Teaching Listening
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Teaching Listening

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Presentation for my ESL methodology course.

Presentation for my ESL methodology course.

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Teaching Listening Presentation Transcript

  • 1. TeachingListening
    1
  • 2. Sources
    Berne, J. (1995). How Does Varying Pre-listening Activities Affect Second Language Listening Comprehension? Hispania, Vol. 78, No. 2
    Popieszynska, M. (2000). Listening in FL Classrooms: A few recipes.  International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language . 
    Saricoban, A. (1999). The teaching of listening.  The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. V, No. 12
    Thanajaro, M. (2000). Using authentic materials to develop listening comprehension in the ESL classroom. Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
    Vandergrift, L. (2006). Second language listening: Listening ability or language proficiency?  The Modern Language Journal, Vol. 90, No. 1
    2
  • 3. Definition
    Listeningisanactive and interactionalprocessin which a listenerreceivesspeechsounds and tries toattachmeaningtothespokenwords.
    Thelistenerattemptstounderstandtheintendedmessage of the oral text so that he/she can respondeffectivelyto oral communication.
    3
  • 4. Background
    Listening has been the forgotten language skill for generations
    It has received little attention in language teaching and learning
    Listening comprehension was usually characterized as a passive activity
    4
  • 5. Theorists realized that listening is not a passive but an active process of constructing meaning from a stream of sounds
    Listeners actively attempt to grasp the facts and feelings in what they hear by attending to:
    what the speaker says
    how the speaker says it
    the context
    5
  • 6. Knowledge required for listening process
    Listening requires comprehension of the speaker's intended message.
    Command over major components of the language: phonology, lexicon, syntax, semantics, and text structure
    Socio-cultural competence
    Strategic competence
    Discourse competence
    6
  • 7. Study: Listening comprehension ability
    Both L2 proficiency and LI listening ability contribute substantially to L2 listening comprehension ability
    L2 proficiency appears to be a much better predictor than LI listening comprehension ability
    7
  • 8. Study: Listening comprehension ability
    Limitation:
    Most of the questions on the tests required students to read and choose from a list of potential choices.
    Because of this test structure, the students' ability to read and understand was tested along with their ability to listen and understand.
    8
  • 9. Study: Listening comprehension ability
    Implications for Pedagogy:
    Vocabulary development
    Match aural form of a word with that of mental lexicon
    Top-down skills/bottom-up skills
    9
  • 10. Top-down vs. Bottom-up listening
    Imagine the following situations:
    Over lunch, your friend tells you a story about a recent holiday, which was a disaster. You listen with interest and interject at appropriate moments, maybe to express surprise or sympathy.
    That evening, another friend calls to invite you to a party at her house the following Saturday. As you’ve never been to her house before, she gives you directions. You listen carefully and make notes.
    How do you listen in each case? Are there any differences?
    10
  • 11. Top-down vs. Bottom-up listening
    11
    Directions to a party
    Holiday anecdote
    http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/articles/listening-top-down-bottom
  • 12. Study: Listening comprehension ability
    Implications for Pedagogy:
    2. Reduce the gap in transfer of L1 inferencing skills to L2 inferencing tasks
    how to use world knowledge in L2 listening
    how to use context to infer logical outcome
    nonthreatening environment
    12
  • 13. Listening Process - Stages
    Pre - listening
    While – listening
    Post - listening
    13
  • 14. Pre - Listening
    Purpose of listening
    Necessary background information
    Activities:
    14
  • 15. Pre - Listening
    Studying a vocabulary list may not be an effective way of improving listening comprehension
    Suggestion: provide learners with some type of brief summary before listening
    15
  • 16. While - Listening
    The aim is to help learners listen for meaning
    Attention on listening itself
    Marking/checking the items in pictures
    16
  • 17. Post - Listening
    Allow learners to reflect on the language from the passage
    17
  • 18. Performingtoindicateunderstanding
    More effective if they are constructed around a task
    Dependent upon students' skills in listening
    Drawing a picture
    Matchingexercises
    Physicalmovement
    18
  • 19. Teachingratherthantesting
    The emphasis should be more on functional listening toward the development of listening process, and less on memory and recall of details heard
    19
  • 20. Real-life situations
    Use materials cast in real-life situations for listening comprehension exercises
    As close as possible to a "slice of life"
    20
  • 21. Aural authenticmaterials
    Definition: Unaltered texts that are generated by native speakers and for native speakers
    Positive results when given opportunities to interact with authentic oral texts
    Listening-comprehension improves with increased exposure to authentic speech
    21
  • 22. Aural authenticmaterials
    Blend with instructional materials
    Importance of authentic oral texts very early in the language experience.
    22
  • 23. Aural authenticmaterials
    Proper instructional planning by the teacher
    Students experience the rewards of learning a language
    Positive effect on both comprehension and motivation
    23
  • 24. Aural authenticmaterials
    Challenge for the second-language teacher:
    To identify authentic materials of potential interest to students
    To prepare the students for dealing with these texts in a meaningful way
    24
  • 25. Thank you!
    25