HLT 200: Human Sexuality Chapter 2
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HLT 200: Human Sexuality Chapter 2 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Human Sexuality Chapter 2
  • 2. The Penis SEE Figure 2.2 (b) – p. 40
    • The Penis – the primary male anatomical sexual structure (p. 40)
      • 2 functions:
        • To ejaculate semen
        • To transport urine from the inside of the body to the outside
    • Penile glans – the end or tip of the penis, its most sexually sensitive part (p. 40)
      • Stimulation to this glans is primarily responsible for male orgasm and ejaculation
    • Corona – the raised edge at the base of the penile glans (p. 40)
      • Most men report that the corona is somewhat more sexually sensitive than the rest of the tip of the penis
  • 3. The Penis SEE Figure 2.2 (b) – p. 40
    • Frenulum – the band of tissue connecting the underside of the penile glans with the shaft of the penis (p. 40)
      • Reported to be even more sexually sensitive than the glans
    • Penile shaft – the area of the penis between the glans and the abdomen (p. 40)
      • The skin on the penile shaft is loose to allow for expansion during erection
      • All males are born with skin covering the penile glans, called the foreskin
      • Male circumcision involves the removal of the foreskin covering the glans of the penis (p. 41)
        • Proper care of the intact penis can be summarized in one sentence: Leave it alone.
  • 4. The Penis SEE Figure 2.3 – p. 41
    • The penis consists of 3 spongy, cavernous tubes running along its length (p. 41)
      • Corpora cavernosa – 2 parallel chambers that run the length of the penis and become engorged with blood during erection
      • Corpus spongiosum – a middle chamber running the length of the penis into the glans that engorges with blood during erection
      • Urethra – the tube that runs the length of the penis and into the body to carry semen or urine from the inside to the outside of the body
  • 5. The Scrotum and Testicles
    • Scrotum – The sac of thin skin and muscle containing the testicles in the male (p. 45)
      • The scrotum is divided into 2 sacs, one for each testicle
      • It’s function is to house and protect the testicles and help provide them with optimal conditions to produce sperm cells
      • The scrotum has an active role in male sexuality and reproduction
    • Testicles – made up of microscopic tubes in which sperm cells and testosterone are produced in the male (p. 46)
      • Each testicle floats freely in each sac within the scrotum (SEE Figure 2.5)
  • 6. The Anus
    • Anus – The end of the digestive tract and outlet for bodily excretions (p. 47-48)
      • The anus and the area around it contain nerve ending that are sensitive to stimulation
        • It is sexually stimulating area for some people
      • Some men and women consider it to be part of their sexual anatomy
      • Some have positive views of the anus sexually
      • Some are repulsed by the idea that this area would even be considered part of sexual anatomy or behaviors
  • 7. Male Internal Structures SEE Figure 2.7 – p. 48
    • Vas Deferens – is a tube that connects each testicle and epididymis with the internal reproductive structures (p. 48)
      • For a vasectomy, each Vas Deferens is severed and sealed off
    • Semen – the fluid produced primarily by the prostate gland and seminal vesicles that is ejaculated with the sperm cells by men during orgasm (p. 48-49)
      • Semen is a whitish or yellowish, viscous fluid composed of water, salt, and fructose sugars
      • It’s designed to nourish and sustain sperm cells
  • 8. Male Internal Structures SEE Figure 2.7 – p. 48
    • Seminal Vesicles – a structure that produces fluid that becomes part of the semen that is expelled during ejaculation (p. 49)
      • Ejaculatory duct – a continuation of the tube that carries semen into the urethra for ejaculation
    • Prostate gland – a gland in males surrounding the urethra that produces the largest proportion of seminal fluid (ejaculate) (p. 49)
  • 9. Male Internal Structures SEE Figure 2.7 – p. 48
    • Urethral bulb – the prostatic section of the urethra that expands with collected semen just prior to expulsion, creating the sensation of ejaculatory inevitability (p. 50)
      • At orgasm, the semen that has been gathering from these various structures is forced into the urethral bulb
    • Cowper’s Gland – small glands near the penile urethra that produce s slippery mucus-like substance during male sexual arousal (p. 50)
      • Pre-ejaculate – the fluid produced by the Cowper’s glands well before ejaculation
  • 10. The Vulva SEE Figure 2.9 (a) – p. 51
    • Vulva – the female external genitals (p. 51)
    • Mons veneris – a slightly raised layer of fatty tissue on the top of a woman’s pubic bone (p. 51)
      • Part of its function is to cushion the impact with the public bone during sexual intercourse
    • Labia major – folds of skin and fatty tissue that extend from the mons down both sides of the vulva, past the vaginal opening to the perineum (p. 52)
      • The labia majora close over and protect the more sensitive and delicate genital structures underneath them
    • Labie minora – the smooth, hairless, inner lips of the vulva (p. 52)
      • The labia minora are sexually sensitive
      • During sexual arousal, they become engorged with blood and darken in color
  • 11. The Vulva SEE Figure 2.9 – p. 51 & 2.10 p. 52
    • Clitoris – an erectile sexual structure consisting of the clitoral glans and 2 shafts (crura) (pp. 52-53)
      • The clitoris is primarily responsible for triggering orgasm in most women
    • Clitoral glans – the outer end or tip of the clitoris (p. 52)
    • Clitoral hood – tissue that partially or fully covers the clitoral glans (p. 52)
  • 12. The Vulva SEE Figure 2.9 – p. 51 & 2.10 p. 52
    • Urethral opening – an opening in the midsection of the vulva, between the clitoral glans and the vagina, that allows urine to pass from the body (p. 53 & 56)
      • This is a sensitive structure and can provide pleasurable sexual sensations for some women when stimulated
    • Hymen – a ring of tissue surrounding, partially covering, or fully screening the vaginal opening (p. 56 7 58)
  • 13. The Vulva SEE Figure 2.9 – p. 51 & 2.10 p. 52
      • Myths about the hymen (pp. 56-58)
        • Myth: The condition of a woman’s hymen is indicative of whether or not she is a virgin (p.56)
        • Myth: Upon first sexual intercourse, the hymen will “break” and bleed (p. 56)
        • Myth: Intercourse is very painful the first time due to the rupturing of the hymen (p. 58)
        • Myth: If a woman has an intact hymen, she cannot become pregnant (p. 58)
    • Perineum – the area of skin in the female between the vulva and the anus and in the male between the scrotum and the anus (p. 58)
      • Some women and men find that manual stimulation of this area during sexual activity enhances feelings of sexual arousal
  • 14. The Breasts SEE Figure 2.12 – p. 59
    • Breast have 3 major functions: (p. 58)
      • They may supply nourishment for newborn inffants
      • They may provide sexual pleasure for both the woman and her partner
      • In most Western cultures, they play a role in a woman’s perceived attractiveness and self image
    • Nipples – the normal size and shape of the nipples vary greatly (p. 58 & 59)
      • They may protrude, lie flat, or turn inward (inverted nipples)
    • Areola – the darker skin encircling each nipple (p. 59)
      • It’s part of the skin of the nipple
  • 15. The Vagina SEE Figure 2.13 – p. 61
    • Vagina – A flexible, muscular canal or tube, normally about 3 to 4 inches in length, that extends into the woman’s body at an angle toward the small of the back, from the vulva to the cervix (p. 61-62)
      • The vagina is not an open “tunnel”
      • When not sexually aroused, the walls of the vagina lie very closed together and collapse upon one another along most of its length
      • During sexual arousal, the tissue lining the vagina become engorged with blood and secrete a clear, slick fluid along its entire length
      • G-spot – an area of tissue located about a third of the way in from the opening of the vagina in the anterior vaginal wall (the “upper” wall if the woman is lying on her back)
  • 16. The Vagina SEE Figure 2.13 – p. 61
    • Cervix – the lower end of the uterus that connects it to the vagina (pp. 62-63)
    • Os – The very narrow passageway through the cervix from the vagina to the uterus (p. 62-63)
      • About as wide as the thickness of the lead of inside a pencil
        • So contrary MYTH: an object in the vagina, such as a tampon, a “lost” condom, or a diaphragm, cannot accidentally travel higher up into the reporductive tract because these objects are all far too large to pass through the cervical os
  • 17. The Vagina SEE Figure 2.13 – p. 61
    • Uterus (womb) – a very flexible organ with strong muscle fibers where a fertilized egg implants and an embryo and fetus grow from a few days after fertilization until birth (pp. 63-64)
    • Fallopian tubes – the tubes that carry the female ovum from the ovaries to the uterus and in which fertilization occurs (p. 64)
    • Ovaries – the female organs that produce sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone and where follicle cells are stored and mature into ova (p. 64-65)
      • Ovaries are gonads, as are the testicles
      • Gonads means produce cells for reproduction
  • 18. Menstruation
    • Menstrual cycle – the hormone-controlled reproductive cycle in the human female (pp. 65-66)
    • Menarche – the beginning of menstruation during puberty; a girl’s first period (p. 65)
      • This typically occurs between the ages of 11 and 16
    • Ovulation – the release of an egg, or ovum, from the ovary into the fallopian tube (p. 65)
  • 19. Source
    • Human Sexuality (Second Edition) by Roger R. Hock (ISBN-10: 0-205-66071-1)