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Piano
 

Piano

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    Piano Piano Presentation Transcript

    • PIANOEvan Semenza
    • History• Bartolomeo Cristofori – Padua, Italy – Keeper of Instruments for Medici family• First piano dated 1700, earliest surviving models 1720 (3)• Based on Pianoforte, Harpsichord and Clavichord – attempt to combine loudness of Harpsichord and control and dynamics of Clavichord• Pedals – Gottfried Silbermann 1730s• Industrial Revolution – allowed for higher-quality pianos
    • Construction• Three main models – Grand, Baby Grand, Upright• 88 keys - 52 white, 36 black• 230 strings – shortest two inches (treble), longest 80 inches (bass)• 3 pedals (standard) – damper/sustain, sostenuto, soft/una corda
    • Operation – The Action• Key on pivot depressed – back goes up, raises sticker and whippen• Whippen pushes hammer butt, which pushes pivoted hammer butt, which pushes hammer to string• When key is halfway down, damper spring pulls to lift damper off of string• When hammer is almost at string, hammer jack deactivates, which allows hammer to continue to string under its own inertia – hits string and bounces back slightly• Vibrations of string carried through bridge to soundboard – vibrates to amplify sound• When key is released, whippen drops and damper spring releases, dampers drop onto strings to stop vibrations
    • THE ACTION• Image citation - http://www.pianoworld.com/pworks.htm
    • Piano Action Animation• http://www.piano.christophersmit.com/popU pMotion.html
    • The Pedals• Sustain/Damper Pedal: lifts dampers from all strings• Sustenuto Pedal: keeps raised any damper already raised when pedal is pressed• Soft/Una Corda: : shifts action to right so hammers only hit 2 out of three strings – On an upright – moves hammers closer to string so they hit with less KE
    • The Physics – Playing a Note• Standing wave pattern as a result of standing wave – produces standing wave for wavelength = 2L, L, L/2,…L/2n (L=length of string)• So, frequencies produced by a string are nV/2L (through substitution into v=f*wavelength)• String motion – wave travels both ways from striking point – hits agraffe at one end and bounces back inverted, becomes trailing end of wave going to bridge – bounces back inverted, repeats
    • The Physics – Changing Pitch• Influential factors: length, mass per unit length (thickness), tension• Higher notes have 3 strings to pick up fundamental, first and second partials
    • The Physics – Effect of Design on Timbre• Size not important b/c scale of strings – length, thickness, tension, can be changed to compensate• Influential Factors – Duration of hammer to string contact – Efficiency of energy transfer from hammer to string – String motion after contact ends
    • Physics of Design Continued• Those factors influenced by: – Striking position of hammer (what fraction of string length) – Hammer/string mass ratio – Hardness/material of hammer – Velocity – Hammer width – Hammer resistance (related to efficiency) – String tension – Loss of energy to soundboard
    • Envelope – Middle CImage citation: http://www.zytrax.com/tech/audio/digital-sound.html
    • Soundboard Resonance• Have different resonance frequencies, based off both longitudinal and transverse resonance modesImage citation:http://www.speech.kth.se/music/5_lectures/conklin/howdoes.html
    • Electronic, Techy, Futuristic (not) Bibliography• Askenfelt, Anders, ed. Five Lectures on the Acoustics of the Piano. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. <http://www.speech.kth.se/music/5_lectures/>. Lectures by Harold A. Conklin Jr., Anders Askenfelt & Erik Janson, Donald E. Hall, Gabriel Weinreich, and Klaus Wogram.• “How a Piano Works.” Piano World. N.p., 2012. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. <http://www.pianoworld.com/pworks.htm>.• K., April. “The Physics of Piano.” Piano Project. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. <http://clackhi.nclack.k12.or.us/physics/projects/Final%20Project- 2005/2-FinalProject/pianoProject/index.htm>.• “The Physics of Playing the Piano.” Mechanical Technology Blog. N.p., 28 Jan. 2011. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. <http://www.makineteknoloji.com/2011/01/28/the-physics-of-playing- the-piano/>.• “Piano.” Wikipedia. The Wikimedia Foundation, 22 Apr. 2012. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piano>.