HLT 138: Nutrition for Healthy Living Chapter 5

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HLT 138: Nutrition for Healthy Living Chapter 5

  1. 1. Nutrition for Healthy Living Second Edition Chapter 5 Carbohydrates
  2. 2. Simple Carbohydrates: Sugars <ul><li>Monasaccharide: simple sugar that is the basic molecule of carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose (dextrose or blood sugar): primary fuel for muscles and other cells, thus it’s the most important monosaccharide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fructose (levulose or fruit sugar): is naturally found in fruit, honey and a few vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The body has little need for fructose so ‘most’ of it is converted into glucose and fat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Galactose: a component of lactose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lactose: the form of carbohydrate in milk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not commonly found in foods </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Simple Carbohydrates: Sugars <ul><li>Disaccharide: simple sugar comprised of 2 monosaccharides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maltose ( malt sugar ): disaccharide comprised of 2 glucose molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lactose ( milk sugar ): disaccharide comprised of a glucose and a galactose molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sucrose ( table sugar ): disaccharide comprised of a glucose and a fructose molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Myth: refined white sugar is poisonous </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Table sugar does not contain toxic substances </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is almost 100% carbohydrate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Myth: Honey is nutritionally superior to table sugar </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your body does NOT distinguish whether glucose or fructose came from sugar or honey </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Nutritive and Nonnutritive Sweeteners <ul><li>Nutritive sweeteners: substances that sweeten and contribute energy to foods </li></ul><ul><li>Nonnutritive sweeteners: group of synthetic compounds that are intensely sweet tasting compared to sugar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative sweeteners: substances that sweeten foods while providing few or no kilocalories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains sugar alcohols </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar alcohols are not fully absorbed by the intestinal tract </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So they supply an average of 2 kcal/g </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Complex Carbohydrates <ul><li>Complex Carbohydrates (polysaccharides): compounds comprised of 10 or more monosaccharides bonded together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starch : storage polysaccharide in plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycogen : storage polysaccharide in animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soluble Fiber : forms of dietary fiber that dissolve or swell in water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insoluble Fiber : forms of dietary fiber that generally do not dissolve in water </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Next Slide: Clearing the Carbohydrate Confusion Video Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eTsPzH2NY40 </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Next Slide </li></ul><ul><li>What is Fiber, Truth about Fiber, Nutrition by Natalie Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B5cz5iZMQaI </li></ul>

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