Chap009 BUS137

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Leadership

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Chap009 BUS137

  1. 1. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 9-1 Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Learning Objectives  L01: Similarities and differences between leading and managing  L02: Sources of power in organizations  L03: Personal traits and skills of effective leaders  L04: Distinguish between charismatic and transformational leaders  L05: Opportunities to be a leader in an organization  L06: How to further your own leadership development 9-2
  3. 3. Vision – what is it? Mental image of a possible and desirable future state of the organization. Expresses the leader’s ambitions for the organization. Creates high performance aspirations, the nature of corporate or business strategy, or the kind of workplace. Without vision, managers do not develop into strong leaders 9-3
  4. 4. Leading and ManagingLeading Managing-setting the direction -deal with ongoing day-to--inspiring people to attain day complexities vision -requires planning and-keep people focused on budgeting routines moving organization -requires structuring toward its ideal future organization, staffing it-motivating people to with capable people, overcome obstacles and monitoring activities 9-4
  5. 5. Leadership Styles Supervisory Leadership  provides guidance, support and corrective feedback for day-to-day activities Strategic Leadership  gives purpose and meaning to organizations by anticipating and envisioning a viable future  works with others to initiate changes that create such a future 9-5
  6. 6. Sources of PowerR Legitimate power  right or authority to tell others what to doh Reward power  influences others because of control over rewardsa Coercive power  control over punishmenti Referent power  appealing personal characteristicsa Expert power  expertise or knowledge that others can learn from or gain from 9-6
  7. 7. Traditional Approaches to Leadershipo Trait approach  focuses on individual leaders  determines personal characteristics that great leaders shared Behavioral approach  identifies what good leaders do  what behaviors they exhibit9 Situational approach  effective leadership behavior varies from situation to situation 9-7
  8. 8. Important Traits for Leaders Drive  high level of effort; high need for achievement, constant striving to accomplish Leadership motivation  extraverted, high need for power. Integrity:  Honest, credible, “walks the walk” Self-confidence  overcome obstacles, decide despite uncertainty Knowledge of the business  high level of knowledge about their industries, companies, and technical matters; intelligent 9-8
  9. 9. Decision Styles Autocratic - “self”  leader makes decisions on his or her own and then announces those decisions to the group Democratic leadership – “participative”  leader solicits input from others Laissez-faire – “allow to do”  essentially makes no decisions  more negative attitudes and lower performance. 9-9
  10. 10. Path-goal Theory How leaders influence subordinates’ perceptions of their work goals and the paths they follow toward attainment of those goals. Two key situational factors  Personal characteristics of followers  Environmental pressures and demand with which followers must cope to attain their work goals 9-10
  11. 11. Path-Goal Theory Four Pertinent Leadership Behaviors3. Directive Leadership  form of task performance-oriented behavior4. Supportive Leadership  form of group maintenance-oriented behavior5. Participative Leadership  decision style6. Achievement-oriented Leadership  behaviors geared toward motivating people 9-11
  12. 12. Path-Goal Theory Three Key Follower Characteristics3. Authoritarianism  degree to which individuals respect, admire, or defer to authority4. Locus of control  extent to which individuals see environment as responsive to their own behavior5. Ability  people’s beliefs about their own abilities to do their assigned jobs 9-12
  13. 13. Path-Goal Theory Functions of the leader2. Provide coaching and direction  Make path to work goals easier3. Reduce frustrating barriers to goal attainment4. Increase opportunities for personal satisfaction  Increase payoffs to people for achieving performance goals 9-13
  14. 14. Contemporary Perspectives Charismatic leader  dominant, exceptionally self-confident  strong conviction of moral righteousness Transformational leader  motivates people to transcend their personal interests for good of group Transactional leader  manage through transactions, using their legitimate, reward and coercive powers to give commands and exchange rewards for services rendered 9-14
  15. 15. Nontraditional LeadershipRoles Servant leader  serves others’ needs while strengthening organization Bridge leader  bridges conflicting value systems or different cultures Shared leadership  rotating leadership  people rotate through leadership role based on which person has most relevant skills 9-15
  16. 16. Good leaders need courage Seeing things as they are and facing them head-on, making no excuses and harboring no wishful illusions Saying what needs to be said to those who need to hear it Persisting despite resistance, criticism, abuse, and setbacks 9-16
  17. 17. For Review Only 9-17
  18. 18. Vroom’s Model Emphasizes participative dimension of leadership, i.e. how leaders go about making decisions. Factors involved to analyze problems  decision significance  importance of commitment  leader’s expertise  likelihood of commitment  group support for objectives and group expertise  team competence 9-18
  19. 19. Vroom’s Five Leader Decision Stylesd Decide  make decision alone  announce or sell it to group2. Consult individually  present problem to group members individually  get suggestions, and then make decision3. Consult group  present problem to group members  get suggestions, and then make decision 9-19
  20. 20. Vroom’s Five Leader Decision Styles1. Facilitate  present problem to group in a meeting  act as facilitator to get ideas2. Delegate  permit group to make decision within prescribed limits 9-20
  21. 21. Ohio State Studies Examined performance and maintenance behaviors of leaders Found that supervisors who scored high on maintenance behaviors had fewer grievances and less turnover in their work units than those who were low on this dimension When a leader rates high on performance-oriented behaviors, he or she should also be maintenance- oriented. 9-21
  22. 22. Michigan impact of leader behaviors on groups’ Examined the Studies job performance Most effective managers engaged in task-oriented behaviors (planning, scheduling, coordinating, providing resources, and setting performance goals) and relationship-oriented behaviors (demonstrating trust and confidence, being friendly and considerate, showing appreciation, keeping people informed) 9-22
  23. 23. Fiedler’s Contingency Model Effectiveness depends on two factors  personal style of the leader  degree to which situation gives leader power, control, and influence over situation 9-23
  24. 24. Fiedler’s Contingency Model Questions used to analyze the situation3. Are leader-member relations good or poor?4. Is the task structure or unstructured?5. Is the leader’s position power strong or weak? 9-24
  25. 25. Fiedler’s Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC)1. Task-motivated leadership  emphasis on completing task  more likely to be exhibited by leaders with low LPC scores2. Relationship-motivated leadership  emphasis on maintaining good interpersonal relationships  more likely to be exhibited by high LPC scores 9-25
  26. 26. Substitutes for LeadershipWorkplace factors that can exert same influence on employees as leadersGroup maintenance substitutes closely knit groups job is inherently satisfyingTask performance substitutes people with experience and ability rigid rules and procedures 9-26

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