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Personal Statement Unlike many students, I began my quest for post-secondary education in the autumn of my life. As a non-traditional student I was very apprehensive about where to even start and as life goes, I met a woman in the parking garage of the complex I lived in (Sharon), and we started talking one day. She went on to tell me about her passion in life which was guiding people with drug and alcohol problems to get sober. After meeting and talking with her, I was consumed with what she had said and couldn’t stop thinking about it. You see, I grew up in an alcoholic home with the physical and emotional abuse that comes with being the child, grandchild, and great-grandchild of alcoholic parents, grandparents, and great-grandparents. And, you guessed it! I, in turn became an alcoholic which lasted until I was in the early autumn of my life. I sobered up and have been in recovery for ten years. Cont.
Personal Statement Cont. For six months I thought and actually dreamed about going to school to become an Addiction Counselor. However, I was terrified of the thought I would fail. It had been instilled in me growing up that you go to work or get married. Education was not something my family considered important, necessary, or even talked about. I woke up one morning and registered for school. It has been one of the best decisions of my life and I have excelled at every opportunity and challenge my education has presented.
My passion for becoming an addiction counselor is still burning and I would like to continue in the field at the graduate level to get a higher level licensing in the State of Arizona. If I can be the counselor that made a difference in one alcoholic or addicts life I will have accomplished my goal. Also, I will be the only one of seven children and a very large extended family who ever attained education beyond high school. Cont.
Personal Statement Cont. I graduated with a degree in Chemical Dependency from Rio Salado College (with distinction) and I am a Phi Theta Kappa. I am also on the National Dean’s list. I just have to add, going to this particular Community College for my AAS made the difference in how I approached continuing my education. Rio Salado excels in degree and program structure and the faculty is the best! I will have my Bachelor’s degree from Argosy in April of 2010, and my GPA at this time is 3.88. At this juncture in my life I am pursuing acceptance into a graduate program to get my Master’s in Addiction Counseling. My interests include helping the elderly people I live near, gardening, animals, and I like to read in my spare time. I attribute my interest in the elderly to a grandfather that I dearly loved and who taught me how to cook at a very young age. I have the most beautiful roses, and a small Chihuahua, “Willie,” who thinks he rules my kingdom and is very good company for me.
Resume Diane Ostlund 16225 N. 29th St. Lot #40 Phoenix, Arizona 85032 email@example.com Home (602) 606-2366 Cell (480) 246-1168 Professional Profile Six years’ experience in Substance Abuse Counseling; Behavioral and Mental Health experience in the Methadone Maintenance Treatment of addictions. Counseling, assessments, screening, intakes, treatment plans, knowledge of Value Options policy and procedure. Clinical Liaison with RBHA of Maricopa County (Magellan): Coordinated care and referrals for SMI population. I have working knowledge of crisis interventions and referrals. Advocate for the Drug court for felons. Cont.
Resume Cont. Qualifications Substance Abuse Counselor/Clinician/Treatment CoordinatorOrganizerStrong attention to detailTelephones Excellent oral and written communication skillsMulti-taskerPC SkillsAbility to work independently and as part of a teamProblem solving skillsAbility to work in a fast-paced environmentManagement
Resume Cont. Education;
Argosy University -Senior Present BA Psychology- 1 Class to reach my goal with a Degree in Psychology / Concentration in Addictions 3.92 GPA
Resume Cont. Intake Coordinator 2009-2010 Special Care Hospital Corp-New Vision Paradise Valley Hospital 3929 East Bell Rd. Phoenix, AZ 85032 Coordinator of the Medical Stabilization Program working closely with the medical professionals at the hospital to provide administrative and clinical support for effective and efficient delivery of services.
Resume Cont. Screening, intake,assessment, orientation, referral, crisis intervention, reporting/recordkeeping, case management, treatment/post-treatment planning, client education, and consultation for alcohol and opiate dependent population. Provide administrative support by coordinating scheduling, documentation of new client intake process, and treatment planning process. Licensed Substance Abuse Counselor 2008 Hope House of Itasca County INC. 604 S. Pokegamaave. Grand Rapids, Minnesota 55744
Resume Cont. Provide counseling services to individuals, client groups, and families: Utilizing twelve core functions of counseling:screening, intake,assessment, orientation, referral, crisis intervention, reporting/record keeping, case management, treatment/post-treatment planning, client education, and consultation. Conduct group therapy, individual counseling and/or family education/ referrals as appropriate according to the treatment plans and job assignment. Represent the agency as a member of Itasca County Wellness Court. Produce and send concise and clearly written progress notes on active clients to all professionals involved in the clients care. Complete intake process on new clients and conduct case consultation as needed. Maintain all records, reports, and files on individual clients. Facilitate community chemical awareness education classes. Provide crisis intervention and emergency services when necessary. Referrals and coordination of SMI population to proper mental health facilities.
Resume Cont. Licensed Substance Abuse /Clinic 2005-2007 Manager/Counselor Intensive Treatment Systems 19401 N. Cave Creek Road #18 Phoenix, AZ 85024 Demonstrated skills in job by being promoted to clinic manager within 8 months of start date. Conduct individual, group and family counseling sessions. Develop individual treatment plans and assists employees in all areas of substance abuse recovery including state and federal guidelines. Discharge and aftercare plans. Monitor behavior contract and conduct follow-up meetings with clients. Facilitate staff meetings, interviews and screens new clients, produce and review progress reports on clients.
Resume Cont. Compile and complete charting, summary reports, and inter-agency referral forms for clients. Facilitate, supervise and provide access to chemical dependency recovery program methods, groups and drug and alcohol awareness programs/ Act as a liaison with and information source for community recovery programs, organizations and facilities. Clinic administrative duties; billing, reports, employee incidents, ordering, purchasing, and keeping the facility up to federal, state, and local guidelines.
CSR 2002-2005 DBL Distributing Inc.Scottsdale, Arizona 85998 My job involved handling heavy call volume to assist customers with problems on their orders such as damaged freight and claims for non-receipt of orders. I assisted customers in tracking orders with major freight carriers and issued all return merchandise call tags for merchandise to be returned to us. Resolved problems for customers for mis-shipped and short shipped orders-priced product and regenerated orders. Generated return merchandise numbers for all defective product. My job also included resolving complex problems for customers by extensive research and responding by email, written or telephone communication. I am able to navigate on the Internet and type 40 wpm and operate all general office equipment.
Resume Cont. Account Service Representative 2000-2001 Kaiser Permanente’Fort Worth, Texas Serviced group employer health insurance plans. Duties included balancing individual companies’ health benefits for their employee’s group plans on a month-to-month basis. Adding and deleting for qualifying events, providing employees with information to access benefits in their area. I have working knowledge of all general office equipment.
Table of Contents-SSAL SSAL I. Research skills A. Maintaining change after conjoint behavioral alcohol treatment for men: Outcomes at 6 months. II. Cognitive abilities A. Approaches and Theories used by Therapists III. Communication skills A. Suggestions for Joe’s Self-Handicapping to Decrease IV. Ethics & Diversity awareness A. Advertisements for Gender Role Behaviors V. Knowledge of foundations of the field A. Treatment Recommendation for John VI. Knowledge of applied psychology: A. Explanation of Treatment for Katherine’s Schizophrenia Concern’s
Research Methods Maintaining change after conjoint behavioral alcohol treatment for men: Outcomes at 6 months.
AIM: To compare the effectiveness of standard behavioral couples therapy for alcohol problems to two maintenance enhanced therapies. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Outpatient substance abuse treatment clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety males with alcohol abuse or dependence and their female partners. INTERVENTIONS: Weekly, outpatient therapy in one of three randomly assigned conditions: Alcohol Behavioral Couples Therapy (ABCT), Alcoholics Anonymous plus ABCT (AA/ABCT) or Relapse Prevention plus ABCT (RP/ABCT). FINDINGS: The men significantly reduced the frequency of drinking and heavy drinking during treatment. During the first 6 months post-treatment, 65.7% of male subjects were classified as improved on a composite measure of drinking and drinking-related consequences. Compared to baseline levels, the percentage of abstinent days increased and heavy drinking days decreased, but the three conditions did not differ. Two outcome variables favored the purely behavioral treatment conditions (ABCT and RP/ABCT) over the AA/ABCT condition: time to the first heavy drinking day was longer for subjects in the ABCT condition than subjects in the AA/ABCT condition, and subjects in the RP/ABCT condition tended to have shorter drinking episodes than subjects in the AA/ABCT condition. Subjects who complied with post-treatment maintenance plans were more likely to be abstinent than subjects who did not. CONCLUSIONS: Results favored the two behavioral conditions and did not suggest additional benefit from combining AA with behavioral couple’s therapy, but those who did attend AA showed a positive impact.
Research Methods Reliability of drinking data. Extensive analyses examined the reliability and validity of the drinking and drinking consequences data. Agreements between clients and spouses on reports of drinking during treatment were examined using multivariate analysis of variance procedures to calculate partial correlations (adjusted for repeated measures on the couples). Agreement was excellent for number of drinking days per month, r (184) = 0.90, p< 0.001. Agreement on reports of number of heavy drinking days per month during treatment was more difficult to determine because of the different recording formats for clients and spouses. Spouse reports of number of heavy drinking days per month were correlated with client reports of number of days per week on which they drank => 3, => 4 or - 5 drinks per day. Agreement was significant for each definition, r (184)=0.73, p<0.001, r (184)=0.70, p<0.001; r (184)=0.71, p< 0.001, respectively. Subjects in the AA/ABCT condition were significantly more likely to attend AA (x^sup 2^ (2, N= 83) = 28.35, p < 0.001) and were more likely to attend AA meetings frequently (> 10 meetings) than subjects in the other two conditions (x^sup 2^ (2, N= 83) = 30.23, p<0.001). Spouse in the AA/ABCT condition were significantly more likely to attend Alanon (x^sup 2^ (2, N= 83) = 19.90, p<0.001) than spouses in the other two conditions. (Addiction, 1999). I believe this was an exploratory trial.
Research Methods Exploring patterns of remission from alcohol dependence with and without Alcoholics Anonymous in a population sample
Bivariateanalyses were conducted comparing the characteristics for the 268 remitted alcohol-dependent respondents who had never attended Alcoholics Anonymous (70.5% of sample; n = 189), attended but not in the last year (17.2%; n = 46), or attended in the past 12 months (12.3%; n = 33; of the original 277 respondents, nine were excluded because of missing data). Those who had never attended AA had experienced fewer alcohol problems prior to remission (p < .001) and were less likely to be abstinent in the past 12 months (p < .001) as compared with those who had ever attended AA or who had attended in the past 12 months. In addition, respondents displayed significant differences in current age (with those who never attended AA being younger; p < .02) and in ever having attended other alcohol or drug treatment (those who never attended AA were less likely to have ever accessed other treatment; p < .001; details of analyses are available upon request). The following figure displays a box-and-whiskers diagram of the variance for the mean difference in age between the time of last heaviest drinking period and of last symptom between the three groups of resolved respondents (never, ever, last year attendance of AA).2 As can be observed, the variance for those who never attended AA was larger than the variance for those who ever attended AA or who attended in the last year. This was confirmed by Levene's test of homogeneity of variance (p < .02; standard deviation: never attended AA = 5.4; ever attended AA = 4.6; attended AA last year = 2.6).
Research Methods The Mental Health Supplement to the Ontario Health Survey is a stratified, multistage, area probability sample of the general population ages 15 and older in Ontario, excluding individuals in institutions, those living on Native reserves, and the homeless (Ontario Ministry of Health, 1995). A detailed discussion of the supplement's sampling design is presented elsewhere (Boyle et al., 1996). The supplement's questionnaire used a modified version of the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO-CIDI; World Health Organization, 1990) to generate DSM-III-R diagnoses (American Psychiatric Association, 1987). Of interest in this paper are the 277 individuals with a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol dependence but no diagnosis of abuse or dependence in the last year (Contemporary Drug Problems, 2001). This is an exploratory article with a sample of individuals in remission from a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol.
Gender, Treatment and Self-Help in Remission from Alcohol Use Disorders The participants were women and men with alcohol use disorderswho, at baseline, had not received prior professional treatmentfor this disorder. These individuals had an initial contactwith the alcoholism treatment system via an information andreferral (I&R) center or detoxification (detox) program.The four I&R centers involved in the study provided servicesover the telephone or in person during information and referralsessions.
Research Methods The three detox programs provided detox services toindividuals in the three counties in which they were located.One program was for women only, the other two admitted bothwomen and men. At baseline, data were collected from 628 eligible individuals.After providing institutional review board-approved informedconsent, these individuals completed a baseline inventory describedbelow. Individuals in the study had an alcohol use disorder,as determined by one or more substance use problems, dependencesymptoms, drinking to intoxication in the past month and/orperception of alcohol abuse as a significant problem. At 1, 3, 8 and 16 years after entering the study, participantswere located, contacted by telephone and asked to complete aninventory that was essentially identical to the baseline inventory.A total of 121 of the 628 baseline participants (19.3%) haddied by the 16-year follow-up. At baseline, compared with theindividuals who survived, those who died were older (40.1 versus33.4 years, t=7.39, P<0.01), less likely to be married (13.2%versus 22.9%, t=2.35, P<0.05) and consumed more alcohol (14.9versus 12.7 ounces of ethanol on a typical drinking day, t=1.99,P<0.05). Of the remaining 507 individuals, 422, 391, 408and 405 completed the 1-year, 3-year, 8-year and 16-year follow-ups,respectively. We focus here on 461 (90.9%) of the 507 surviving individualswho completed two or more follow-ups or the 16-year follow-up.Compared with the remaining 46 surviving individuals, these461 individuals were more likely to be women (50.3% versus 32.6%,t=2.30, P<0.05) and to be employed at baseline (44.3% versus21.7%, t=2.97, P<0.01).
Research Methods Participants were assessed by mail surveys and telephoneinterviews on participation in professional treatment and AlcoholicsAnonymous (AA), alcohol-related functioning and indices of lifecontext and coping (Gender, Treatment and Self-Help in Remission from Alcohol Use Disorders, 2006). This is an evaluation article.
Magazine Coverage of Self-Help Groups from July 1982 to July 1992: A Content Analysis The study was conducted by analyzing 44 articles about the self-help movement. Articles were found by conducting a CD Search of the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature for magazine stories about the movement written between July 1982 and July 1992. The 10-year time frame encompassed the years when self-help groups appeared to have multiplied the most, been at their most popular, and then come under attack from critics. Articles were located using a key-word search of the phrases "self-help groups," "self-help movement," and "12-step programs." The search revealed 59 articles about self-help groups from which it was determined that 44 articles would be coded. (It was the author's belief that 44 articles constituted a representative sampling of total articles about the general self-help movement.) The study excluded coverage of specific self-help groups, such as those for bereaved parents or people trying to refrain from drug use, and included only articles about the self-help movement in general. Specific groups were excluded because the author believed that they might have received different coverage from the general movement, and would have detracted from the intent of this study, which was to focus on the overall concept of self-help.
Research Methods Articles were randomly selected by writing all titles found in the Reader's Guide on separate pieces of paper. All pieces were placed in a hat and picked one by one until 44 titles were chosen. Random sampling was assured by replacing each piece of paper in the hat after it had been picked. A total of 30 magazines were used in the study. Data analysis supported the hypothesis that magazine coverage of the self-help movement was largely favorable in the early- to mid-1980s, but became more negative in the late 1980s and early 1990s. In the early and mid 1980s, 64% of the sentences were favorable, but from 1988 to 1992, only 46% were positive. (x2 = 43.29, df = 2, p < .001) (A Content Analysis, 1994). This article was a replication with modifications.
Research Methods References: Barbara S. McCrady, Elizabeth E Epstein, Linda S Hirsch. (1999). Maintaining change after conjoint behavioral alcohol treatment for men: Outcomes at 6 months. Addiction, 94(9), 1381-96. Retrieved February 1, 2008, from Health Module database. (Document ID: 45188994). http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=45188994&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=11123&RQT=309&VName=PQD
John A Cunningham, F Curtis Breslin. (2001). Exploring patterns of remission from alcohol dependence with and without Alcoholics Anonymous in a population sample. Contemporary Drug Problems, 28(4), 559-566. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from Health Module database. (Document ID: 117306525). http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=117306525&sid=4&Fmt=4&clientId=11123&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Rudolf H. Moos, Bernice S. Moos, and Christine Timko.Gender, Treatment and Self-Help in Remission from Alcohol Use Disorders. Clin. Med. Res., Sep 2006; 4: 163 - 174. Retrieved February 2, 2008 from Web. http://www.clinmedres.org/cgi/content/abstract/4/3/163
Critical Thinking Approaches and Theories used by Therapists Diane Ostlund 04/20/2010 Argosy University
Do you think there is one approach that every therapist should use? Provide reasons for your answer and illustrate them to with examples. And, is any approach not necessary for working with clients?
I believe that there is not a certain approach or technique in counseling the client. There are many integrative approaches that can be used. I think this depends on the therapist and how experienced they are in their profession as to what technique or approach should be used and what the clients needs and problems are. In substance abuse counseling I use the cognitive and behavioral approach as a foundation in treatment of the alcoholic or drug addict. As I get to know the client and different needs and issues arise I can integrate other techniques. As to the question of whether there are a certain techniques that are not necessary in treatment, I do not believe so. Each person in treatment comes with a very unique set of issues whether it is gender issues, family problems, addictions, and eating disorders. Each technique has value in some way to any given situation. An integrative approach to counseling and psychotherapy is best characterized by attempts to look beyond and across the confines of single-school approaches in order to see what can be learned from, and how clients can benefit from, other perspectives (Arkowitz, 1997). Integrative counseling is the process of selecting concepts and methods from a variety of systems. The integrative approach can ideally be a creative synthesis of the unique contributions of diverse theoretical orientations, dynamically integrating concepts and techniques that fit the uniqueness of a practitioner’s personality and style (Designing and Integrative Approach, retrieved 2008).
For beginning counselor practitioners, it makes sense to select a primary theory that is the closest to their basic beliefs. It is essential to learn that theory as thoroughly as possible, and at the same time be open to discovering ways of drawing on techniques from many different theories. By beginning to work within the parameters of a single theory, practitioners will have an anchor point from which to construct their own counseling perspective. However, simply by adhering to a primary theory does not imply that a practitioner can apply the same techniques to all clients. It is essential to be flexible in the manner in which techniques are applied to a diverse range of clients (Designing and Integrative Approach, 2008). http://counselingoutfitters.com/vistas/vistas04/29.pdf
Communication Treatment Recommendation for John Diane Ostlund
As a trainee attending to the case I would explain the difference between John and Charles to the parents as an abandonment issue and would recommend either a psychologist or a psychiatrist. I believe I would recommend family counseling. The aggressive behavior is one of the characteristics of someone who has had loss or abandonment issues and this is what John is experiencing now. Unless, of course, he had the aggression behaviors before the separation from his family.
In the lecture notes the question asks if he should see a psychiatrist or psychologist, but in the grading criteria it asks if John should see a physician or a psychiatrist so I am going to discount the physician and go with the psychologist in the beginning for a treatment recommendation. I believe family counseling would help John and his parents in understanding the trauma John experienced when he was left behind. At this young age it makes quite an impact on a young mind to experience such a loss even if only for a short time. He may feel that he is not loved as much as his brother because of the parent’s decision to leave him with his grandparents.
Communication Also, there is the issue of John being an identical twin. This may intensify because of the loss of his twin brother, “there is now ample evidence that individuals of similar genetic endowment tend to seek similar environments and experiences” (Biopsychology, 2009). Even if the separation was for a short time, the trauma for John may have been great, considering the stage of adolescent development he is now in. In John’s treatment, the family psychologist could counsel and do some role playing with the family. If, after a significant amount of time there does not seem to be positive changes with John he may need to see a psychiatrist, although I believe the only difference between the two caregivers would be the pharmacological aspect, and I am not convinced that medication for children at such an early age is the answer. I believe there will be changes in John’s behavior with positive energy around him, lots of love, and counseling.
Ethics and Diversity Awareness
Domestic Violence Needs in Straight, Gay, and Lesbian Couples
Psychology of Women PSY314 UD
Ethics and Diversity Awareness This was a very interesting topic for me to address and the reading and research I found was very informative. The first thing I learned was the biggest barrier for gay and lesbians seeking services for domestic violence is that it is very hard for police or service agencies to determine which partner is the victim. The reason for this is sometimes the abusive partner will call the police or go to a domestic violence shelter as a way to further control her victim (lesbianlife.about.com, 2009). Another barrier is that lesbian survivors may face homophobia in service agencies and shelters (lesbianlife.about.com).
The typical image of a victim of domestic violence is a heterosexual woman attempting to hide her black eye from family, friends, and the general public. This is not the case anymore as we see more and more gay and lesbian relationships that are living as couples just like a straight couple would live. With gay and lesbian relationships that have domestic violence issues another problem that comes up when they seek help or advice on ending a relationship because of the abuse is they have no legal recourse in most cases (lambda.org/DV_background.htm, 2009). In turn what this means is the support and assistance a straight couple would receive is usually not available to the gay or lesbian couple, whether it be family support or support form an outside agency.
Ethics and Diversity Awareness Myths of Domestic Violence for Lesbians
Lesbian relationships can’t have domestic violence, because they are both women. Only the “butch” partner can be abusive. It must be “mutual abusive” or “fighting” if both partners are of the same sex. A physically smaller partner cannot abuse a larger partner. S/M is abuse and domestic violence. Drugs or alcohol are to blame for the violence if she only attacks when under the influence. There is no place for lesbian victims of domestic violence to get help. It’s not violence because she only threatens and puts me down. She has never hit me.
Ethics and Diversity Awareness Facts about Domestic Violence
· Domestic violence can occur in any relationship, regardless of sexual orientation. · Domestic Violence occurs when one person is clearly the victim. Mutual fighting is not domestic violence. · Even though the perpetrator may be under the influence of drugs or alcohol when violence occurs, drugs and alcohol do not “cause” the domestic violence · 1 in 3 women will be assaulted by an intimate partner in her lifetime (30-50% of all women) · 30% of LGBT couples experience domestic violence · 3 out of 4 women murdered are killed by their partners · Acts of domestic violence occur every 15 to 18 seconds in the United States · 30% of all hospital emergency room admissions are female victims of domestic violence · Six million American women are beaten each year. Four thousand of them are killed. · 11 women die every day as a result of domestic violence (lesbianlife.about.com, 2009)
Ethics and Diversity Awareness After studying the way gay’s and lesbian’s are viewed and treated when it comes to domestic violence I would have to say we need to get information out to the community to let everyone know that domestic violence occurs in these relationships as well as straight relationships and they need support services and shelters to go to just like straight couples do. I looked around for information in Phoenix, Arizona on shelters and domestic violence help for the GLBT and I could not find anything of this sort. References: http://lesbianlife.about.com/od/lesbianhealth/a/DVFactsMyths_2.htm http://lambda.org/DV_background.htm
Knowledge of the Field In the case of Katherine and her concern about schizophrenia being hereditary, I would say that it should be a concern. According to Tsuang, “ following the principles of the diathesis-stress perspective, researchers believe that some people inherit a biological predisposition to schizophrenia and develop the disorder later when they face extreme stress, usually during late adolescence or early adulthood “(Abnormal Psychology, 2003). Molecular and genetic studies suggest “various studies have identified possible gene defects on chromosomes 1,5,6,8,9,10,11,13,18,19, and 22, each of which may predispose individuals to develop schizophrenia” (Abnormal Psychology, 2003). With this information and what I have studied in a previous Psychology class I would say she and her children would be at risk. Her risk would be the environmental and social factors; exposure to the elements of the mental disorder her husband has and with her children it could be a combination of genetics, social, and environmental stressors.
Treatment for schizophrenia has changed dramatically over the years. It used to be institutionalized care when we had state mental hospitals back in the 50’s and 60’s. Now we have private care facilities for those that can afford them if the disorder warrants it and the family cannot take care of the individual. The individual states have behavioral health care programs where the patient may go into a group or residential facility.
Knowledge of the Field Also, we use antipsychotic drugs to reduce the symptoms in the majority of the patients with schizophrenia. Some of these drugs include conventional drugs such as Thorazine, Haldol, and Loxitane. The newer antipsychotic drugs used are Risperdal, Seroquel, and Clozapine.
I don’t believe schizophrenia can be prevented but it sure can be treated. If you are genetically predisposed there would be nothing you could do to prevent it. If it was a predisposed, social, or environmental cause I believe you could watch for the signs and symptoms and make sure you get early treatment and psychotherapy for the disorder. Schizophrenia is “believed to be caused by a combination of both genetic and social factors individual to the person's circumstances. For example, someone's genetic make up could put them at a higher risk, but stressful life events could trigger onset of the symptoms” (Hereditary Health, 2009). References:
Hereditary Health http://www.thesite.org/healthandwellbeing/askthesiteqandas/mentalandemotionalhealthqandas/hereditaryhealth
Ronald J. Comer. Abnormal Psychology, 5thed; Worth Pub. 2003
Pinel, J.P.J. (2009). Biopsychology. (7th Ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Knowledge of applied psychology: SSAL
Vision Diane Ostlund 03/23/2009 Argosy University Physiological Psychology-350 A TIA is the acronym for a “transient ischemic attack, which affects the primary visual cortex” (Argosy Lecture, 2009). When a person suffers a TIA, the blood flow to the brain is temporarily stopped or interrupted. A TIA is “like a stroke, except that it lasts only a brief time, possibly up to 24 hours. However, typical TIAs often last less than 30 minutes and the person remains conscious during the episode” (www.healthopedia.com).
In the case of Charles, who has been having visual problems his vision could be anything from blurred vision to temporary loss of vision.
The major neural structures involved would be the Thalamus, secondary visual cortex, and primary visual cortex. The cortical organization of vision “refers to of or relating to the cerebral cortex” (Argosy Lecture. 2009). The visual pathway refers to visual cortex, (stemming from the base of the brain from the cerebral cortex, the left and right hemispheres, the lateral geniculate nucleus, optic chiasm, and the optic nerve (Argosy Lecture, 2009). “The largest pathway are the retina, geniculate, striate pathway which carries or conducts signals from each retina to the primary cortex and on to the lateral geniculate nuclei of the thalamus” (Pinel, 2009).
Vision “The two optic nerves carry neural impulses from the retinas to the brain, and cross at a juncture that is the optic chiasm. At the optic chiasm the nerve tracts divide in a way the vision of each eye is no longer separated and become the optic tract. When this happens the impulses from the left visual field go to the right side of the brain and the right visual go to the left side of the brain” (Argosy Lecture, 2009).
“The thalamus is a group of nuclei in the middle and on both sides of the brain that acts as a relay station between different parts of the brain. Signals from all of the sensory systems, with the exception of smell, pass through here on their way to the cerebral cortex, and the cortex itself uses it to relay signals to other parts of it and down into the spinal cord. Multiple sensory inputs are processed by the thalamus, including those related to vision, touch, hearing etc. As such, the thalamus is also involved in directing the focus of our attention and screening out distracting stimuli” (www.thebrainlabs.com). References: Pinel, John P.J. Biopsychology. 7th Ed. Boston: Pearson, 2009
Argosy Online. (2009). Physiological Psychology 350: module 2. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from www.myeclassonline.com http://www.healthopedia.com/transient-ischemic-attack/
Prescription Drug Abuse
Advanced General Psychology PSY492 XB
Instructor: M. Viventi
Review Paper Cont. Prescription Drug Abuse has become “A National Dilemma” (Catalano, 2009) in the last five years and non-medical use and abuse of prescription pain medication has risen at an alarming rate in the United States within the past 5 years, especially among adolescents. The number of those abusing prescription drugs exceeds even combined numbers of those abusing cocaine, heroin, inhalants, and hallucinogens (Catalano, 2009).
The onset of prescription drug abuse begins with a chronic pain diagnosis usually in adults because of injury and/or disability in individuals which is extremely prevalent in the United States. Unfortunately, in the last 5 to 10 years taking opiates for pain is well accepted and has brought us to this “Alarming National Dilemma” (Catalano, 2009) which is prescription misuse and abuse. Prescription drug abuse exceeds all other illegal drug use in all ages with the projection to double in the next ten years from 2.8 million to 5.7 million from the baby boom cohort (Addiction, 2009). Adolescent and teen abuse of prescription medication (opiates) has become the drug of choice. Abuse of several categories of prescription drugs has increased markedly in the United States in the past decade and is now at alarming levels for certain agents, especially opioid analgesics and stimulants. Prescription drugs of abuse fit into the same pharmacological classes as their non-prescription counterparts. Thus, the potential factors associated with abuse or addiction versus safe therapeutic use of these agents relates to the expected variables: dose, route of administration, co-administration with other drugs, context of use, and expectations (Compton, Volkow, retrieved March, 29th, 2010).
Review Paper Cont. Future scientific work on prescription drug abuse will include identification of clinical practices that minimize the risks of addiction, the development of guidelines for early detection and management of addiction, and the development of clinically effective agents that minimize the risks for abuse. With the high rates of prescription drug abuse among teenagers in the United States, a particularly urgent priority is the investigation of best practices for effective prevention and treatment for adolescents, as well as the development of strategies to reduce diversion and abuse of medications intended for medical use ( Compton, Volkow, retrieved March, 29th, 2010). Easy access to prescription medication began with doctors over-prescribing for chronic pain. Tolerance to prescription medication increases with length of use and the greatest factor associated with increasing prevalence of opiate abuse appears to be increased by environmental exposure due in large part to the increase in prescriptions of these medications for treating non- cancer pain (R. A. D, R. K. C, W. M. C., retrieved, March 15th, 2010).
Review Paper Cont. Physical dependence, which is sometimes unavoidable, develops when an individual is exposed to a drug at a high enough dose for long enough that the body adapts and develops a tolerance for the drug. This means that higher doses are needed to achieve a drug's original effects. If the patient stops taking the drug, then withdrawal will occur, however, the development of physical dependence doesn't necessarily lead to addiction in all cases, "It means that the individual can't just stop taking the drug; the dose has to be tapered (Meadows, 2001). Appropriate use is key and physician supervision and appropriate use is critical for all prescription drugs. Use Prescription Drugs Safely and always follow medication directions carefully, don't increase or decrease doses without talking with your doctor, don't stop taking medication on your own, don't crush or break pills, be clear about the drug's effects on driving and other daily tasks, learn about the drug's potential interactions with alcohol, other prescription medicines, and over-the-counter medicines, inform your doctor about your past history of substance abuse, and don't use other people's prescription medications and don't share yours (Meadows, 2001). Once addicted to opiates the addict will begin to ‘doctor shop’ when PCP begins titrating patient or suggests a pain management clinic. The next step for the addicted individual is to look for the drugs on the street which can lead to crime and legal problems because the cost of buying prescription drugs on the street is very expensive.
Review Paper Cont.
Addiction to opiates requires medically supervised stabilization/detoxification which means the individual may have to be treated to alleviate the withdrawal symptoms and the psychological addiction to drugs. Medically stabilizing would require a stay in a medical facility and monitored by a doctor. After stabilizing, the doctor or case manager would refer to an aftercare facility to maintain abstinence from opiates and address the psychological addiction to drugs. Also, while in a residential aftercare facility the individual would begin support groups to maintain abstinence which will decrease the chance of relapse. The patient can also attend these groups for support after leaving the treatment center. Drug abuse has many physical implications including brain tissue damage and the unpredictability of the drugs can lead to an overdose or death. Before I end this paper I have to let you know that on Friday, March, 26th, 2010 they found my nephew who was 28 years old and addicted to opioids, dead in his bed. We are still waiting for the official autopsy but all signs and his lifestyle have led the authorities involved to believe it was a drug overdose.
Review Paper Cont.
This “National Dilemma” is a problem we as a society need to take strong measures to combat the disastrous prescription medication abuse that has befallen teenagers and adults in the United States, as well as the world. We can start by supporting legislation on how the medications are dispensed and controlled by doctors. Also, we can monitor and make sure our prescribed medication is not accessible to our children at home. As leaders and professionals in our communities we need to educate and inform children and adults of the dangers these medications can bring if they are not used as prescribed.
Review Paper References
Meadows, Michelle. Prescription Drug Use and Abuse. FDA Consumer; Sep/Oct2001-
Catalano, Jeannine. Pain Management and Substance Abuse: A National Dilemma.
Social Work in Health; Nov/Dec2009, Vol. 24 Issue 6, p477-490, 14p.
References Cont. R. A. D, R. K. C, W. M. C. “Prescription drug abuse linked to increased availability of pain meds.” (Cover story). Brown University Psychopharmacology Update [serial online]. February 2009; 20(2):1-7. Available from: Academic Search Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed March 15, 2010.
Compton W, Volkow, N. Abuse of prescription drugs and the risk of addiction [e-book]. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.; n.d. Available from: SocINDEX with Full Text, Ipswich, MA. Accessed March 29, 2010.
My Future in Learning Lifelong Learning My future in learning will be an ongoing process. In the field I have chosen we have to keep up with State and Federal continuing education credits (CEU’S). This is very important for us as counselor’s because the behavior and mental health field is forever changing and people and addictions seem to change. Behaviors change with the ever constant illegal drugs that are introduced to us on an almost daily basis. For us to be effective in helping the addicted and those with co-occurring disorders we must stay on top of all the information and education we can get out hands on to make sure we can help even just that one person that might be sitting in front of us someday. My reflection of the past few years is one that I will cherish for the rest of my life. I started in the fall semester of 2006 and it has been a very positive experience for me. I have had some wonderful instructors that offered and at times insisted to call on them if I had any problems or questions. This for me was very impressive and if the need was there I didn’t hesitate to ask for help. Cont.
Lifelong Learning Cont. In the fall of 2007 I broke my wrist and had to be in a cast for 8 weeks. Argosy worked with me so I didn’t have to lose the class and start completely over. I really appreciated that and I thank Argosy and my recovery (almost eleven years), for this new beginning in life. I also enjoyed the other classmates and although I am much older than most, I learned so much from them and their fresh new ideas. Thanks to all of you! In closing I have to mention the program and courses gave me a very good foundation to move on to graduate school and I am looking forward to it instead of dreading it when I began my Undergraduate work. I feel as though I have had the excellence in education that Argosy advertises to all new students. Diane Ostlund
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