• Early 1960s by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) • Major research project authorized as a part of national security • Explored ways to connect large mainframe computers and weapons installations distributed all over the world • Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)charged with the task
A Brief History of Networks
Open Architecture Philosophy Four Key Points: • Independent networks should not require any internal changes to be connected to the Internet • Packets that do not arrive at their destinations must be retransmitted from their source network • The router computers do not retain information about the packets they handle • No global control will exist over the network
Provides New Methods of Communication – E-mail – Online discussions – Instant messaging – Video conferencing Software and Information Resources – eBooks, newspapers, magazines, ejournals – Government documents – Online encyclopedias – Software download sites – Blogs, wikis, vlogs(video blogs)
Networks in Education
• Computer Based Information System – Collection of hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that work together to produce quality information • Information systems provide opportunities to improve student learning by providing alternate ways for learners to use technology in learning environments • Information systems enhance management capabilities of teachers as well as school administrators • Implementing student management systems allow parents to view their child's report card online, to observe classroom behavior over streaming videos and to go online to access their child's lesson plan and or their homework assignments • Applications of computer based information systems are popular in schools and in the home environment • Computer based information system have implications for student learning, classroom teaching, school administration as well as parental involvement.
Networks in Education
• Most classrooms today have teachers and students using computers and software to assist with teaching and learning • Computer information systems enhance classroom learning • Grades are input online to expedite access – Students and parents have ready access to assessment data – Allows transparency of assessment and grading
Classroom Information Systems
• Huge advantages to using a computer information system (CIS) – Automates tasks for teachers and administrators allowing them to spend time on other important tasks (such as developing innovative and engaging lessons) – CIS helps by saving data that is collected and then stores it in one centralized place. • Allows ubiquitous access to data for all approved users (administrators as well as state monitors) • Allows for analysis of longitudinal data for comparisons with other past or future data –also for research purposes • This data can be queried for various reports. • CIS provides access to students grades for parents and students to view and analyze. Promotes student, parent and teacher accountability. • An issue with using CIS for this purpose – May cause frustration for educators that are not computer literate – New software requires intense professional development, access to just-in-time support and oversight • But essentially, computer information systems are a tremendous tool for classrooms – Allow teaching and learning to be endless, engaging, relevant and accountable
Why Information Systems?
• Students do not learn the same way as students did from the 20th century. – Technology is a major part of their lives – Using technology in the classroom creates enthusiasm, better learning outcomes, and sustains interest in all subject areas • Information systems used in schools – Enhance learning with dynamic educational software developments ranging from games to virtual field trips. – According to studies, educational software designers have developed games that improve student motivation, promote constructivist and collaborative learning, and improve academic learning.(Computers & Education, v52 n1 p68-77 Jan 2009) – A sophisticated development involving the science of ecology and underwater marine life using computer animation and virtual technology was investigated. A qualitative study was also conducted during the case study showing that virtual museums could raise students' interest and learning motivation.(Journal of Educational Technology Systems, v37 n1 p39-59 2008-2009)
Do Students Benefit from IS?
• Online courses – Web-enhanced courses in conjunction with traditional classes – blended learning model – Use learning management systems, like Blackboard or Moodle, to deliver the course materials to the students • Regular uses of technology in the classroom – Students using computers for researching projects, various computer software applications for remediation and enrichment, demonstrations, project creation, communication and collaboration, etc. – Students learn in different ways today – Teachers must learn how to empower learners with the use of the vast information systems available.
What is an SIS?
• A student information system – Portal for student, parent, and teacher communication. – Most SIS allow teachers to enter attendance, grades, and homework assignments directly into the system from their a web-based interface. – Data easily accessed by parents and students from any web browser – Excellent tool for the parents to be informed about students’ learning progress, attendance or any fees/fines owed. – As a management system • All information in one easily accessible location and instantly available
Combining the SIS and a Network
Collaborating With Information Systems • IS can be used for students to collaborate with each other and with teachers. – Students collaborate on projects and assignments – Students reflect on work competed or peer edit – Communicate with peers and teachers – Collaboration is important to prepare students for the world of work. • IS can be used for educators to collaborate – Teacher collaboration on lesson plans, best practices, assessment strategies, professional development activities – Educators share knowledge and promote collaboration. – Potential to strengthen education by sharing experiences and expertise.
What is an SRS?
Student Response System • What is a SRS/Classroom Response System and how does this work? – Teacher present series of questions using an overhead or an LCD projector/interactive white board, to students. – Student s submit answers using handheld device or "clicker" – Teacher has software on computer that analyzes data and shows the students response. – Teacher decides direction for classroom instruction based on student response and data – Some teachers discuss answers as a whole group or break up into smaller groups to discuss the answers. – Data helps teachers know what areas to reteachor remediate
Learning Management Systems
Planning -A realistic view of your exceptions • Designing an information system – Goals and Considerations • Helps to know who your designing your system for • What the system must do • How large the system will be • What information the system will provide for tracking and data purposes • What type of equipment is needed to operate the system • System capacity to access, store, and back-up data • Making the system available • Technical support
Our district technology plan should focus on integrating technology into the teaching and learning process to transform the way teachers teach and students learn. • At the very least, the technology plan should be embedded in or supplement the district’s comprehensive school improvement plan. • A planning committee is critical to the success of any technology plan. The committee should include expertise in planning, building a vision, needs assessment, curriculum and instruction, evaluation, goal setting, professional development, technology hardware, support and integration, media/marketing, and financial planning.
Things to Consider
• Teachers must have a reason to use the technology. • It is important to promote teacher-development of projects or plans where teachers can apply technology to meet particular instructional and student needs identified within such projects or plans. • Curricula must drive technology; technology should not dictate curricula. • Investigate what other schools have done, both successes and failures. • Seeing a system in use makes it easier to envision in your own district/school, and you can learn from the mistakes of others. • Don't accept materials or hardware that does not fit with the curriculum and technology plans. • Haphazard acquisitions or computers here and there will not bring the district/school up-to-date technologically. • Technology involves interfacing with other classrooms, libraries and networks.
Things to Consider
• Training teachers is critical and ongoing. • Set aside time and money for formal training classes as well as opportunities for teachers to collaborate and communicate with their colleagues concerning best practices and strategies. • Training should account for at least one third of the budget allocated for an educational technology program or initiative. • Technology planning is never-ending; it is a continuous improvement process. • A technology plan cannot be developed and the technology committee then disbanded. • As the plan is implemented, as technology changes, as the district/school grows and evolves, the plan must change. • The technology plan must include maintenance, trouble-shooting and network management.
Things to Consider
• Acquiring technology is not a matter of plugging in a computer or building a network. It will affect all aspects of the district/school culture, from architecture to interpersonal relations. • Include and consider the “big picture” in your plan and training program. • Technology requires community support and involvement. • Money, in-kind services, and training must come from all parts of the community, from various funding sources and will cross traditional boundaries. • Administrative support and involvement is critical to the successful integration of technology. • Studies constantly show that the commitment and interest of the principal is the most critical factor for successful implementation of any school innovation-especially technology.
Things to Consider
• Consider these components in the plan – Student Learning (includes technology skills) – Teacher Preparation and Delivery of Instruction – Administration/Data Management/ Communication Processes – Resource Distribution and Use – Technical Support • These areas should be interwoven throughout the plan