Gordon Clark 2011

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  • connects well with Richard Lowe’s emphasis on the composition processes
  • Richard Lowe’s focus on scaffolding composition
  • with Cohen’s d = 0.1541 and 0.344, respectively.
  • connects well with Richard Lowe’s emphasis on the composition processes
  • Torque marble blastMolecular workbench marble blast but move to wallsUnity marble blast kept walls because collisions were considered interesting part of game play and useful learningFlash / gravitee
  • avoid twitch and support strategy -- no tight mazes -- more conceptual -- this wan’tengouh -- prediciton and explanaiton came out as suggestions from science ed but journal seems not gamelike -- now we are doing pred in navigationa and exp in game dialog
  • challenges as players import game templates and expectations [impulse engine hard long key presses]
  • Cutscenes, Static Fuzzies, Scores and Medals -- people blew right past, got low scores and continuedgate at end people very frustrated no progress wo mastery but much frustrationgate at each point people saw connection but issuesgate at each point and Orange Just-in-Time help
  • Exploding no stabilize -- people careening madly much frustration and despairunlimited stabilize -- no frustration, no learning, and no sense of cheatinglimited stabilize –  
  • Initialassumption was that medals and score would allow advanced players to engage in challenge. Many didn’t care about medal or score though in particular and 1st plan had fixed path and medals to encourage replay and challenge for more advanced playwanted to see how fast they could get to the end. They then went back and created their own challenges. such as how fast could they travel. Because we were still in the marble blast template, though players needed to floow the same path. Current plan a few simple goals that everyone must complete with multiple opportunities for bonus goals. Open path. Also working to take CAT and HMM tech to adjust difficulty based on previous medals -- if you have all golds, getting another will be harder.
  • Initialassumption was that medals and score would allow advanced players to engage in challenge. Many didn’t care about medal or score though in particular and 1st plan had fixed path and medals to encourage replay and challenge for more advanced playwanted to see how fast they could get to the end. They then went back and created their own challenges. such as how fast could they travel. Because we were still in the marble blast template, though players needed to floow the same path. Current plan a few simple goals that everyone must complete with multiple opportunities for bonus goals. Open path. Also working to take CAT and HMM tech to adjust difficulty based on previous medals -- if you have all golds, getting another will be harder.
  • WISE = HUB
  • America’s Lab Report

Transcript

  • 1. Clark, D. B., Nelson, B., Slack, K., Martinez-Garza, M., & D’Angelo, C. M. (2011). Games and sims bridging intuitive and formal understandings of physics. Talk commissioned by the Gordon Research Conference on Visualization, Smithfield, Rhode Island.
  • 2. SURGE
    games and simsbridging intuitive and formal understandings of physics
    Douglas Clark, Brian Nelson, Kent Slack, Mario Martinez-Garza, & Cynthia D’Angelo
  • 3. digital simulations?
    computational models of real or hypothesized situations or phenomena that allow users to explore the implications of manipulating or modifying parameters within the models
  • 4. digital games?
    definitions of games focus on rules, choices, play, and systems for tracking progress or success
    digital games involve:
    digital models that allow users to make interesting choices with meaningful implications
    an overarching set of explicit goals with accompanying systems for measuring progress
    subjective opportunities for play and engagement
  • 5.
  • 6. digital simulations
    digital games
    virtual worlds
  • 7. Games ≠ GoodGames ≠ Bad
    Ga
    are games good = bad question
  • 8. just like… Labs ≠ GoodLabs ≠ Bad
    Ga
    just like…
    are labs good = bad question
    (or lectures, novels, movies, etc.)
    (NRC, 2005)
  • 9. Games ≠ GoodGames ≠ Bad
    Ga
    games = medium with specific affordances and constraints (just like books, simulations, labs, movies, and lectures)
  • 10. Games ≠ GoodGames ≠ Bad
    Ga
    better question:
    which designs and structures optimize which outcomes for whom and how?
  • 11. digital games are to simulations as feature films are to animations
  • 12. good digital games help people construct productive mental models for operating on the underlying simulations
  • 13. affordances
    good digital games can provide:
    engagement / approachable entry
    context / identification
    point of view / pathway
    stakes / investment
    monitoring / feedback / pacing / gatekeeping
  • 14.
  • 15. competition between learning goals and game design goals (e.g., visual complexity, competing mechanics, surface vs. core features)
    Learning Goals
    Tech
    Game Design
  • 16. “game” = the software
    “Game” = community, practices, artifacts, and interactions around the game
    (Gee, 2007)
  • 17. "conceptually-embedded" games = science processes embedded within the game world
    "conceptually-integrated" games = science concepts integrated directly into core mechanics of game environment
    (Clark & Martinez-Garza, in press)
  • 18. Vygotsky’s “spontaneous” and “scientific” concepts
    different ways of knowing physics
    can be used to bootstrap one another
  • 19. What design principles for digital games will support the development of intuitive understanding (“spontaneous” concepts”) and help bridge these concepts with instructed “scientific” concepts?
  • 20. do students learn?is learning skewed by prior experience or gender?
  • 21. students made progress on challenging items based on the FCI(but effect sizes and power modest)
    (Learning and Affective Outcomes discussed in Clark, Nelson, Chang, Martinez-Garza, Slack, & D’Angelo, in press)
  • 22. similarities across countries and genders in terms of gaming habits and attitudes about SURGE
  • 23. equitable outcomes
    boys replay levels somewhat more frequently.
    no significant gender differences in learning outcomes
    learning outcomes not correlated with reported gaming habits.
    similarities between countries in affective and learning outcomes.
  • 24. visualizing gameplay data
    commercial game design knows the value of gameplay data
    frequency of death by location in cp_dustbowl(Team Fortress 2)
  • 25. Heat map of player locations every 5 seconds(Halo 3)
  • 26. our initial efforts
    100,710,attemptcommand
    100,710,tick,-46.61,24.40,.00,.00,1.00
    100,710,tick,-46.61,24.40,.00,.00,2.00
    100,710,tick,-46.61,24.40,.00,.00,3.00
    100,710,tick,-46.61,24.40,.00,.00,4.00
    100,710,tick,-46.61,24.40,.00,.00,5.00
    100,710,impulse,-46.61,24.40,0,3,5.08
    100,710,tick,-43.82,24.40,3.00,.00,6.00
    100,710,tick,-40.82,24.40,3.00,.00,7.00
    100,710,tick,-37.82,24.40,3.00,.00,8.00
    100,710,tick,-34.82,24.40,3.00,.00,9.00
    100,710,impulse,-32.90,24.40,270,3,9.65
    100,710,tick,-31.82,23.32,3.00,-3.00,10.00
    100,710,tick,-28.82,20.32,3.00,-3.00,11.00
    100,710,impulse,-26.09,17.59,180,3,11.92
    100,710,tick,-26.09,17.32,.00,-3.00,12.00
    100,710,tick,-26.09,14.32,.00,-3.00,13.00
    100,710,tick,-26.09,11.32,.00,-3.00,14.00
    100,710,tick,-26.09,8.32,.00,-3.00,15.00
    100,710,tick,-26.09,5.32,.00,-3.00,16.00
    100,710,tick,-26.09,2.32,.00,-3.00,17.00
    100,710,tick,-26.09,-.68,.00,-3.00,18.00
    100,710,tick,-26.09,-3.68,.00,-3.00,19.00
    100,710,tick,-26.09,-6.68,.00,-3.00,20.00
    100,710,tick,-26.09,-9.68,.00,-3.00,21.00
    100,710,impulse,-26.09,-11.93,0,3,21.76
    100,710,tick,-25.34,-12.68,3.00,-3.00,22.00
    100,710,impulse,-23.60,-14.42,0,3,22.59
    100,710,tick,-21.08,-15.68,6.00,-3.00,23.00
    100,710,impulse,-20.60,-15.92,0,3,23.09
    100,710,collision,-15.74,-17.48,0,0,23.62
    100,710,impulse,-15.38,-17.36,90,3,23.67
    100,710,tick,-12.32,-15.32,9.00,6.00,24.00
    100,710,impulse,-9.17,-13.22,0,3,24.36
    100,710,collision,-5.57,-11.54,0,0,24.65
    100,710,tick,-1.37,-13.64,12.00,-6.00,25.00
    100,710,collision,6.55,-17.48,0,0,25.66
    100,710,tick,10.63,-15.44,12.00,6.00,26.00
    100,710,collision,18.67,-11.54,0,0,26.67
    100,710,tick,22.63,-13.52,12.00,-6.00,27.00
    100,710,impulse,23.59,-14.00,90,3,27.09
    100,710,collision,28.99,-15.41,0,0,27.55
    100,710,tick,23.59,-16.76,-12.00,-3.00,28.00
    100,710,impulse,22.15,-17.12,90,3,28.13
    100,710,impulse,16.87,-17.12,0,3,28.57
    100,710,tick,12.91,-17.12,-9.00,.00,29.00
    100,710,impulse,11.38,-17.12,0,3,29.17
    100,710,impulse,9.46,-17.12,0,3,29.50
    100,710,impulse,8.74,-17.12,0,3,29.74
    100,710,tick,8.74,-17.12,.00,.00,30.00
    100,710,impulse,8.74,-17.12,0,3,30.19
    (etc)
    Ploticusgraphing package
    (game play data analysis discussed in Martinez-Garza, Clark, Nelson, Slack, & D’Angelo, submitted)
  • 27. visualization of one student’s path through m1-1
  • 28.
  • 29. UULU
    UUU
    UULU
    UULU
    LLU
    LUU

    “augmented” screenshot of SURGE gameplay
  • 30. sequential pattern analysis
    UULU
    UULU
    UUU
    UUU
    UULU
    UULU
    UULU
    UULU
    LLU
    LLU
    LUU
    LUU
  • 31. hidden markov modeling
    Z3 + Z1 – Z2 = learning
  • 32. what next?
    how can we provide players with access to these visualizations of their gameplay data to scaffold learning?
    what types of visualizations would be diagnostically useful for teachers?
  • 33. SURGE design
    Learning Goals
    engagement / approachable entry
    context / identification
    point of view / pathway
    stakes / investment
    monitoring / feedback / pacing / gatekeeping
    Tech
    Game Design
  • 34. flexibly explore designs to integrate game, learning, and architecture goals
  • 35. players need to learn and use physics principles and representations to succeed in the game
    subsequent levels aggregate concepts and representations
  • 36. embed game in a storyline with broad appeal
  • 37. support articulation of intuitive and formal ideas
    prediction through navigation interface
    planned
    real-time
    explanation through dialog
    standard game dialog text selection
    iconic of sentence fragment construction
  • 38. integrate popular gameplay mechanics with formal physics representations and concepts
  • 39. protecting novice players from frustration cannot allow progress without mastery
  • 40. protecting novice players from frustration cannot allow progress without mastery
  • 41. focus on “just-in-time” feedback and signaling
    (Cuing and Visual Signaling work discussed in Slack, Nelson, Clark, Martinez-Garza, & D’Angelo, in preparation)
  • 42. support broad challenge curve
    Engaged
    Dejected
    Bored
    keep people from falling off with “just in time” support
    minimize costs of failureand experimentation
    encourage improved performance through non-game mechanic influencing incentives
    game increases difficulty correlated to performance
    multiple paths or solutions of varying difficulty and reward
  • 43.
  • 44.
  • 45. Part III:our next tech plan could be yours, too
  • 46. pragmatic tech constraints
    schools
    bandwidth
    processing power
    administrative privileges for installation
    firewalls
    development bottlenecks
    multiple programmers simultaneously
    non-programmers design and revise
  • 47. editor for level set-up strings
  • 48. WISE 4 = hub
  • 49. easy to add tools and activities
  • 50. no programming required
  • 51. lots of step types already
  • 52. teacher management tools including grading
  • 53. teachers can pause the class computers
  • 54. status updates and alerts for teachers
  • 55. plan
    STUDENT PORTAL
    TEACHER /
    RESEARCHER PORTAL
    XML
    CATALOG FILE
    SURGE FLASH PLAYER
    WISE
    ENVIRONMENT
    XML
    DATA FILE
    XML
    DATA FILE
    XML
    DATA FILE
    XML
    DATA FILE
    XML
    DATA FILE
    XML
    DATA FILE
    schools
    bandwidth < 200 kb player & small xml files
    processing power simple flash
    administrative privileges for installation none
    Firewalls port 80
    development bottlenecks
    multiple programmers simultaneously yes
    non-programmers design and revise yes
    WISE DATABASE
  • 56. thank you!doug.clark@vanderbilt.eduwise4.berkeley.edu