PHI 204 - Ethical Issues in Health Care: Communitarianism, LiberalismPresentation Transcript
Communitarianism Liberalism (Biomedical Ethics) Charles Lohman
COMMUNITARIANISM focuses on the responsibility of the individual to the community and the social importance of the community as whole.
In other words, people are individual members of communities with shared values, ideals, and goals.
So individual ideas of the good cannot be separated from the community as a whole.
So what is good for the individual is a reflection of the common good of the community as a whole.
So questions about right or wrong of actions/policies should always be raised for the betterment of the community as a whole.
LIBERALISM focuses on the rights, interests, and reasoning of individual moral agents.
In other words, LIBERALISM claims that people should have the right to act and live in accord with their own conception of a good life as long as it does not interfere with the rights of others to do the same.
Liberalism and Communitarianism Differs in Two Ways
LIBERALISM differs from COMMUNITARIANISM as a NORMATIVE THEORY in two main ways.
1.) LIBERALISM claims there should not be one conception of the good or one overarching moral value that all individuals live by and share.
2.) LIBERALISM claims that the rights and interests of individuals should not be sacrificed for the interests of the larger society.
Why? Because different individuals have different values and different conceptions of what constitutes a good life.
So LIBERALISM states it would be wrong to try to adopt a particular conception of the good for everyone.
So society should remain neutral on these normative issues based on individuals alone.