Wellness Chapter 11 Guidelines for a Healthy Lifestyle
Coronary Heart Disease pp. 266-267 <ul><li>Cardiovascular disease – the array of conditions that affect the heart and the ...
Some Risk Factors Contributing to CHD (pp. 268-278) <ul><li>Physical inactivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 of 6 mayor risk fa...
Some Risk Factors Contributing to CHD (pp. 268-278) <ul><ul><ul><li>How to raise HDL and lower LDL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul...
Some Risk Factors Contributing to CHD (pp. 268-278) <ul><li>High blood pressure (Hypertension) – a measure of the forces e...
Some Risk Factors Contributing to CHD (pp. 268-278) <ul><li>Diabetes – a disease in which the body does not produce or uti...
Some Risk Factors Contributing to CHD (pp. 268-278) <ul><li>Smoking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single largest preventable cause...
Some Risk Factors Contributing to CHD (pp. 268-278) <ul><li>Excessive body fat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The risks attributed ...
Some Risk Factors Contributing to CHD (pp. 268-278) <ul><li>Personal and family history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone with...
Guidelines for Preventing CHD (pp. 278-280) <ul><li>Most cardiovascular risk factors are preventable and reversible </li><...
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Wellness Chapter 11

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Wellness Chapter 11

  1. 1. Wellness Chapter 11 Guidelines for a Healthy Lifestyle
  2. 2. Coronary Heart Disease pp. 266-267 <ul><li>Cardiovascular disease – the array of conditions that affect the heart and the blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Coronary heart disease (CHD) – condition in which the arteries supply the heart muscle with oxygen and nutrients are narrowed by fatty deposits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts for more than half (53%) of all cardiovascular deaths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About half who died suddenly from CHD had no previous symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The leading risk factors contributing CHD are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical inactivity, low HDL cholesterol, elevated LDL cholesterol, smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, excessive body fat, family history, tension/stress age and etc. (SEE pp. 266-267) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signs of a heart attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chest pain, discomfort, pressure, or squeezing sensation that lasts for several minutes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theses feelings may go away and return later </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pain that radiates to the shoulders, neck, or arms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chest discomfort with shortness of breath, lightheadedness, sweating, nausea, or fainting </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Some Risk Factors Contributing to CHD (pp. 268-278) <ul><li>Physical inactivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 of 6 mayor risk factors for cardiovascular disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abnormal cholesterol profile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cholesterol – a waxy substance, technically a steroid alcohol, found only in animal fats and oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As the plaque builds up, it blocks the blood vessels that supply the heart muscle with oxygen and nutrients, and these obstructions can trigger a heart attack </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typical symptoms of heart disease does not start until the arteries are about 75% blocked </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In many cases the first symptom is sudden death </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) – Low-density lipoproteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol) – High-density lipoproteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General recommendation by NCEP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep total cholesterol below 200 mg/dl </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SEE Table 11.1 Cholesterol Guidelines </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Some Risk Factors Contributing to CHD (pp. 268-278) <ul><ul><ul><li>How to raise HDL and lower LDL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise, weight-loss, quitting smoking and drug therapy increases HDL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EXERCISE: In general, the more exercise the higher the HDL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EXERCISE: high-intensity or above 6 METs, for at least 20 minutes 3 times per week increases HDL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DIET: the antioxidant effect of vitamins C and E may provide benefits </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DIET: vitamin C may inactivate free radicals and slow the oxidation of LDL cholesterol </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DIET: vitamin E may protect LDL from oxidation, preventing heart disease </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DIET: Total daily fiber intake must be in the range of 25 to 38 grams per day </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soluble fiber has been shown to lower cholesterol </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DIET: Total fat consumption must be significantly lower than the current 30 percent of total daily caloric intake guidelines </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated fat has to be under 10% of the total daily caloric intake </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cholesterol consumption should much lower than 300 mg per day </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Some Risk Factors Contributing to CHD (pp. 268-278) <ul><li>High blood pressure (Hypertension) – a measure of the forces exerted against the walls of the blood vessels by the blood flowing through them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SEE Table 11.4 Blood Pressure Guildelines (p.274) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthy blood pressure is 120/80 or lower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertension is 160/96 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUT 140/90 increases the risk disease and premature death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systolic blood pressure is the first number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It reflects the pressure exerted during the forceful contraction of the heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diastolic blood pressure is the second number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is taken during the heart’s relaxation, when no blood is being </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Some Risk Factors Contributing to CHD (pp. 268-278) <ul><li>Diabetes – a disease in which the body does not produce or utilize insulin properly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In diabetes, blood glucose is unable to enter the cells because </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. the pancreas totally stops producing insulin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. or the pancreas does not produce enough to meet the body’s needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. or the cells develop insulin resistance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It role is to “unlock” the cells and escort glucose into the cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 80% of people with diabetes die from cardiovascular disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two types of diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Type 1 diabetes – insulin dependent diabetes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The pancreas produces little or no insulin </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Type 2 diabetes – non-insulin-dependent diabetes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The pancreas either does not produce sufficient insulin or it produces adequate amounts but the cells become insulin-resistant </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>90% to 95% of all cases of diabetes are Type 2 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overeating, obesity and lack of physical activity is related closely to Type 2 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>80% of Type 2 diabetics are overweight or have a history of excessive weight </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In most cases Type 2 can be corrected through a special diet, a weight-loss program and a regular exercise program </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Some Risk Factors Contributing to CHD (pp. 268-278) <ul><li>Smoking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single largest preventable cause of illness and premature death in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A much greater risk of death from heart disease than from lung disease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speeds up the process of atherosclerosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The risk of sudden death following a heart attack increases threefold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It releases nicotine and another 1,200 toxic compounds or so into the bloodstream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These substances destroy the inner membrane that protects artery walls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Once the lining is damaged, cholesterol and triglycerides can be deposited readily in the arterial wall blocking the blood flow through the arteries </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It encourages the formation of blood clots, which can completely block an artery already narrowed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It increases heart rate, raises blood pressure, and irritates the heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pipe and cigar smoking and chewing tobacco increase the risk for heart disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The non-smoke toxics are absorbed through the membranes of the moth and end up in the bloodstream </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Some Risk Factors Contributing to CHD (pp. 268-278) <ul><li>Excessive body fat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The risks attributed to obesity actually may be caused by other risk factors that usually accompany excessive body fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overweight people who are physically active do not seem to pose increased risk for premature death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People with a weight problem who desire to achieve recommended weight must </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Daily activity up to 90 minutes a day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic and strength-training programs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A diet low in fat and refined sugars and high in complex carbohydrates and fiber </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce total caloric intake </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Some Risk Factors Contributing to CHD (pp. 268-278) <ul><li>Personal and family history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone with blood relatives who have or had heart disease before age 60 runs a greater risk than someone who has no such history </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tension and stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The individual’s response is what causes stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The body responds to stress by producing more catecholamines (hormones) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These hormones elevate the heart rate, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If a person is under constant stress the hormones stay elevated in the bloodstream </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are greater incidences of heart disease in older people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As we get older lifestyles change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less physical activity, poor nutrition, obesity and etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Guidelines for Preventing CHD (pp. 278-280) <ul><li>Most cardiovascular risk factors are preventable and reversible </li></ul><ul><li>The key elements in preventing disorders of the cardiovascular system are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular physical activity in combination with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proper nutrition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance of tobacco </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood pressure control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stress management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weight control </li></ul></ul></ul>

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