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What is a Carnivore?A carnivore is an animal that gets food from killing and eating other animals.Carnivores generally eat herbivores, but can eat omnivores, and occasionally other carnivores.Animals that eat other animals, like carnivores and omnivores are important to any ecosystem,because they keep other species from getting overpopulated.Since carnivores have to hunt down and kill other animals they require a large amount ofcalories. This means that they have to eat many other animals over the course of the year. Thebigger the carnivore, the more it has to eat. You should make sure that you have many moreherbivores and omnivores than carnivores.
CarnivoreA carnivore meaning meat eater (Latin, carne meaning flesh and vorare meaning to devour)is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly orexclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging. Animals that dependsolely on animal flesh for their nutrient requirements are considered obligate carnivores whilethose that also consume non-animal food are considered facultative carnivores. Omnivores alsoconsume both animal and non-animal food, and apart from the more general definition, there isno clearly defined ratio of plant to animal material that would distinguish a facultative carnivorefrom an omnivore, or an omnivore from a facultative herbivore, for that matter. A carnivorethat sits at the top of the foodchain is an apex predator.Plants that capture and digest insects are called carnivorous plants. Similarly, fungi that capturemicroscopic animals are often called carnivorous fungi.
What is a Herbivore?A herbivore is an animal that gets its energy from eating plants, and only plants. Omnivores canalso eat parts of plants, but generally only the fruits and vegetables produced by fruit-bearingplants. Many herbivores have special digestive systems that let them digest all kinds of plants,including grasses.Herbivores need a lot of energy to stay alive. Many of them, like cows and sheep, eat all daylong. There should be a lot of plants in your ecosystem to support your herbivores. If you putcarnivores or some omnivores in your ecosystem, theyll eat your herbivores, so make sure youhave enough herbivores to support them.
HerbivoreFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, searchA deer and two fawns feeding on foliageHerbivores are organisms that are anatomically and physiologically adapted to eat plant-basedfoods. Herbivory is a form of consumption in which an organism principally eatsautotrophs[page needed] such as plants, algae and photosynthesizing bacteria. More generally,organisms that feed on autotrophs in general are known as primary consumers.Herbivory usually refers to animals eating plants; fungi, bacteria and protists that feed on livingplants are usually termed plant pathogens (plant diseases),and microbes that feed on dead plantsare saprotrophs. Flowering plants that obtain nutrition from other living plants are usually termedparasitic plants.A herbivore is not the same as a vegetarian, a human who voluntarily undertakes a primarilyherbivorous diet.
What is an Omnivore?An omnivore is a kind of animal that eats either other animals or plants. Some omnivores willhunt and eat their food, like carnivores, eating herbivores and other omnivores. Some others arescavengers and will eat dead matter. Many will eat eggs from other animals.Omnivores eat plants, but not all kinds of plants. Unlike herbivores, omnivores cant digest someof the substances in grains or other plants that do not produce fruit. They can eat fruits andvegetables, though. Some of the insect omnivores in this simulation are pollinators, which arevery important to the life cycle of some kinds of plants.
OmnivoresOmnivores (from Latin omni, meaning "all, everything"; vorare, "to devour") are species thateat both plant and animal material as their primary food sources. They often are opportunistic,general feeders not specifically adapted to eating and digesting either meat or plant material inparticular. Many omnivores depend on a suitable mix of animal and plant food forlong-term good health and reproduction.
What causes destruction to coral reefs?Coral reefs can be destroyed in many ways; they can be damaged by physical or biologicalmeans. Physically, the action of waves or storm surges can destroy or weaken the platforms thathold a reef. Biologically, organisms prey on live corals. For example, crown-of-thorns starfishand parrotfish eat live coral, and can cause extensive damage to reefs.Humans also cause problems for coral reefs, directly and indirectly. Some reefs have been over-fished, destroying the balance of life, and others have been damaged by commercial fishingpractices that use poisons and explosives. Reefs have been nearly buried by an over-abundanceof silt and sediments that have washed out to sea from land—the result of bad forestry, farming,and construction practices. Coral reefs have also become polluted by sewage and otherenvironmental contaminants. In addition, corals have been broken by ships and divers;sometimes the corals have been altogether removed, along with their accompanying fish species,for use in aquariums.Global warming has also been blamed for a recent die-off of coral. Almost two-thirds of theworld’s coral reefs are in decline or threatened. High sea temperatures—the highest on record—were determined to be the direct cause of the large-scale death of some reefs. The hardest-hitareas were in the Indian Ocean, such as the Seychelles, Mauritius, and the Maldives, where thedie-off was between 70 and 90 percent. In the western Pacific, from Vietnam to the Philippinesand Indonesia, thousands of miles of corals have died-off or have been bleached. So far, the onlylarge areas of coral that have escaped this massive devastation are located in the atolls of thecentral Pacific.Coral reef destruction is threatening our worlds oceansThe World’s oceans are under threat from coral reef destruction.Most scuba divers are aware of the threat to and destruction of coral reefs, what is maybe not sowell known is the impact this will have on the oceans as a whole and perhaps the impact onhumans on shore.There is a lot of news coverage on global warming and its impact on our world with not so muchbeing said about what is happening to our seas, beyond the usual commentaries about how fishstocks are dwindling. Not very much is said about why, how and what that means beyond therebeing less fish to eat.Much too slowly people are beginning to realise how the well being of the earth is as a whole,upon the health of the oceans and vice versa.Global warming is happening, no-one is disputing that, the causes are being disputed though.The analogy that the earth has a fever may be relevant and we humans are making her sick.
Even if you put aside the global warming problem, no-one can deny that humans and theiractivities, on land and sea, are harming our oceans at an alarming pace. Our waste that we throw into landfills (when we are ‘controlling’ it) as well as the human waste in sewerage, industrial pollution and agricultural pollution which we carelessly dipose of in the most convenient manner at hand, very often ends up in the sea, in the form of rainfall runoff or purposely thrown into our rivers and lakes. A vast amount of this pollution finally comes to be in our oceans.I have on another page, discussed the North Pacific Gyre which is an example of an unexpectedresult of land originating waste having significant impact on ocean ecosystems.The importance of coral reefs
We are witnessing the dwindling fish stocks, coastal erosion on unprecedented scales withoutmost of us realising the reasons are that all of this poison we are pouring into our waters iskilling our sealife and included in that ocean ecosystem is our coral reefs.Coral reefs are the foundation for the seas ecology, providing habitat for approximately 25% ofall sea life.They form coastal barriers protecting the shorelines from wave erosion.Without healthy reefs fish populations will seriously decline and coastal erosion will increasesignificantly.Human population will suffer as a result, particularly coastal populations and those dependent onfish for livelihoods and/or sustenance. Coral reefs are the heart of the oceans.The reefs are a lynch pin around which thriving tourist industries revolve – the Caribbean coralreefs alone are estimated to generate over USD10 billion a year.The coral reef destruction we are witnessing now is projected to cost over USD300 000 000.00,in lost scuba diving revenue alone, per year by 2015.Caribbean Reefs endangeredThe World Resources Institute released a report Reefs at Risk in the Caribbean categorising thethreats contributing to the world’s coral reef destruction being in the following main categories: coastal development watershed-based sediment pollution (like runoff of fertilizers and pesticides from farms) marine-based pollution and damage overfishingThe reefs are categorised under four levels of threat: Very High High Medium LowTo put that into some sort of perspective – high levels of threat indicates considerable coral reefdestruction already taken place with the likelihood of further damage over the coming five to ten years.
Coral reef destruction in the Caribbean20% of reefs are threatened by –Agricultural based activity which may be pesticide spillsIncreased algae growth, from fertilizers, which smothers the reef and blocks sunlight from thecorals.Increased siltation from land based soil erosion which also suffocates the reef.15% of reefs are threatened by –Marine pollution from boats and shipsAnchor damageWaste water (including sewageOcean oil spills.Coastal development has also had a part to play in terms of dredging, land reclamation, sewagedischarges and sand and limestone mining for construction all contributing to the coral reefdestruction.Storm activity has only increased the damage to reefs. The fact that the reefs are already stressedhas made them less able to cope with naturally occurring events like storms.While this situation is dire and unchecked will wreak havoc upon the worlds reef systems and theocean ecosystem, measures to control this are relatively low cost.These include better management practices, sustainable fishing, protection of the reefs fromdirect damage and holistic approaches to reef conservation including all stakeholders.Governments need take coral reef destruction seriously rather than leaving it up to groups in theprivate sector as often seems to be the case.According to Reefs at Risk, only 6 percent of the 285 designated marine protected areas (MPAs)in the Caribbean region were rated as effectively managed, while 48 percent of the MPAs wererated as inadequate.My own opinion is that whilst some governments are swayed by lobbyists and others are subjectto corruption’s diseased grip, progress towards sustained and effective reef conservation will beslow and time is running out.as the song says -’Dont it always seem to go That you dont know what you got till its gone, They pavedparadise and put up a parking lot’…….
Source: Big Yellow Taxi - Counting CrowsHere are some statistics: 33% of 704 coral species studied, face a greater threat of extinction as global warming takes effect. In some reefs there are declines of up to 80% in the number of species living on the reefs. 25% of sea life inhabits and is dependent on the coral reefs. 1% of the earth is covered by coral reef. An average of 600 square miles of living coral has died each year in the Pacific Ocean since 1968. Coral reef destruction has doubled to 1200 square miles a year after 1995. Other factors: The removal of certain fish species by way of overfishing has a second impact – these fish are responsible for the control of algae, without these fish in sufficient numbers the algae increases and takes over the reef, destroying coral by blocking vital sunlight – in the Caribbean 30% of reefs are under high threat and 30% under medium threat due to this development. Increased carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are increasing the acidity levels of the seas which causes the shells of shellfish and corals to soften or crumble because the acidity starts to dissolve the shells. This is known as ocean acidification.
Coral reef destruction from bleaching of the Coral happens when warmer seas depletecorals of the algae they feed on. Without the algae the coral polyps starve and die. Thecorals go white in death and so it is known as ‘bleaching events’.The increasing frequency of bleaching events means that there isn’t enough of an intervalbetween those occurrences to allow the reefs to recover and there is an incrementaldecline, the coral reef destruction is greater each time.Warmer seas seem also to be cultivating diseases which are devastating reefs – such asWhitepox which seems to attack healthy reefs more than damaged reefs, may be causedby bacteria from human fecal waste.
Experts believe focus should be on overall protection of reefs rather than focusing onindividual species. Evidence has shown that reefs can in fact recover quite quickly whenprotected from mans activities like water pollution and overfishing and harmful coastaldevelopment.Researchers have discovered one coral that survives bleaching events by changing itsfeeding habits by increasing its consumption of plankton when algae is depleted bywarmer seas.According to Geologist Andrea Grottoli of Ohio State University, biologist LisaRodrigues of Villanova University and ecologist James Palardy of Brown University,some corals seem to bounce back from bleaching events more quickly than others.M. capitata managed to regain all its strength by increasing its feeding on plankton morethan fivefold.In effect, this polyp had gone from an efficient <u)grower< u=""> of algae-provided foodto an efficient hunter of plankton, by doing that avoided the starvation killing othercorals.</u)grower<>At the end of all this, the problem at heart remains that all estimates are just that –estimates.The impact of each decline or extinction can in no way be fully taken into account whenall of the ramifications are unknown.Just how acidic does the sea need to become before the shell life and corals begin todissolve?The Elkhorn and Staghorn corals which were placed on the endangered list in 2006 aremajor reef building species, if they decline or disappear what else is exposed and in turnthreatened?The sooner the world at large realises the extent of the importance of coral reefs, thebetter.
Submitted by:Kyle Andrew O. Gumtang Grade V-Earth Submitted to: Mr. Ricardo V. Mijares Adviser