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  • 1. What Are Communicable Diseases?Lesson 1 When was the last time you had a cold? How did you treat it?
  • 2. Lesson ObjectivesLesson 1In this lesson, you will learn to:• Identify the types of pathogens that cause communicable diseases• Describe the ways in which communicable diseases are spread• Develop strategies to help prevent communicable diseases
  • 3. What Are Communicable Diseases?Lesson 1Microorganisms and Communicable Diseases• Although most microorganisms—living things too small to be seen without a microscope—are harmless, a few can cause communicable diseases.• Knowing how communicable diseases spread can help you choose behaviors to reduce your risk of getting them.
  • 4. Causes of Communicable DiseasesLesson 1Pathogens• Common pathogens include certain viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoans, and rickettsias.• Pathogens cause diseases.• If the body is not able to fight off an infection, a disease develops.
  • 5. Causes of Communicable DiseasesLesson 1Diseases by Type of Pathogen
  • 6. Causes of Communicable DiseasesLesson 1Viruses• Viruses by themselves are inactive—they need living cells to reproduce.• After a virus penetrates a cell (called the host cell), the virus takes control of the cell to manufacture more viruses.• The new viruses burst from the cell, usually killing it, and take over other cells.• Viruses usually run their course and eventually are killed by the immune system.• Antibiotics do not work against viruses.
  • 7. Causes of Communicable DiseasesLesson 1Bacteria• Most bacteria are harmless, and many types are essential for life.• When bacteria enter the body, they multiply through cell division.• Some bacterial pathogens, such as the ones that cause tetanus, produce a toxin.• Bacteria are usually destroyed by the immune system.• Most bacterial diseases can be treated with antibiotics.
  • 8. Causes of Communicable DiseasesLesson 1Other Types of Pathogens• Fungi are plantlike organisms. Some types can cause diseases of the skin and diseases of the mucous membranes.• Protozoans are single-celled organisms that are larger and more complex than bacteria.• Rickettsias are pathogens that resemble bacteria. Often these organisms enter humans through the bites of insects.
  • 9. How Communicable Diseases Are TransmittedLesson 1Transmission of Communicable Diseases• Transmission can occur through direct and indirect contact and through breathing contaminated air.• If you know how they are spread, you can take precautions and avoid infection.
  • 10. How Communicable Diseases Are TransmittedLesson 1Direct Contact• Direct contact includes touching, biting, kissing, and sexual contact.• Sneezing and coughing can spray infectious droplets of saliva or mucus into a nearby person’s eyes, nose, or mouth.• A pregnant female may also transmit an infection to her unborn child through the placenta.
  • 11. How Communicable Diseases Are TransmittedLesson 1Indirect Contact• Contaminated objects: Inanimate objects can become contaminated with infectious discharges or secretions.• Vectors: Common vectors include flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Lyme disease and malaria are spread by vectors.• Water and food: Careless handling and storage of food and water supplies that become contaminated with human or animal feces are major sources of contamination and illness.
  • 12. How Communicable Diseases Are TransmittedLesson 1Airborne Transmission• Airborne transmission is different from direct contact because the pathogens don’t settle quickly on surfaces.• You don’t have to be close to an infected person to inhale the pathogens.• Diseases that are transmitted this way include chicken pox, tuberculosis, and influenza.
  • 13. Strategies for Preventing Communicable DiseaseLesson 1Washing Hands• Handwashing is the single most effective strategy for preventing the spread of disease.• Wash your hands before you prepare food, before you eat, and after you use the bathroom.• Make it a habit to wash your hands after handling animals (especially reptiles) or animal wastes.• When someone in your home is ill, keep hands clean to prevent the spread of pathogens.
  • 14. Strategies for Preventing Communicable DiseaseLesson 1Handling Food Properly• Foodborne illness occurs in places where food is handled improperly.• Always wash your hands before you handle food.• Use paper towels, not dishcloths or sponges, to keep surfaces and equipment clean.• Separate raw meat from other foods. Cook food to its proper temperature.• Chill cold and leftover foods quickly to the proper temperature.
  • 15. Strategies for Preventing Communicable DiseaseLesson 1Other Prevention Strategies Avoid sharing eating utensils, makeup, combs and brushes, and other personal items. Avoid unnecessary contact with people who are ill. Cover your mouth when you cough or sneeze. Be sure you are vaccinated against particular diseases as recommended by your physician. Practice abstinence from sexual activity. Learn to manage stress.
  • 16. Quick ReviewLesson 1Q. Which of the following is NOT a type of common pathogen and the disease it causes? 1. Viruses: influenza, bacteria, tuberculosis 2. Cortex: pathenogens, bacteria, cirrhosis 3. Fungi: athlete’s foot, protozoans, malaria 4. Rickettsias: typhus, bacteria, tuberculosis
  • 17. Quick Review - AnswerLesson 1A. 2. Cortex: pathenogens, bacteria, cirrhosis Types of common pathogens and the diseases they cause do NOT include cortex—pathenogens, bacteria, cirrhosis. Click Next to attempt another question.
  • 18. Quick ReviewLesson 1Q. Pathogens can spread through direct and indirectcontact and through breathing contaminated air. Which ofthe following is NOT a habit you can adopt to limittheir spread? 1. Washing your hands 2. Inspecting your throat for redness and mucus 3. Covering your mouth when you cough or sneeze 4. Being sure you are vaccinated against particular diseases as recommended by your physician
  • 19. Quick Review - AnswerLesson 1A. 2. Inspecting your throat for redness and mucus Pathogens can spread through direct and indirect contact and through breathing contaminated air. Habits that can be adopted to limit their spread does NOT include inspecting your throat for redness and mucus. Click Next to attempt another question.
  • 20. Quick ReviewLesson 1Q. Your risk of getting a communicable disease is less if you 1. eat a balanced diet. 2. participate in regular physical activity. 3. avoid the use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs. 4. All of the above
  • 21. Quick Review - AnswerLesson 1A. 4. All of the above Your risk of getting a communicable disease is less if you eat a balanced diet; participate in regular physical activity; avoid the use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs. Click Next to attempt another question.
  • 22. Quick ReviewLesson 1Choose the appropriate option.Q. The fungus that causes athlete’s True foot lives in warm, moist places. It is a pathogen that can be easily caught at the gym or in False communal showers.
  • 23. Quick Review - AnswerLesson 1A. True. The fungus that causes athlete’s foot lives in warm, moist places. It is a pathogen that can be easily caught at the gym or in communal showers.
  • 24. Lesson 1 End of Lesson 1Click Home to view the Main menu.
  • 25. Quick Review - AnswerLesson 1A. Correct! Types of common pathogens and the diseases they cause do NOT include: cortex—pathenogens, bacteria, cirrhosis.
  • 26. Quick Review - AnswerLesson 1You have answered the question incorrectly. Go back to tryagain, or click Next to view the correct answer.
  • 27. Quick Review - AnswerLesson 1A. Correct! Pathogens can spread through direct and indirect contact and through breathing contaminated air. Habits that can be adopted to limit their spread does NOT include: inspecting your throat for redness and mucus.
  • 28. Quick Review - AnswerLesson 1You have answered the question incorrectly. Go back to tryagain, or click Next to view the correct answer.
  • 29. Quick Review - AnswerLesson 1A. Correct! Your risk of getting a communicable disease is less if you do all of the following: eat a balanced diet; participate in regular physical activity; avoid the use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs.
  • 30. Quick Review - AnswerLesson 1You have answered the question incorrectly. Go back to tryagain, or click Next to view the correct answer.
  • 31. Quick Review - AnswerLesson 1A. Correct! The fungus that causes athlete’s foot lives in warm, moist places. It is a pathogen that can be easily caught at the gym or in communal showers.
  • 32. Quick Review - AnswerLesson 1You have answered the question incorrectly. Go back to tryagain, or click Next to view the correct answer.
  • 33. What Are Communicable Diseases?Lesson 1Microorganisms and Communicable Diseases• Although most microorganisms—living things too small to be seen without a microscope—are harmless, a few can cause communicable diseases.• Knowing how communicable A communicable diseases spread A communicable can help you disease is a disease disease is a disease choose behaviors to reduce that is spread from your risk ofthat is spread from getting them. one living thing to one living thing to another or through another or through the environment. the environment.
  • 34. Causes of Communicable DiseasesLesson 1Pathogens• Common pathogens include certain viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoans, and rickettsias.• Pathogens causeAdiseases. A pathogen pathogen is an organism is an organism• If the body that causesto fight off an infection, a disease that causes is not able develops. disease. disease.
  • 35. Causes of Communicable DiseasesLesson 1Pathogens• Common pathogens include certain viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoans, and rickettsias.• Pathogens cause diseases.• If the body is not able to fight off an infection, a disease develops. An infection is a An infection is a condition that occurs condition that occurs when pathogens when pathogens enter the body, enter the body, multiply, and multiply, and damage body cells. damage body cells.
  • 36. Causes of Communicable DiseasesLesson 1Pathogens• Common pathogens include certain viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoans, and rickettsias.• Pathogens cause diseases. virus is a A virus is a A piece of genetic piece of genetic• If the body is not able to fight off invade material that invade material that an infection, a disease develops. living cells to living cells to reproduce. reproduce.
  • 37. Causes of Communicable DiseasesLesson 1Pathogens• Common pathogens include certain viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoans, and rickettsias. Bacteria Bacteria• Pathogens cause diseases. are single-celled are single-celled microorganisms.• If the body is not able to fight off anmicroorganisms. infection, a disease develops.
  • 38. Causes of Communicable DiseasesLesson 1Bacteria• Most bacteria are harmless, and many types are essential for life.• When bacteria enter the body, they multiply through cell division.• Some bacterial pathogens, such as the ones that cause tetanus, produce a toxin. Toxin is a Toxin is a• Bacteria are usually destroyed by thethat kills system. substance immune substance that kills cells or interferes cells or interferes• Most bacterial diseases can be their functions. with treated with antibiotics. with their functions.
  • 39. How Communicable Diseases Are TransmittedLesson 1Indirect Contact• Contaminated objects: Inanimate objects can become contaminated with infectious discharges or secretions.• Vectors: Common vectors include flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Lyme disease and malaria are spread by vectors. Vector is an Vector is an• Water and food: usually an organism, Careless handling and storage of food organism, usually an and water supplies such become contaminated with human arthropod, such as a arthropod, that as a tick, that tick, that or animal feces are major sources of contamination and illness. carries and transmits carries and transmits pathogens to humans or pathogens to humans or other animals. other animals.