HLTH 200: Human Sexuality Chapter 14


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HLTH 200: Human Sexuality Chapter 14

  1. 1. Human Sexuality Chapter 14
  2. 2. Defining Paraphilias <ul><li>Paraphilias – compulsive sexual activities that are practiced by a small percentage of people and that most members of a given culture would consider abnormal, deviant or pathological (pp. 518-519) </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Criteria for a Paraphilia (pp. 519-521) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. the behavior is engaged in for the purpose of sexual arousal or gratification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. the behavior tends to be compulsive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compulsive behavior – any behavior, sexual or otherwise, that a person is unable to control regardless of repeated attempts to do so </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. A clear majority of people in a given cultural setting would consider the behavior to be strange, deviant, or abnormal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Society applies standards to unusual sexual behaviors to determine how pathological, or deviant, they are </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Sexual Addiction, Society & Clinical Criteria <ul><li>Sexual addiction – usually defined as nonparaphilic sexual compulsivity; an obsesive preoccupation with and compulsive need for sexual activity (pp. 521- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual addiction is NOT usually defined as a paraphilia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So-called sex addicts often engage in sexual activities that do NOT meet the third paraphilia criteria of being seen as strange or deviant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Consensual sex or masturbation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Society’s criteria for judging paraphilias (pp. 522-23) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. the behavior is harmful or destructive to the person engaging in it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. the behavior is illegal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. the behavior interferes with the person’s ability to form and maintain loving, intimate, and sexual relationships with others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. the behavior involves another person without that person’s consent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clinical criteria for paraphilias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See Slide 1: Basic Criteria for a Paraphilia (pp. 519-521) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See Table 14, p. 524 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NOTE the statement “Over a period of at least six months” in each criteria </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Specific Paraphilias <ul><li>Coercive Paraphilias – sexual activities involving an unsuspecting, non-consenting, or unwilling victim as the target of the atypical, compulsive behavior (pp. 529-535) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vayeurism – secretly watching others undress or engage in sexual activities without their knowledge or consent for the purpose of achieving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhibitionism – achieving sexual arousal and gratification by displaying one’s genitals to others without the victims’ content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frotteurism – rubbing one’s genitals against a non-consenting person for sexual arousal and, typically, orgasm </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Specific Paraphilias <ul><ul><li>Sexual sadism – inflicting pain, injury, or humiliation on another person for the sexual gratification of the person performing the action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedophilia – uncontrollable sexual compulsions involving children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NO single profile of a typical pedophile exists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commonalities: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most are men, but numerous individual cases of women have been reported </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most are heterosexual, regardless of the sex of the victim </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many are married with children of their own </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many experience marital difficulties </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol addiction is frequently found among this group </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They were sexually abused themselves </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Victim of pedophiles characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately 65% are girls between ages 8 and 11 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>90% either know or are related to their abuser </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Non-coercive Paraphilias <ul><li>Non-coercive Paraphilias – sexual activities that involve consent (pp. 535-542) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual masochism – sexual arousal and gratification that is associated with acts or fantasies of being hurt, humiliated, or otherwise made to suffer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetishism – a sexual preference for a nonhuman or a body part that most members of a culture do not consider sexual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transvestic fetishism – the paraphilia engaged in by a transvestite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transvestite – a man who obtains sexual satisfcation by wearing female clothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autoerotic Asphyxiation (also called sexual hypoxia and hypoxyphilia) - depriving the brain of oxygen, usually through some form of strangulation or hanging, during masturbation </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Treatment of Paraphilias <ul><li>Four categories of who seeks treatment (p. 542) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Court-ordered treatment – individuals who have engaged in illegal acts involving paraphilias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-distress – individuals motivated by change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distress due to sexual dysfunction – individuals that seek help for sexual dysfunction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The individual is unable become sexually aroused or cannot achieve orgasm without the paraphilic activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of treatment (pp. 543-544) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporation therapy - the paraphilic behavior is decreased or modified to acceptable levels but not completely abolished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychotherapy – talk therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orgasmic reconditioning – a type of therapy for paraphilias in which a person is conditioned to become aroused and have orgasms in socially acceptable setting that bear no resemblance to the paraphilia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug therapy – if an imbalance in the brain and glandular chemicals is leading to unwanted, inappropriate sexual behavior; medications may help alter the production or effects of those chemicals and ultimately helping the unwanted, inappropriate sexual behavior </li></ul></ul>