HLT 138: Nutrition Chapter 1
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HLT 138: Nutrition Chapter 1 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Nutrition for Healthy Living Second Edition Chapter 1 The Basics of Nutrition
  • 2. Nutrition: The Basics
    • Nutrition: scientific study of nutrients and how the body uses these nutrients (substances)
      • Nutrients: are the chemicals necessary for proper body functioning
      • In general, your body uses certain nutrients for energy, growth and development, and regulation of processes
        • See Table 1.1 for major functions of nutrients
      • The 6 Nutrients
        • 1.) Carbohydrates, 2.) Lipids, 3.) Proteins, 4.) Vitamins, 5.) Minerals, 6.) Water
    • Metabolism: chemical processes that take place in living cells
      • Cells: smallest living functional units in an organism
      • The cells in your body needs the chemicals (nutrients) in food to carry out their metabolic activities
  • 3. Essential Nutrient, Phytochemicals, Dietary Supplements
    • Essential Nutrient: a nutrient that must be supplied by food
      • See Table 1.2 for the nutrients that are generally considered to be essential
    • Phytochemicals: compounds made by plants that are not nutrients
      • Many are antioxidants
        • Antioxidant – substance that protects other compounds from being damaged or destroyed by certain factors
      • Some are Toxic or can interfere with the absorption of nutrients
      • See Table 1.3 for some of the phytochemicals of Scientific Interest
    • Dietary supplements : nutrient preparations, certain hormones, and herbal products
        • See ‘Dietary Supplements’, p. 6
  • 4. Calorie
    • Calorie – heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 liter of water 1 degree Celsius: measure of food energy
      • A calorie is such a small unit of measurement, the amount of energy in food is reported in 1000-calorie units called kilocalories (kcal) – AKA – Calories
      • See the YouTube Video Link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fkYbrxEnCLc
    • You can estimate the number of kcal if you know how many grams of carbohydrates, protein, fat and/or alcohol are in a food
      • Carbohydrate = 4 kcal per gram
      • Protein = 4 kcal per gram
      • Fat = 9 kcal per gram
      • Alcohol = 7 per gram
      • Example : If a food contains 10 grams of carbohydrate and 5 grams of fat, you can determine it has 85 kcal per serving
        • 10 x 4 = 40 kcal (10 is the grams of carbs and the 4 is the kcal per gram)
        • 5 x 9 = 45 kcal (5 is the grams of fat and the 9 is the kcal per gram)
        • 40 + 45 = 85 kcal/serving
  • 5. Macro, Micro and Water
    • Macronutrients: carbohydrates, fats, and proteins; they are needed in large amounts (grams) daily; they supply energy
    • Micronutrients: vitamins and minerals; they are need in very small amounts to function properly; they do not supply energy
        • Water is required in large amounts, but this nutrient does not provide energy so it is not usually a macronutrient
  • 6. Empty-Calorie and Nutrient-Dense
    • Empty-calorie: describes food or beverage that is poor source of micronutrients in relation to its energy value
      • It contributes a large portion of its energy from fat, sugar, and/or alcohol in relation to its supply of micronutrients
        • Consuming too much food energy in relation to one’s need can result in depositing body fat
    • Nutrient-dense: describes food or beverage that has more vitamins and minerals in relation to its energy value
      • It contains more vitamins and minerals in relation to its fat, sugar, and/or alcohol contents
    • See Table 1.7 Key Basic Nutrition Concepts, p. 12
    • Read 1.4 Key Nutrition Concepts, pp. 12-18