Water and Minerals


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Water and Minerals

  1. 1. Water and Minerals Charles Lohman
  2. 2. Water <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>water constitutes about 60% of an adult’s body weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>body composition influences how much of the body’s weight is water because there is more contained in lean tissue and less in fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water is an essential nutrient, more important than any others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the body needs more water each day than any other nutrient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>you can survive only few days without water, where a deficiency of other nutrients may take weeks, months or even years to develop </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Water and Body Fluids <ul><li>Water and the body’s life processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>water carries nutrients and waste products throughout the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water maintains the structure of large molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water participates in metabolic processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water acts as a lubricant and cushion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water aids in the regulation of body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water maintains blood volume </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Water Balance and Recommended Intakes <ul><li>Water Intake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thirst and satiety influence water intake in response to changes in the mouth, the hypothalamus and nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when there is inadequate water intake the blood becomes concentrated, the mouth becomes dry, and the hypothalamus initiates drinking behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when water intake is excessive, the stomach expands and stretch receptors send signals to stop drinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when too much water is lost from the body and not replaced, dehydration develops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water intoxication is rare, but can occur with excessive water ingestion and kidney disorders that reduce urine production </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Water Balance and Recommended Intakes <ul><li>Water Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>obvious dietary sources of water are water itself and other beverages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nearly all foods contain water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fruits and vegetables contain about 90% water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>meats and cheeses contain about 50% water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water is also generated during metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Losses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the body must excrete at least 2 cups of water each day as urine, which is enough to carry away waste products generated by the body’s metabolic processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water is also lost from the lungs as vapor and from the skin as sweat </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Water Balance and Recommended Intakes <ul><li>Water Recommendations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>about 8 to 12 cups which is based on a person who expends 2000 kcalories a day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>total water includes not only drinking water, but water in other beverages and foods as well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>people who are physically active or live in hot environments may need more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beverages currently represent over 20% of the total energy intake in the United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most people would well to select water as their preferred beverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some research suggests that people who drink caffeinated beverages lose a little more fluid than when drinking water because caffeine acts as a diuretic </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Water Balance and Recommended Intakes <ul><li>Health Effects of Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drinking water may protect against urinary stones and constipation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>even mild dehydration seems to interfere with daily tasks involving concentration, alertness, and short term memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the kind of water a person drinks may also make a difference to health; hard water vs soft water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hard water has high concentrations of calcium and magnesium which may benefit hypertension and heart disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>soft water contains sodium and potassium which may aggravate hypertension and heart disease </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Minerals – An Overview <ul><li>Major Minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>major minerals are named so because they are present, and needed, in larger amounts in the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>although trace minerals are needed in smaller amounts, they are still vital to the body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inorganic Elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unlike organic vitamins, which are easily destroyed, minerals are inorganic elements that always retain their chemical identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>once they enter the body, they remain there until they are excreted, they cannot be changed into anything else </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The Body’s Handling of Minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>minerals also differ from vitamins in the amounts the body can absorb and in the extent to which they must be specially handled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some minerals such as potassium are easily absorbed and readily excreted like the water soluble vitamins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some minerals such as calcium need carriers to be absorbed and transported </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Variable Bioavailability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some foods contain binders that combine chemically with minerals, preventing their absorption and carrying them out of the body with other wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>examples of binders are phytates, which are found primarily in legumes and grains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>another example of a binder is oxalates, which are present in rhubarb and spinach </li></ul></ul>The Minerals – An Overview
  10. 10. The Minerals – An Overview <ul><li>Nutrient Interactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the presence or absence of one mineral can affect another’s absorption, metabolism, and excretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the interaction between sodium and calcium cause both to be excreted when sodium intakes are too high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>phosphorus binds with magnesium in the GI tract, so magnesium absorption is limited when phosphorus intakes are too high </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Varied Roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>all of the major minerals help to maintain the body’s fluid balance, sodium, chloride, and potassium are most noted for this role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other minerals have roles in bone growth and health- calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Sodium <ul><li>Sodium Roles in the Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the principal cation of the extracellular fluid and the primary regulator of its volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>helps maintain acid-base balance and essential to nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sodium Recommendations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>diets rarely lack sodium, and even when intakes are low, the body adapts by reducing sodium losses in urine and sweat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sodium recommendations are set low enough to protect against high blood pressure, but high enough to allow an adequate intake of other nutrients with a typical diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>upper level of sodium intake for adults is 2400 mg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the average intake of sodium in the United States exceeds the Upper Level and most adults will develop hypertension at some point in their life </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Sodium <ul><li>Sodium and Hypertension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for many years high sodium intake was considered the primary factor responsible for high blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>salt (sodium chloride) is actually the cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>salt has a greater effect on blood pressure than either sodium or chloride alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for some individuals, blood pressure increases in response to excesses in salt intake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>people most likely to have a salt sensitivity include those whose parents had high blood pressure, those with chronic kidney disease or diabetes, African Americans, and people over the age of 50 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>overweight people also appear to be particularly sensitive to the effect of salt on blood pressure </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Sodium <ul><li>Sodium and Bone Loss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a high salt intake is also associated with increased calcium excretion, but its influence on bone loss is less clear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>potassium may prevent the increase in calcium excretion caused by a high salt diet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sodium in Foods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>processed foods contain the most sodium, whereas unprocessed foods such as fresh fruits, vegetables, milk, and meats have the least </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>75% of sodium in people’s diets comes from salt added to foods by the manufacturer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15% comes from salt added during cooking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10% comes from the natural content in foods </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Chloride <ul><li>Chloride Roles in the Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chloride maintains fluid and electrolyte balance as sodium and potassium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inside the stomach chloride is part of hydrochloric acid, which maintains the strong acidity of the gastric juice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chloride Recommendations and Intakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chloride is abundant in foods (especially processed foods) as part of sodium chloride and other salts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>because the proportion of chloride in salt is greater than sodium, chloride recommendations are slightly higher, but still equivalent to, those of sodium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chloride Deficiency and Toxicity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>diets rarely lack chloride </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chloride losses may occur in conditions such as heavy sweating, chronic diarrhea, and vomiting </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Potassium <ul><li>Potassium Roles in the Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>potassium plays a major role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and cell integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also critical to the maintenance of nerve impulse transmissions and muscle contractions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potassium Recommendations and Intakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>potassium is abundant in all living cells, both plant and animal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>because cells remain intact unless foods are processed, the richest sources of potassium are fresh foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to meet Adequate Intake for potassium, increase fruit and vegetable intake to 5 to 9 servings daily </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Calcium <ul><li>Calcium Roles in the Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>99% of the body’s calcium is in the bones and teeth where it plays two roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>first it is an integral part of bone structure, providing a rigid frame that holds the body upright and serves as attachment points for muscles, making motion possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>second it serves as a calcium bank, offering a readily available source of the mineral to the body fluids should a drop in blood calcium occur </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Calcium <ul><li>Calcium and Disease Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>calcium may protect against hypertension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for example with the DASH diet(Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension), which isn’t particularly low in sodium, but is rich in calcium, and as well as magnesium and potassium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the DASH diet, together with a reduced sodium intake, is more effective in lowering blood pressure than either strategy alone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Calcium and Obesity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>calcium may also play a role in maintaining a healthy body weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in particular, calcium from dairy foods, but not from supplements, seems to influence body weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an adequate dietary calcium intake may help prevent excessive fat accumulation by stimulating hormonal action that targets the breakdown of stored fat </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Calcium <ul><li>Calcium Recommendations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for adolescents up to the age of 18, 1300 mg of calcium a day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>between the ages of 19 to 50, 1000mg of calcium a day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for older adults, over 50, a higher recommendation of calcium is given at 1200 mg a day to minimize bone loss that occurs later in life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Calcium in Foods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some cultures do not use milk in their cuisines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some vegetarians exclude milk as well as meat and some people are allergic to milk protein or lactose intolerant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>others simply do not enjoy the taste of milk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some tofu, corn tortillas, some nuts (such as almonds), and some seeds (such as sesame seeds) can supply calcium for the person who does not use milk products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also vegetables, mustard and turnip greens, bok choy, kale, parsley, watercess, and broccoli are also good sources of calcium </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Phosphorus <ul><li>Phosphorus Roles in the Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>phosphorus salts are found in not only in bones and teeth, but in all body cells as part of a major buffer system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it is also part of DNA and RNA and is therefore necessary for all growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus Recommendations and Intakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>phosphorus is found in almost all foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>foods rich in proteins are the best sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>research shows that displacement of milk in the diet by cola drinks, not the phosphoric acid content of the beverages, has adverse effects on bone </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Magnesium <ul><li>Magnesium Roles in the Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in addition to maintaining bone health, magnesium acts in all the cells of the soft tissues, where it forms part of the protein making machinery and is necessary for energy metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Magnesium Intakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>average dietary magnesium estimates for U.S. adults fall below recommendations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>magnesium can be found in legumes, seeds, and nuts and also in leafy green vegetables </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Sulfate <ul><li>Sulfate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is the oxidized form of the mineral sulfur, as it exists in food and water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the body’s needs for sulfate are easily met by a variety of foods and beverages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in addition the body receives sulfate from the amino acids methionine and cysteine found in dietary proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>because sulfate needs are easily met with normal protein intakes, there is no recommended intake for sulfate </li></ul></ul>