media-center/press-releases/achievements/digicel-update-on-situation-in-haiti  28

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