Practical MS SQL Introduction

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Practical MS SQL Introduction

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  • The flat-file style of database are ideal for small amounts of data that needs to be human readable or edited by hand…The typical flat-file database is split up using a common delimiter. http://websiteowner.info/articles/cgi/databasetypes.aspThe relational databases such as MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server and Oracle, have a much more logical structure in the way that it stores data. Tables can be used to represent real world objects, with each field acting like an attribute. For example, a table called books could have the columns title, author and ISBN, which describe the details of each book where each row in the table is a new book.A data file that is not related to or does not contain any linkages to another file. It is generally used for stand-alone lists. When files must be related (customers to orders, vendors to purchases, etc.), a relational database manager is used, not a flat file manager. Flat files can be related, but only if the applications are programmed to do so. http://www.answers.com/topic/flat-fileLike a flat file, an XML file can contain many different types of data. There are many possible ways to represent the information in a flat file using XML. For example, each field and each record could be an XML element. One advantage of using XML would be that each field is named. A disadvantage is that the file would be larger. A file containing XML is not generally called a flat file, even though it satisfies the definition. It usually is called an XML file.
  • Relational databases do not link records together physically, but the design of the records must provide a common field, such as account number, to allow for matching. Often, the fields used for matching are indexed in order to speed up the process. http://www.answers.com/topic/dbms-technologyData SecurityData IntegrityInteractive Query
  • Database integrity ensures that data entered into the database is accurate, valid, and consistent. Any applicable integrity constraints and data validation rules must be satisfied before permitting a change to the database.
  • tables, indexes, views, defaults, triggers, rules constraints and procedures
  • Balanced Tree
  • 8-KB (Page) - 96-byte (Header) = 8096 BytesIndex = 4-Bytes => 8096/4 = 2024
  • A heap is a table without a clustered index.
  • http://www.scribd.com/doc/7502188/Sample-SQL-Server
  • Each database consists of at least two files: one is a primary datafile (by default, with the .mdf extension), the other is log file(by default, with the .ldf extension).
  • RAID 0 (striped disks) distributes data across several disks in a way that gives improved speed and full capacity, but all data on all disks will be lost if any one disk fails. RAID 5 (striped disks with parity) combines three or more disks in a way that protects data against loss of any one disk; the storage capacity of the array is reduced by one disk.
  • How do I recover data from SQL Server's log files?There are several tools available for reviewing SQL Server log files, and restoring data that was accidentally lost or corrupted, say, after your last backup. Three such products are:      Apex SQL Log      Log Explorer      SQL Log Rescue http://sqlserver2000.databases.aspfaq.com/how-do-i-recover-data-from-sql-server-s-log-files.html
  • Tip: Place log on separate drive for performanceIf the log contains multiple physical log files, the logical log will move through all the physical log files before it wraps back to the start of the first physical log file. http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms179355(SQL.90).aspxhttp://jmkehayias.blogspot.com/2008/11/database-transaction-log-part-2-how.htmlDBCC LOGINFO -- Database Consistency Checker (DBCC)
  • http://www.onlamp.com/pub/a/onlamp/2001/03/20/aboutSQL.html?page=2
  • The database community has developed a series of guidelines for ensuring that databases are normalized. These are referred to as normal forms and are numbered from one (the lowest form of normalization, referred to as first normal form or 1NF) through five (fifth normal form or 5NF). In practical applications, you'll often see 1NF, 2NF, and 3NF along with the occasional 4NF. Fifth normal form is very rarely seen and won't be discussed in this article. http://databases.about.com/od/specificproducts/a/normalization.htm
  • The database community has developed a series of guidelines for ensuring that databases are normalized. These are referred to as normal forms and are numbered from one (the lowest form of normalization, referred to as first normal form or 1NF) through five (fifth normal form or 5NF). In practical applications, you'll often see 1NF, 2NF, and 3NF along with the occasional 4NF. Fifth normal form is very rarely seen and won't be discussed in this article. http://databases.about.com/od/specificproducts/a/normalization.htm
  • Next we test each table for partial dependencies on a concatenated key. This means that for a table that has a concatenated primary key, each column in the table that is not part of the primary key must depend upon the entire concatenated key for its existence. If any column only depends upon one part of the concatenated key, then we say that the entire table has failed Second Normal Form and we must create another table to rectify the failure. http://www.phlonx.com/resources/nf3/#intro
  • At last, we return to the problem of the repeating Department information. As our database now stands, if an employee works in more than one project then we have to input all of that employee's departmentinformation again. This is because there are columns in the Employees table that rely on "non-key attributes".
  • In 1986, ANSI approved a rudimentary version of SQL as the official standard, but most versions of SQL since then have included many extensions to the ANSI standard. In 1991, ANSI updated the standard. The new standard is known as SAG SQL. http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/S/SQL.htmlAmerican National Standards Institute. This organization is responsible for approving US standards in many areas, including computers and communications. Standards approved by this organization are often called ANSI standards (eg, ANSI C is the version of the C language approved by ANSI). www.incredible.co.za/services/glossary/glossary.asp
  • SELECT <columnlist>FROM <tablename>* = All Columns
  • SELECTOrd.OrderID,Ord.OrderDate,(SELECTMAX(OrdDet.UnitPrice)FROM Northwind.dbo.[Order Details] ASOrdDetWHEREOrd.OrderID=OrdDet.OrderID)ASMaxUnitPriceFROMNorthwind.dbo.OrdersASOrdA subquery is a SELECT query that returns a single value and is nested inside a SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement, or inside another subquery. A subquery can be used anywhere an expression is allowed.
  • Round, Ceiling, Floor, … Mathematical Functions
  • BETWEEN Between an inclusive range LIKE Search for a pattern % _ [^]IN If you know the exact value you want to return for at least one of the columns select * from orders where CustomerID like '[^vtbsp]%'select * from Orders WHERE OrderDate BETWEEN '1996-08-01' AND '1996-09-02'
  • At times you may need to join two or more tables to retrieve the information you need from your database.
  • (kär-tzhn)
  • Including the customers with 0 orders
  • SELECT CompanyName, ContactName, Phone, CountryFROM CustomersWHERE (Country = @CountryName)
  • http://www.answers.com/topic/object-relational-mappinghttp://mattfleming.com/node/192http://www.mssqlcity.com/Articles/General/sql2000_locking.htmhttp://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms190440.aspx (log)http://www.mssqlcity.com/Articles/Tuning/FileOptimTips.htm
  • http://www.answers.com/topic/object-relational-mappinghttp://databases.about.com/od/specificproducts/a/keys.htmhttp://www.gre-sqlserver-solutions.com/Memory.html
  • Practical MS SQL Introduction

    1. 1. www.formatech.com.lb Microsoft SQL Server Design, Performance and Reporting Version 1.4 - 08 . By Naji El Kotob. Certified Trainer Information Technology Consultant _______________________________ naji@dotnetheroes.com
    2. 2.  Database ◦ Definitions and Fundamentals ◦ Relational Database Objects ◦ B-Tree Microsoft SQL Server ◦ Design and Architecture Database Design ◦ Relationships ◦ Database Normalization SQL – Structured Query Language ◦ DML ◦ JOINS  Inner, Outer, Full, Cross and self Optimization and Performance Tips Microsoft SQL Server Development Tools ◦ Business Intelligence Development Studio Resources and ReferencesOutlines By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    3. 3. Definitions and Fundamentals By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    4. 4.  An organized collection of data.Database? By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    5. 5.  DEMO ◦ [Real Case Studies]Database? By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    6. 6.  There are two main types of database; flat-file and relational.Database Types By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    7. 7. RDBMS? By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    8. 8.  The "relation" comes from the fact that the tables can be linked to each other.Relational By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    9. 9.  DBMS is the software that controls the organization, storage, retrieval, security and integrity of data in a database.DBMS [Database Management System] By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    10. 10.  A type of database management system (DBMS) that stores data in the form of related tables. Source: http://www.webopedia.comRDBMS By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    11. 11.  One major advantage of the relational model is that, if a database is designed efficiently, there should be NO duplication of any data; helping to maintain database integrity. Customers OrdersRelational Model By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    12. 12. Relational Database Objects By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    13. 13.  Database objects are tables, indexes, views, triggers, procedures…Database Objects By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    14. 14.  Tables are the basic component of a relational database (RDB). It has a number of rows and columns, similar to a spreadsheet.Database Tables By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    15. 15.  A database index is a data structure that improves the speed of operations in a table. Indexes can be created using one or more columns, providing the basis for both rapid random lookups and efficient ordering of access to records.Database Index By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    16. 16. Database Index: DEMO By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    17. 17. B-Tree? By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    18. 18. Image source: http://20bits.com/articles/interview-questions-database-indexes/ A B-tree consists of a root node that contains a single page of data, zero or more intermediate levelsWhat is a b-tree? containing additional pages, and a leaf level. By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    19. 19. Clustered indexImage source: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms177443.aspx By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    20. 20. Non-clustered indexImage source: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms177484.aspx By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    21. 21. B-Tree: DEMO By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    22. 22. QnA? By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    23. 23. Microsoft SQL Server By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    24. 24. Image source: http://www.vovisoft.com/SQLServer2000/images/DatabaseStorageAllocation.gif (Nov. 2008)MSSQL: Design and Architecture By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    25. 25. Primary Filegroup Data Log .mdf .ldfMSSQL: Design and Architecture By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    26. 26. Primary Filegroup Data .mdf New Filegroup Data Log Data .ndf .ldf .ndfMSSQL: Design and Architecture (Cont’d) By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    27. 27.  SQL Server uses a write-ahead log (WAL), which guarantees that no data modifications are written to disk before the associated log record is written to disk. ◦ Source: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms186259(SQL.90).aspxLog Files: WAL By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    28. 28. 1 Data modification is sent by application Modification is recorded 3 in transaction log on disk Buffer Cache Disk Disk Data pages are located in, 2 or read into, buffer cache and modified Checkpoint writes 4 committed transactions to databaseLog Files: Transaction LoggingImage source: http://www.vovisoft.com/SQLServer2000/images/HowTransactionLogWorks.gif (Nov. 2008) By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    29. 29. Database Design By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    30. 30. Relationships By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    31. 31.  Unique Key: ◦ It creates non-clustered index by default ◦ It allows only one null value ◦ Multiple Key(s) per table Primary Key: ◦ It creates clustered index by default ◦ It doesnt allow nulls ◦ One key per table Foreign Key ◦ A key used in one table to represent the value of a primary key in a related table. While primary keys must contain unique values, foreign keys may have duplicates.Tables: Keys By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    32. 32. Tables Keys: DEMO By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    33. 33.  One record in Table-1 has one and only one matching record in Table-2.Relationships: One-to-One By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    34. 34.  One record in Table-1 can have multiple matching records in Tabl-2, but only one in Table-1.Relationships: One-to-Many By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    35. 35.  Each record in Table-1 and Table-2 can have multiple matching records in either table.Relationships: Many-to-Many By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    36. 36. Relationships: DEMO By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    37. 37. Normalization By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    38. 38.  Normalization is the process of efficiently organizing data in a database. ◦ Eliminating redundant data (e.g. storing the same data in more than one table) ◦ Ensuring data dependencies make sense (only storing related data in a table).What is Normalization? By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    39. 39. Project Project Employee Employee DepartmentID Name ID Name123 Payroll 5 Naji IT 8 Dani Finance134 CRM 7 Sandra IT 5 Naji Marketing 2 Nada HR Repeating groups of similar dataZERO Normal Form By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    40. 40. Project Project Employee Employee DepartmenID Name ID Name t123 Payroll 5 Naji IT 8 Dani Finance134 CRM 7 Sandra IT 5 Naji Marketing 2 Nada HRNF1: Project Project Employee Employee DepartmeA row of data cannot ID Name ID Name ntcontain repeating 123 Payroll 5 Naji ITgroups of similar data(atomicity) 123 Payroll 8 Dani Finance 134 CRM 7 Sandra ITEach row of data musthave a unique identifier 134 CRM 5 Naji IT(or Primary Key). 134 CRM 2 Nada HRFirst Normal Form By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    41. 41. Project Project Employee Employee DepartmentID Name ID Name123 Payroll 5 Naji IT123 Payroll 8 Dani Finance134 CRM 7 Sandra IT134 CRM 5 Naji IT134 CRM 2 Nada HRNF2: Project ProjectNo Partial ID NameDependencies on a 123 Payroll Employee Employee DepartmentConcatenated Key 134 CRM ID Name 5 Naji IT 8 Dani Finance 7 Sandra IT 2 Nada HRSecond Normal Form By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    42. 42. Project Project Employee Employee Department Department column:ID Name ID Name Rely on non-key attributes123 Payroll 5 Naji IT Can it exist independent134 CRM 8 Dani Finance of the Employee ID column? 7 Sandra IT 2 Nada HRProject ProjectID Name Employee Employee123 Payroll ID Name134 CRM 5 Naji 8 DaniNF3: 7 Sandra Department DepartmentIt contains no transitive ID Name 2 Nadadependencies 1 IT(No Dependencies onNon-Key Attributes). 2 Finance 3 HRThird Normal Form By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    43. 43. Normalization: DEMO By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    44. 44. QnA? By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    45. 45. SQL (Structured Query Language) By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    46. 46.  SQL is a standardized query language for accessing/manipulating data and schema in relational database management systems, such as Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle, etc. SQL Data/FeedbackSQL (Structured Query Language) By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    47. 47. SQL: Select Statement By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    48. 48. Northwind SampleDatabaseSELECT * FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLESWHERE TABLE_TYPE = BASE TABLE‘CustomersShippersSuppliersOrdersProductsOrder DetailsCustomerCustomerDemoCustomerDemographicsRegionTerritoriesEmployeeTerritoriessysdiagramsEmployeesCategories Source: http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?Fam ilyID=06616212-0356-46A0-8DA2- EEBC53A68034&displaylang=en By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    49. 49.  The SQL SELECT statement is the SQL command that retrieves data from an SQL database. This operation is also known as a query and is the key to the use of SQL for analysis and reporting.SQL: Select Statement By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    50. 50. Let’s experience it ;)SQL: Select Statement By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    51. 51. SELECT * FROM CustomersSQL: Select Statement By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    52. 52. SELECT ContactName + ( + CompanyName + ) FROM CustomersSQL: Select Statement (Concat) By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    53. 53. SELECT SUBSTRING(CustomerID, 1, 3) + - + CompanyName FROM CustomersSQL: Select Statement (Substring) By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    54. 54. SELECT DISTINCT CountryFROM CustomersSQL: Select Statement (DISTINCT) By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    55. 55. SELECT DISTINCT CountryFROM CustomersOrder by Country ASC -- or DESCSQL: Select Statement (ORDER BY) By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    56. 56. SELECT OrderID, ProductID, (UnitPrice *Quantity * (1 - Discount)) AS SubTotalFROM [Order Details]SQL: Select Statement (Expression) By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    57. 57. SELECT ORDERID,SUM((UnitPrice * Quantity * (1 - Discount))) AS SubTotalFROM [Order Details]GROUP BY ORDERIDSQL: Select Statement(Aggregate Functions) By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    58. 58. SELECT o.CustomerID,(SELECT SUM((UnitPrice * Quantity * (1 - Discount))) AS SubTotalFROM [Order Details]WHERE OrderID = o.OrderID)FROM Orders oSQL: Select Statement (AggregateFunctions + Subquery) By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    59. 59. SELECT ORDERID,ROUND(SUM((UnitPrice * Quantity * (1 - Discount))), 2) AS SubTotalFROM [Order Details]GROUP BY ORDERIDHAVING SUM(UnitPrice * Quantity * (1 - Discount)) > 500SQL: Select Statement (AggregateFunctions + Filtration) By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    60. 60. QnA? By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    61. 61. ◦ = Equal ◦ <> Not Equal ◦ > Greater Than ◦ < Less Than ◦ >= Greater Than Or Equal ◦ <= Less Than Or Equal ◦ _______________________ ◦ TOP # [PERCENT] ◦ BETWEEN ◦ LIKE %, _, [], [^] ◦ IN ◦ IS NULL / IS NOT NULL ◦ NOT, AND, OR ◦ …SQL: Select Statement: WHERE By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    62. 62. DML: Select, Insert, Update and Delete By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    63. 63.  SELECT * FROM Employees INSERT INTO Employees(FirstName, LastName) VALUES (Naji,El Kotob) UPDATE Employees SET City=Beirut, Country=Lebanon WHERE EmployeeID = 10 DELETE FROM Employees WHERE EmployeeID = 10 DML (Data Manipulation Language)DML By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    64. 64. DML: DEMO By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    65. 65. SQL: Select Statement: JOIN By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    66. 66.  The SQL join command is used to join two or more tables.SQL: Select Statement: JOIN By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    67. 67.  JOIN match in both tables LEFT JOIN match in the right table RIGHT JOIN match in the left table FULL JOIN match in one of the tables CROSS JOIN Cartesian Product - combines two tables by generating all possibleSQL: Select Statement: JOINS By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    68. 68.  What’s the name of the top 5 customers with their order value and order date?INNER JOIN By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    69. 69. SELECT TOP 5 C.CustomerID, C.CompanyName, O.OrderDate,ROUND(SUM((OD.UnitPrice * OD.Quantity * (1 - OD.Discount))), 2) AS SubTotalFROM Customers C INNER JOIN Orders O ON C.CustomerID = O.CustomerID INNER JOIN [Order Details] OD ON O.OrderID = OD.OrderIDGROUP BY C.CustomerID, C.CompanyName, O.OrderDateORDER BY SubTotal DESCINNER JOIN By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    70. 70.  Generate a list of customers with the number of orders? Generate a list of all the customers with the number orders? Generate a list of employees and their managers?JOINS: DEMO By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    71. 71. SELECT Customers.CompanyName, COUNT(Orders.OrderID) AS [Number of Orders]FROM Customers INNER JOIN Orders ON Customers.CustomerID = Orders.CustomerID GROUP BY Customers.CompanyName ORDER BY Customers.CompanyNameINNER JOIN By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    72. 72. SELECT Customers.CompanyName, COUNT(Orders.OrderID) AS [Number of Orders]FROM Customers LEFT JOIN Orders ON Customers.CustomerID = Orders.CustomerID GROUP BY Customers.CompanyName ORDER BY [Number of Orders] DESCLEFT JOIN By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    73. 73. SELECT e.FirstName + + e.LastName AS Employee Name, m.FirstName + + m.LastName AS Manager NameFROM Employees AS e LEFT OUTER JOIN Employees AS mON e.ReportsTo = m.EmployeeIDSELF JOIN By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    74. 74. SELECT Products.ProductName, Suppliers.CompanyNameFROM Products CROSS JOIN SuppliersCROSS JOIN By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    75. 75. QnA? By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    76. 76. Microsoft Reporting By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    77. 77. Image source: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms173767.aspx By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    78. 78. By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    79. 79. By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    80. 80. By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    81. 81. By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    82. 82.  Reports (Manager) ReportServer (Viewer)SQL Server Reporting Services By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    83. 83.  rs:Command rs:Format rc:NoHeader rc:Parameters ParametersName …URL Parameters By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    84. 84.  http://websiteowner.info/articles/cgi/databasetypes.asp http://www.progress.com/psm/objectstore/object-oriented- database-management-system/index.ssp http://www.bluerwhite.org/btree http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=608628&seq Num=3 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B-tree http://slady.net/java/bt/view.php?w=600&h=450 http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms177443.aspx http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms179355.aspx http://www.databasejournal.com/features/mssql/article.php/1 439801/Optimizing-SQL-Server-Performance-by-Using-File- and-Filegroups.htm http://riki-lb1.vet.ohio- state.edu/mqlin/computec/tutorials/SQLTutorial.htmResources and References (Cont’d) By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    85. 85.  http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms180892(SQL.90).aspx http://support.microsoft.com/kb/873235 http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms189573(SQL.90).aspx http://www.smart-soft.co.uk/Oracle/advanced-sql-tutorial.htm http://infogoal.com/sql/sql-select.htm * http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=06616212- 0356-46A0-8DA2-EEBC53A68034&displaylang=en http://www.w3schools.com/sql/sql_tryit.asp http://www.databasejournal.com/features/mssql/article.php/3464481/Usi ng-a-Subquery-in-a-T-SQL-Statement.htm * http://www.sql-tutorial.com/sql-aggregate-functions-sql-tutorial * http://www.sql-tutorial.com/sql-introduction-sql-tutorial * http://www.onlamp.com/pub/a/onlamp/2001/03/20/aboutSQL.html http://databases.about.com/od/specificproducts/a/normalization.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Database_normalization http://www.datamodel.org/NormalizationRules.htmlResources and References (Cont’d) By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    86. 86.  http://www.microsoft.com/sqlserver/2008/en/us/wp-sql-2008-reporting- services.aspx http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RAID http://www.smartcomputing.com/editorial/article.asp?article=articles%2F 2006%2Fs1705%2F51s05%2F51s05.aspResources and References By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}
    87. 87. www.formatech.com.lbPlease send your feedbackand suggestions to:naji@dotnetheroes.comThank You  By Naji El Kotob {naji@dotnetheroes.com}

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