BackgroundS Over twenty thousand years ago primitive man noticed that a piece of hollow cane or dried up fruit shell could make a sound if blown in a correct wayS Wind instruments are considered the third form of music after vocal cords and percussionS Originally primitive one-note instruments would be blown in sequence by a collection of primitive beings to form a primitive melody.S Typically grouped into two families, woodwinds and brass
Background (cont.)S The invention of finger holes proved a huge step in the history of music.S Adding one, two, three and then four holes allowed pentatonic melodies to be created using root notes, with harmonics further extending musical possibilities.S Wind instrument making started in the early 19th century
Woodwind instrumentS A wind instrument is a musical instrument that contains a resonator, in which a column of air vibrates by the player blowing into the mouthpeice at the end.S the pitch is determined by the length of the columnS Woodwinds require blowing through a reed.
PiccoloS The piccolo was originally made out of wood.S One of the earliest pieces to use the piccolo was Beethovens Fifth Symphony.S The piccolo is a type of transverse flute that is pitched an octave above the standard fluteS Has the highest pitch in an orchestra and has a 3 octave range
FluteS The flute, the flute that is most commonly used in Western music, was known to have existed in China about 900 BCE.S The flute got to Europe during the 12th century where it became most used as a military instrument in German speaking areas.S Early flutes were often made in one piece with six fingerholes. During the 1600s, the flute was redesigned and was built in three sections with joints which connected them together.S By 1800, a four-keyed flute was most common, but during that century, an eight-keyed flute was also developed. Currently, the cylindrical Bohem flute is the most commonly used with thirteen or more tone holes controlled by a system of padded keys.
OboeS The oboe is the smallest and highest pitched double reed instrument.S The oboe was invented in the 17th century by Jean Hotteterre and Michel Philidor, two French musicians.S Throuhgout history, several copmosers have written solo pieces for the oboe. These composers include George Frideric Handel, Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Motzart, and Ludwig van Beethoven.
ClarinetS The clarinet was invented in the early 18th century by Johann Cristoph Denner, a German flute makerS The clarinet, a member of the woodwind family, usually consists of a long tube with a mouthpiece at one end and a bell-shaped opening at the other end.S Usually made of wood, the clarinet has tone holes that are covered by small metal levers. To create sound, the musician blows on a flat cane reed that is attatched to the mouthpiece. As the reed vibrates, a full, rich tone is produced.
BassoonS The bassoon was most likely developed in 1650 from the curtal, a similar instrument which was made from a single block of wood.S The bassoon is a double reed instrument. It is made up of about eight feet of cylidrical wood tubing.S There are four joints in the bassoon: the bass joint, the tenor join, the double joint, and the bell joint.
Brass instrumentS A brass instrument is a musical instrument whose sound is produced by vibrations in a resonator, with the vibrations made by the players lips.S Brass instruments are also called labrosones, literally meaning “lip-vibrated instruments”S There are several factors involved in producing different pitches on a brass instrumentS One is the alternation of the players lip tension and another is the air flow through the lips.
TrumpetS The modern trumpet has three valves and a bore that is partly cylindrical, partly conical.S The trumpet is a popular brass instrument that is played in both bands and orchestras.S Most modern bands use trumpets that are pitched in the key of B flat and have a tube of four and a half feet.
French hornS The French horn was developed around the 1650s in France and is a large version of the smaller crescent- shaped horns that existed at the time.S However, the horn did not make its next evolutionary step until the 19th century when valves were added.S This allowed the musician to alter the length of the tubing by depressing or releasing one or more of the three valves.
TubaS The tuba was patented in 1835 by Friedrich Wilhelm Wieprecht (a Prussian bandmaster) and Johann Gottfried Moritz (a German builder).S Tuba is the general name for several musical instruments which are the newest additions to the brass family.S Tubas are the largest instruments in the brass family and also have the lowest pitch.
TromboneS The early trombone, called a sackbut, was almost exactly identical to the modern trombone with a few exceptions.S In the early trombone, the metal that was used to create the instrument was thicker and the bell of the instrument was narrower.S The early trombone, called a sackbut, was almost exactly identical to the modern trombone with a few exceptions.S In the early trombone, the metal that was used to create the instrument was thicker and the bell of the instrument was narrower.
Moral of the storyS Although brass instruments were originally made of brass and woodwind instruments have traditionally been made of wood, the material used to make the body of the instrument is not always a reliable guide to its family type. A more accurate way to determine whether an instrument is brass or woodwind is to examine how the player produces sound. In brass instruments, the players lips vibrate, causing the air within the instrument to vibrate. In woodwind instruments the player either: