HLT 200: Human Sexuality Chapter 5


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HLT 200: Human Sexuality Chapter 5

  1. 1. Human Sexuality Chapter 5
  2. 2. Choosing a Method of Contraception <ul><li>Contraception – the process of preventing sperm cells from fertilizing an ovum </li></ul><ul><li>Unreliable Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawal method – removing the penis from the vagina just prior to ejaculation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Douching – washing the internal vagina with a stream of water or any other liquid solution </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Methods for Preventing Pregnancy & STIs <ul><li>Selective abstinence – Choosing to engage in or avoid certain sexual behaviors on the basis of their risks of STIs or pregnancy (p. 153) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100% effective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Male condoms – a thin sheath of latex (rubber), polyurethane (plastic), or animal tissue that is placed over an erect penis prior to intercourse (pp. 153- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used correctly, condoms are an extremely effective method of contraception and reducing the risk of STIs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 rules for the greatest protection against pregnancy and STIs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Use latex or polyurethane condoms only </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Use lubricated condoms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Use condoms with a reservoir tip (or nipple) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Use “unexpired” condoms </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Methods for Preventing Pregnancy & STIs <ul><ul><li>Some common mistakes people make when using condoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Failing to use a condom every time they have intercourse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Putting on the condom too late, after the penis has been in contact with the vulva or vagina </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Putting the condom on incorrectly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawing the penis from the vagina too late so that the man’s erection has subsided and the condom can slip off </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not hold the condom at the base when withdrawing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using old or damaged condoms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using the same condom more than once </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate lubrication during intercourse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using oil-based lubricants (such as Vaseline, baby oil and most hand, body, and suntan lotion) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Storing condoms incorrectly (in wallet, in glove compartment and etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Proper use of male condoms (p. 157) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See in Touch with Your Sexual Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using Male Condoms Correctly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Female condoms – a tube or pouch of thin polyurethane with a flexible ring at each end. One end is sealed and the other is open. The condom is inserted into the vagina. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper use of female condoms (p. 159) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SEE Figure 5.1 </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (BUT NOT STIs) <ul><li>Female hormonal methods of contraception (p. 160) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It prevents pregnancy by altering certain characteristics of a woman’s ovulation cycle or reproductive tract </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oral contraceptives (birth control pills)– tables containing female hormones that are ingested every day (pp. 160-164) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are the most popular reversible birth control method used by women in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination pill – an oral contraceptive containing a combination of estrogen and progestin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different brands have varying doses of hormones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower-dose pills are less likely to produce side effects </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spotting between periods, headaches, and breast tenderness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minipill – an oral contraception containing progestin only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It has a very slightly higher failure rate compared to the combination pill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It avoids some of the negative side effects associated with estrogen in the combination pill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEE In Touch with Your Sexual Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Missed Your Pill? Here’s What You Should Do </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEE In Touch with Your Sexual Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pros, Cons, and Cautions of Using Oral Contraceptives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (BUT NOT STIs) <ul><li>Hormonal implant – a small tube containing a progestin hormone that is implanted under the skin of a woman’s upper arm (pp. 162-165) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The contraceptive hormone is released over time without any action on the woman’s part </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It has a “near-perfect” effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative side effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in menstrual bleeding patterns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less common and often temporary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Headaches, weight gain, acne, and vaginal infections </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Injectable hormonal contraceptive – an injection in the arm or hip that administers progestin hormone (pp. 165-166) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative side effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Menstrual changes, headaches, nervousness, decreased sex drive, breast tenderness, and depression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Contraceptive patch – a pad that delivers a precise does of 2 hormones into a woman’s body through the skin, preventing ovulation (pp. 166-167) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basically the same negative side effects as the combination pill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent studies found that the patch may expose women to levels of hormones as much as 60% higher than most oral contraceptives </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (BUT NOT STIs) <ul><li>Contraceptive ring – a colorless, flexible, transparent silicone ring about 2 inches in diameter that is inserted into the vagina and releases a continuous low dose of estrogen-and-progestin-like hormones in the bloodstream (pp. 167-168) </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency contraceptive pills - (morning after pill) hormonal contraceptives that help prevent pregnancy after an unprotected act of intercourse (p. 168) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is NOT a form of abortion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It can reduce the chance of pregnancy by 75%-95% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depending how soon the pills are taken and if taken correctly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Barrier methods – any contraceptive method that protects against pregnancy by preventing live sperm from entering the woman’s reproductive tract and fertilizing the egg (pp. 169-172) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spermicides – any substance containing a chemical that kills sperm cells, thereby preventing them from fertilizing an egg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The chemical most commonly used is nonoxinol-9 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spermicides by themselves are NOT an effective means of birth control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spermicide with another barrier method increase the rates of effectiveness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: spermicide and condoms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (BUT NOT STIs) <ul><ul><li>Diaphragm – a flexible ring of latex or silicone inserted into the vagina that impedes conception by preventing sperm from getting past the cervix (p. 170) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Following intercourse, it must be left in place for at least 6 hours, BUT no longer than 24 hours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Additional spermicide must be added if intercourse is to be repeated within 6 hours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SEE Figure 5.4 (p. 170) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cervical cap (FemCap) – a device similar to the diaphragm that fits more snugly over the cervix (p. 170) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Following intercourse, it must be left in place for at least 6 hours, BUT unlike the diaphragm it provides continuous protection for up to 48 hours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No additional spermicide is needed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SEE Figure 5.5 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (BUT NOT STIs) <ul><ul><li>Lea’s Shield – a relatively new vaginal barrier that is one-size-fits-all device that does not require a prescription and does not need to be fitted by a health professional (p. 171) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>94% effective when used correctly with spermicide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With proper care it should last at last 6 months </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the U.S., it is available by prescription for about $60 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SEE Figure 5.6 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contraceptive sponge – a porous contraceptive device that releases spermicide when inserted into the vagina (p. 172) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One sponge provides protection from pregnancy for 24 hours regardless of frequency of intercourse </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (BUT NOT STIs) <ul><li>Fertility awareness – a method of contraception based on ovulation prediction and the viability of sperm; intercourse is timed to avoid fertile days or a barrier method is used during those days (pp. 172-175) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A women is fertile for only about one day each month </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm cells ejaculated into the vagina may survive in the woman’s reproductive tract for an average of 3 days, up to a maximum of 7 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combining the women’s fertility period and the maximum life span of sperm, an average of 8 days within a month is a couple’s “window of fertility” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEE 5.7 The Average Window of Fertility (p.172) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard days method –a fertility awareness technique for tracking fertile and infertile days during a woman’s menstrual cycle (p. 173) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The “Window of fertility” is from 5 days before ovulation to a day after </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CycleBeads – a set of colored beads that serve as markers to help a woman keep track of her fertile and less fertile days when choosing the standard days method </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SEE Figure 5.8 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TwoDay method – a fertility awareness technique that relies on careful observation of secretions form the cervix to predict ovulation (p. 173) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SEE Figure 5.9 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basal body temperature method – a fertility awareness method based on the woman’s internal body temperature upon awakening in the morning (p. 174) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (BUT NOT STIs) <ul><li>Intrauterine methods (IUD) – a small plastic device in the shape of a T that is inserted by a doctor into the uterus through the cervix via the vagina. (pp. 175-176) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It remains in place 1 years to 10 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surgical methods (PP. 176-178) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sterilization (voluntary surgical contraception) – any surgical alteration that prevents the emission of sperm or eggs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>100% effective method of contraception </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HOWEVER there are a very small failure rate – WHY: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor surgical technique, spontaneous reconnection of a severed fallopian tube or vas deferens, and sperm cells that are left over in the male reproductive tract following surgery </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NOTE : this is NOT a failure of the method itself </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tubal ligation (tubectomy) – a permanent method of contraception involving tying, cutting, clipping, or otherwise blocking the fallopian tubes to prevent passage of an ovum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vasectomy – cutting and tying off or sealing each vas deferens so the sperm produce by the testicles can no longer mix with semen in the ejaculate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VSC can be reversed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reversal is becoming increasingly common and successful </li></ul></ul></ul>