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BUS110 Chap 8 - Adapting Organizations to Today’s Markets
 

BUS110 Chap 8 - Adapting Organizations to Today’s Markets

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Adapting Organizations to Today’s Markets

Adapting Organizations to Today’s Markets

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  • See Learning Goal 1: Outline the basic principles of organization management. Changing economic times require businesses to alter their approach via reorganization. Using organizational principles is an important aspect to this reorganization.
  • See Learning Goal 1: Outline the basic principles of organization management.
  • See Learning Goal 2: Compare the organizational theories of Fayol and Weber.
  • See Learning Goal 2: Compare the organizational theories of Fayol and Weber.
  • See Learning Goal 2: Compare the organizational theories of Fayol and Weber.
  • See Learning Goal 2: Compare the organizational theories of Fayol and Weber. This slide presents Fayol’s principles of organization. Fayol published General and Industrial Management in 1919. Unity of command and Hierarchy of authority suggest that each employee reports to one and only one boss. Management courses throughout the world teach these principles and organizations are designed accordingly. When these principles become rules, policies, and regulations, they create inflexibility which hampers organizations ability to respond quickly to situations. An example of this inflexibility or a slower response time can be seen in FEMA’s response to Hurricane Katrina.
  • See Learning Goal 2: Compare the organizational theories of Fayol and Weber.
  • See Learning Goal 2: Compare the organizational theories of Fayol and Weber. Weber, a German sociologist and economist, wrote The Theory of Social and Economic Organizations . Weber’s principles were similar to Fayol’s. He emphasized job descriptions, written rules, consistent policies, regulations, and procedures, and staffing and promotions based on qualifications. Weber was in favor of bureaucracy and believed that these principles were necessary for large organizations’ effective functioning. However, in today’s corporate world, these rules and bureaucracy do not necessarily work. Organizations need to respond to customers and other environmental factors quickly which calls for a creative, flexible, and a quick decision making process contrary to a bureaucratic process.
  • See Learning Goal 2: Compare the organizational theories of Fayol and Weber.
  • See Learning Goal 2: Compare the organizational theories of Fayol and Weber.
  • See Learning Goal 2: Compare the organizational theories of Fayol and Weber.
  • See Learning Goal 3: Evaluate the choices managers make in structuring organizations. Centralization can be defined as an organizational structure that focuses on retaining control of authority with higher level managers. One of the disadvantages of this type of management style is slower decisions because of layers of management. Ask the students: What specific problems you see with this type of management? ( Slower decision-making means the company is less responsive to both internal an external customers needs.) Share with the students a simple rule to follow when dealing with centralized authority: Decisions regarding overall company policy and establishment of goals and strategies should be made at the top. Decentralization is an organizational structure that focuses on delegating authority throughout the organization to middle and lower-level managers. The most significant advantage of this form of management style is the empowerment of the employees. Statistics indicate when delegation is practiced in a company, absenteeism, injuries, loyalty and production improve. Share with the students a simple rule to follow when dealing with decentralized authority: The closer an employee interacts with the customer, the more decentralized the decision-making should be. For example, a customer service manager must have the authority to make a decision that will satisfy a customer immediately, not wait until the home office makes a decision.
  • See Learning Goal 3: Evaluate the choices managers make in structuring organizations.
  • See Learning Goal 3: Evaluate the choices managers make in structuring organizations. Many organizations have moved from tall organizations to flat organizations in an effort to increase nimbleness in the marketplace.
  • See Learning Goal 3: Evaluate the choices managers make in structuring organizations. Many organizations have moved from tall organizations to flat organizations in an effort to increase nimbleness in the marketplace.
  • See Learning Goal 3: Evaluate the choices managers make in structuring organizations.
  • See Learning Goal 3: Evaluate the choices managers make in structuring organizations. Many organizations have moved from tall organizations to flat organizations in an effort to increase nimbleness in the marketplace.
  • See Learning Goal 3: Evaluate the choices managers make in structuring organizations.
  • See Learning Goal 3: Evaluate the choices managers make in structuring organizations.
  • See Learning Goal 3: Evaluate the choices managers make in structuring organizations.
  • See Learning Goal 3: Evaluate the choices managers make in structuring organizations.
  • See Learning Goal 3: Evaluate the choices managers make in structuring organizations.
  • See Learning Goal 4: Contrast the various organizational models. Traditional business models such as line organizations and line-and-staff organizations are giving way to new structures.
  • See Learning Goal 4: Contrast the various organizational models.
  • See Learning Goal 4: Contrast the various organizational models.
  • See Learning Goal 4: Contrast the various organizational models.
  • See Learning Goal 4: Contrast the various organizational models.
  • See Learning Goal 4: Contrast the various organizational models. The creation of matrix organizations was in response to the inflexibility of other more traditional organizational structures. This structure brings specialists from different parts of the organization to work together temporarily on specific projects.
  • See Learning Goal 4: Contrast the various organizational models.
  • See Learning Goal 3: Evaluate the choices managers make in structuring organizations. Many organizations have moved from tall organizations to flat organizations in an effort to increase nimbleness in the marketplace.
  • See Learning Goal 4: Contrast the various organizational models.
  • See Learning Goal 4: Contrast the various organizational models. Important For Small Teams This slide presents five important conditions for garnering the maximum benefits of small teams, according to Jon Katzenbach, co-author of The Wisdom of Teams . Ask the students: Which of these five conditions do you believe would be most important in your team experience? Why? (The most critical factor of these five conditions, according to Katzenbach, is a clear performance purpose for the team.)
  • See Learning Goal 5: Identify the benefits of inter-firm cooperation and coordination.
  • See Learning Goal 5: Identify the benefits of inter-firm cooperation and coordination.
  • See Learning Goal 5: Identify the benefits of inter-firm cooperation and coordination. A Virtual Corporation This slide illustrates the concept of a virtual corporation as an organizational model that could propel American businesses into the next century. The theory behind the virtual corporation can be understood by picturing a company stripped to its core competencies. All other business functions will be accomplished by: Forming joint ventures Forming temporary alliances with other virtual companies with different areas of expertise Hiring consulting services Outsourcing or subcontracting of services Share with the students some other interesting concepts of a virtual corporation: On-demand knowledge workers who operate independently Skill-selling professionals such as engineers, accountants, human resource experts who manage your projects from their homes through worldwide telecommunications Team-building will change as companies hire individuals with expertise in various areas to solve business problems. As a solution is identified, the team will cease to exist.
  • See Learning Goal 5: Identify the benefits of inter-firm cooperation and coordination. Benefits and Concerns of Healthcare Outsourcing This slide identifies the benefits and concerns of healthcare outsourcing. Have the students identify the possible countries to which healthcare can be outsourced. (India is used by many hospitals and healthcare organizations due to availability of knowledge workers.) Ask students: Why do you think these countries represent a threat to U.S. jobs? ( Lower wages will result in lower costs) Ask the students about another country: What could be outsourced to South Africa? Why? ( South Africa is considered a good choice for customer service centers for French, English, and German speaking customers. Work force is trained to speak several different languages while wages are low. As a global company dealing with consumer inquiries, the central location of a call center may reduce cost significantly.)
  • See Learning Goal 5: Identify the benefits of inter-firm cooperation and coordination. Which Jobs Will Be Outsourced Next? This slide supports the previous discussion of outsourcing by identifying the most common functional areas for which U.S. companies plan on hiring outside organizations. The results are from the TEC International’s survey of 1,091 CEOs. As mentioned in previous discussion, the number-one reason companies outsource is to reduce cost. This slide shows Manufacturing, Information Technology and Customer Support/Sales as the largest planned outsourced business categories. Ask the students: Why do you think these categories are outsourced more often? (Manufacturing can be done a lot cheaper in a country with lower wages, IT and customer support represent functional areas that provide basic or routine types of job performance; unlike sales and marketing, where specific strategies are closely aligned to meet specific customer needs. In general, the farther removed from the customer your function is, the more likely that function may be performed outside the company.)
  • See Learning Goal 5: Identify the benefits of inter-firm cooperation and coordination.
  • See Learning Goal 5: Identify the benefits of inter-firm cooperation and coordination.
  • See Learning Goal 5: Identify the benefits of inter-firm cooperation and coordination.
  • See Learning Goal 5: Identify the benefits of inter-firm cooperation and coordination. The inverted organization structure is an alternate to the traditional management layers. The critical idea behind the inverted organization structure is that the managers’ job is to support and facilitate the job of the frontline people, not boss them around. Ask the students – What type of organization structure would they prefer to work under: traditional or inverted? Why?
  • See Learning Goal 6: Explain how organizational culture can help businesses adapt to change. When you search for a job, make sure the organizational culture is one you can thrive in.
  • See Learning Goal 6: Explain how organizational culture can help businesses adapt to change.
  • See Learning Goal 6: Explain how organizational culture can help businesses adapt to change.
  • See Learning Goal 6: Explain how organizational culture can help businesses adapt to change.
  • See Learning Goal 6: Explain how organizational culture can help businesses adapt to change. Examples of Informal Group Norms Group norms are an interesting topic to discuss in teaching organizational structure. This slide illustrates some informal group norms. Ask students: Have you ever felt pressure to conform to such informal norms? If you gave in to group pressure not to produce more than the rest of the group, did you feel good about yourself? (Focus on the self-gratification feeling of a job well-done and the corresponding compensation.) Discuss the importance of informal groups in an organization that become somewhat formal themselves (i.e. labor unions).
  • See Learning Goal 6: Explain how organizational culture can help businesses adapt to change.
  • What’s an inverted organization? Some service-oriented organizations have elected to turn the traditional organizational structure upside down. An inverted organization has employees who come into contact with customers at the top of the organization and the chief executive officer at the bottom. A manager’s job is to assist and support frontline people, not tell them what to do. Why do organizations outsource functions? In the past organizations have often tried to do all functions themselves, maintaining departments for each function including: accounting, finance, marketing, and production. If an organization is not able to efficiently perform the function themselves they will outsource the function. Outsourcing is the process of assigning various functions, such as accounting, production, security, maintenance, and legal work, to an outside firm. The goal is to retain the functions that the organization considers its core competencies. What’s organizational culture? Organizational or corporate culture is the widely shared values within an organization that create unity and cooperation. Usually the culture of an organization is passed to employees via stories, traditions, and myths.
  • Why are organizations becoming flatter? Over the last 25 years businesses have adopted flatter organizations with fewer layers of management and a broader span of control in order to quickly respond to customer demands. A flatter organization gives lower-level employees the authority and responsibility to make decisions directly affecting customers. What are some reasons for having a narrow span of control in an organization? Span of control refers to the number of subordinates a manager supervises. Generally, the span of control narrows at higher levels of the organization, because work becomes less standardized and managers need more face-to face communication. What are the advantages and disadvantages of departmentalization? The advantages of departmentalization include: Departmentalization may reduce costs, since employees should be more efficient, employees can develop skills in depth and progress within a department as they master more skills; the company can achieve economies of scale by centralizing all the resources it needs and locating various experts in that particular area; employees can coordinate work within the function, and top management can easily direct and control various departments’ activities. The disadvantages of departmentalization include: Communication is inhibited; employee’s may identify with their department’s goals rather than the organization’s; t he company’s response may be slowed by departmentalization; employee’s tend to be narrow specialists; department members may engage in groupthink and may need input from the outside to become more competitive. 4. What are the various ways a firm can departmentalize? An organization can elect to departmentalize in the following ways: customer group, product, functional, geographic, process, and hybrid.
  • What’s the difference between line and staff personnel? Line personnel are responsible for directly achieving organizational goals. Line personnel include production workers, distribution people, and marketing personnel. Staff personnel advise and assist line personnel in meeting their goals. What management principle does a matrix-style organization challenge? The flexibility inherent in the matrix-style organization directly challenge the rigid line and line-and-staff organization structures. What’s the main difference between a matrix-style organization’s structure and the use of cross-functional teams? The main difference between matrix-style organization and cross-functional teams is that cross-functional teams tend to be long-lived as compared to the temporary and fluid nature of teams in a matrix-style organization.
  • See Learning Goal 1: Outline the basic principles of organization management.
  • See Learning Goal 1: Outline the basic principles of organization management.
  • See Learning Goal 4: Contrast the various organizational models.
  • See Learning Goal 5: Identify the benefits of inter-firm cooperation and coordination. Keep in Touch Information technology has allowed companies like Amazon to better understand customer needs. Use the three questions on this slide to start a discussion with students in class.

BUS110 Chap 8 - Adapting Organizations to Today’s Markets BUS110 Chap 8 - Adapting Organizations to Today’s Markets Presentation Transcript

  • * * Chapter Eight Adapting Organizations to Today’s Markets Copyright © 2010 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  • ANNE MULCAHY Xerox * * Profile
    • Started as a field sales representative and moved up through Xerox .
    • When she was chosen as the new CEO, Xerox was in bad shape.
    • She cut the debt and built up cash reserves.
    • Follows her motto - “Work hard. Measure the results. Tell the truth.”
    8-
  • REORGANIZATION is for EVERYONE * * Everyone’s Organizing
    • Many companies are reorganizing, especially those in decline. Including:
      • Auto makers
      • Homebuilders
      • Banks
      • Adjusting to changing markets is normal in capitalist economies.
      • Companies must go back to basic organizational principles and firm up the foundation.
    LG1 8-
  • STRUCTURING an ORGANIZATION * * Building an Organization from the Bottom Up
      • Create a division of labor
      • Set up teams or departments
      • Allocate resources
      • Assign tasks
      • Establish procedures
      • Adjust to new realities
    LG1 8-
  • THE CHANGING ORGANIZATION * * The Changing Organization
    • Often change in organizations is due to evolving business environments:
      • More global competition
      • Declining economy
      • Faster technological change
      • Pressure to protect the environment
      • Customer expectations have also changed --Consumers today want high-quality products with fast, friendly service and all at low cost.
    LG2 8-
  • PRODUCTION CHANGED ORGANZIATION DESIGN * * The Development of Organization Design
    • Mass production of goods led to complexities in organizing businesses.
    LG2
    • Economies of Scale -- Companies can reduce their production costs by purchasing raw materials in bulk.
      • The average cost of goods decrease as production levels rise.
    8-
  • HENRI FAYOL * 8- Father of Modern Operational Management Theory
    • Published monograph General and Industrial Management (1916).
    • Offers first theory of general management and statement of management principles.
  • FAYOL’S PRINCIPLES * * Fayol’s Principles of Organization
      • Unity of command
      • Hierarchy of authority
      • Division of labor
      • Subordination of individual interests to the general interest
      • Authority
    LG2
      • Degree of centralization
      • Clear communication channels
      • Order
      • Equity
      • Esprit de corps
    8-
  • ORGANIZATIONS BASED on FAYOL’S PRINCIPLES * * Fayol’s Principles of Organization
    • Organizations in which employees have no more than one boss; lines of authority are clear.
    LG2
    • Rigid organizations that often don’t respond to customers quickly.
    8-
  • WEBER’S PRINCIPLES * * Max Weber and Organizational Theory
    • Employees just need to do what they’re told.
    • In addition to Fayol’s principles, Weber emphasized:
      • Job descriptions.
      • Written rules, decision guidelines and detailed records.
      • Consistent procedures, regulations and policies.
      • Staffing and promotion based on qualifications.
    LG2 8-
  • HIERARCHIES and COMMAND * * Turning Principles into Organization Design
    • When following Fayol and Weber, managers control workers.
    • Hierarchy -- A system in which one person is at the top of an organization and there is a ranked or sequential ordering from the top down.
    • Chain of Command -- The line of authority that moves from the top of the hierarchy to the lowest level.
    LG2 8-
  • TYPICAL ORGANIZATION CHART * * Turning Principles into Organization Design LG2 8-
  • BUREAUCRATIC ORGANIZATIONS * * Turning Principles into Organization Design
    • Bureaucracy -- An organization with many layers of managers who set rules and regulations and oversee all decisions .
    • It can take weeks or months to have information passed down to lower-level employees.
    • Bureaucracies can annoy customers.
    LG2 8-
  • CENTRALIZATION or DECENTRALIZATION? * * Choosing Centralized or Decentralized Authority
    • Centralized Authority -- When decision-making is concentrated at the top level of management.
    LG3
    • Decentralized Authority -- When decision-making is delegated t o lower-level managers and employees more familiar with local conditions than headquarters.
    8-
  • SPAN of CONTROL * * Choosing the Appropriate Span of Control
    • Span of Control -- The optimal number of subordinates a manager supervises or should supervise.
      • When work is standardized, broad spans of control are possible.
      • Appropriate span narrows at higher levels of the organization.
      • The trend today is to reduce middle managers and hire better low-level employees.
    LG3 8-
  • ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES * * Choosing Tall versus Flat Organization Structures
    • Structures determine the way the company responds to employee and customer needs.
    • Tall Organization Structures -- An organizational structure in which the organization chart would be tall because of the various levels of management.
    • Flat Organization Structures -- An organizational structure that has few layers of management and a broad span of control.
    LG3 8-
  • SPAN OF CONTROL - NARROW 8- Advantages More Control by Top Management More Chances for Advancement Greater Specialization Closer Supervision
    • Disadvantages
    • Less Empowerment
    • Higher Costs
    • Delayed Decision Making
    • Less Responsiveness to Customers
  • FLAT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE * * Choosing Tall versus Flat Organization Structures LG3 8-
  • SPAN OF CONTROL - BROAD 8- Advantages Reduced Costs More Responsiveness to Customers Faster Decision Making More Empowerment
    • Disadvantages
    • Fewer Chances for Advancement
    • Overworked Managers
    • Loss of Control
    • Less Management Expertise
  • DEPARTMENTALIZATION * * Weighing the Advantages and Disadvantages of Departmentalization
      • Departmentalization -- Divides organizations into separate units.
        • Workers are grouped by skills and expertise to specialize their skills.
    LG3 8-
  • ADVANTAGES of DEPARTMENTALIZATION * * Weighing the Advantages and Disadvantages of Departmentalization
        • Employees develop skills and progress within a department as they master skills.
        • The company can achieve economies of scale.
        • Employees can coordinate work within the function and top management can easily direct activities.
    LG3 8-
  • DISADVANTAGES of DEPARTMENTALIZATION * * Weighing the Advantages and Disadvantages of Departmentalization
        • Departments may not communicate well.
        • Employees may identify with their department’s goals rather than the organization’s.
        • The company’s response to external changes may be slow.
        • People may not be trained to take different managerial responsibilities, instead they become specialists.
        • Department members may engage in groupthink and may need outside input.
    LG3 8-
  • WAYS to DEPARTMENTALIZE * * Looking at Alternate Ways to Departmentalize LG3 8-
  • WAYS to DEPARTMENTALIZE * * Looking at Alternate Ways to Departmentalize LG3 8-
  • FOUR WAYS to STRUCTURE an ORGANIZATION * * Organization Models
      • Line Organizations
      • Line-and-Staff Organizations
      • Matrix-Style Organizations
      • Cross-Functional Self-Managed Teams
    LG4 8-
  • LINE ORGANIZATIONS * * Line Organizations
        • Line Organization -- Has direct two-way lines of responsibility, authority and communication running from the top to the bottom. Everyone reports to one supervisor.
        • There are no specialists, legal, accounting, human resources or information technology departments.
        • Line managers issue orders, enforce discipline and adjust the organization to changes.
    LG4 8-
  • LINE PERSONNEL * * Line-and-Staff Organizations
        • Line Personnel -- Workers responsible for directly achieving organizational goals , and include production, distribution and marketing employees.
        • Line personnel have authority to make policy decisions.
    LG4 8-
  • STAFF PERSONNEL * * Line-and-Staff Organizations
        • Staff Personnel -- Employees who advise and assist line personnel in meeting their goals, and include marketing research, legal advising, IT and human resource employees.
    LG4 8-
  • SAMPLE LINE-and-STAFF ORGANIZATION * * Line-and-Staff Organizations LG4 8-
  • MATRIX ORGANIZATIONS * * Matrix-Style Organizations
        • Matrix Organization -- Specialists from different parts of the organization work together temporarily on specific projects, but still remain part of a line-and-staff structure.
    LG4
        • Emphasis is on product development, creativity, special projects, communication and teamwork.
    8-
  • SAMPLE MATRIX ORGANIZATION * * Matrix-Style Organizations LG4 8-
  • MATRIX ORGANIZATIONS 8-
    • Advantages
      • Flexibility
      • Cooperation & Teamwork
      • Creativity
      • More Efficient Use of Resources
    • Disadvantages
      • Costly/Complex
      • Confusion in Loyalty
      • Requires Good Interpersonal Skills & Cooperation
      • Not Permanent
  • CROSS-FUNCTIONAL SELF-MANAGED TEAMS * * Cross-Functional Self-Managed Teams
    • A way to fix the problem of matrix-style teams is to establish long-term teams.
    • Empower teams to work closely with suppliers, customers and others to figure out how to create better products.
    • Cross-Functional Self-Managed Teams -- Groups of employees from different departments who work together on a long-term basis .
    LG4 8-
  • BUILDING SUCCESSFUL TEAMS Important Conditions for Small Teams * * Source: CIO Magazine, www.cio.com ,.
      • Clear purpose
      • Clear goals
      • Correct skills
      • Mutual accountability
      • Shift roles when appropriate
    Going Beyond Organizational Boundaries LG4 8-
  • REAL TIME BUSINESS * * Transparency and Virtual Organizations
    • Most companies are no longer self-sufficient; they’re part of a global business network.
    • Real Time -- The present moment or actual time in which something takes place.
    LG5 8-
  • TRANSPARENCY and VIRTUAL CORPORATIONS * * Transparency and Virtual Organizations
    • Transparency -- When a company is so open to other companies that electronic information is shared as if the companies were one.
    • Virtual Corporation -- A temporary networked organization made up of replaceable firms that join and leave as needed.
    LG5 8-
  • A VIRTUAL CORPORATION * * Transparency and Virtual Organizations LG5 8-
  • BENEFITS and CONCERNS of HEALTHCARE OUTSOURCING * * Source: Healthcare Financial Management. Transparency and Virtual Organizations LG5 8- Benefits Concerns
    • Provides enough staff to operate the facility
    • Lower employee morale
    • Cost savings
    • Liability
    • Should patients be informed
    • Confidentiality and security
  • WHICH JOBS will be OUTSOURCED NEXT? * * Source: USA Today. Transparency and Virtual Organizations LG5 8-
  • BENCHMARKING and CORE COMPETENCIES * * Benchmarking and Core Competencies
    • Benchmarking -- Compares an organization’s practices, processes and products against the world’s best.
    • Core Competencies -- The functions an organization can do as well as or better than any other organization in the world.
    • If a company can’t match a competitor, they may try to outsource .
    LG5 8-
  • ADAPTING to MARKET CHANGES * * Adapting to Change
    • Change isn’t easy. Employees like to do things the way they always have.
    • Get rid of old, inefficient facilities and equipment.
    • Use the Internet to get to know your customers and sell directly to them.
    LG5 8-
  • RESTRUCTURING * * Restructuring for Empowerment
    • Restructuring -- Redesigning an organization so it can more effectively and efficiently serve its customers.
    • Inverted Organization -- An organization that has contact people at the top and the CEO at the bottom of the organizational chart.
    LG5
    • The manager’s job is to assist and support frontline workers, not boss them.
    8-
  • TRADITIONAL and INVERTED ORGANIZATIONS * * Restructuring for Empowerment LG5 8-
  • ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE * * Creating a Change-Oriented Organizational Culture
    • Organizational or Corporate Culture -- The widely shared values within an organization that foster unity and cooperation to achieve common goals
    • Some of the best organizational cultures emphasize service.
    • Culture is shown in stories, traditions and myths.
    LG6 8-
  • FORMAL ORGANIZATION * * Managing the Informal Organization
    • Formal Organization -- Details lines of responsibility, authority and position.
    • The formal system is often slow and bureaucratic but it helps guide the lines of authority.
    • No organization can be effective without formal and informal organization.
    LG6 8-
  • INFORMAL ORGANIZATION * * Managing the Informal Organization
    • Informal Organization -- The system of relationships that develop spontaneously as employees meet and form relationships.
    LG6
    • Informal organization helps foster camaraderie and teamwork among employees.
    8-
  • LIMITATIONS of INFORMAL ORGANIZATIONS * * Managing the Informal Organization
    • The informal system is too unstructured and emotional on its own.
    • Informal organization may also be powerful in resisting management directives.
    LG6 8-
  • GROUP NORMS Examples of Informal Group Norms * * Source: CIO Magazine, www.cio.com ,.
      • Do your job but don’t produce more than the rest of your group.
      • Don’t tell off-color jokes or use profanity.
      • Everyone is to be clean and organized at the workstation.
      • Respect and help your fellow group members.
      • Drinking is done off the job – NEVER at work.
    Managing the Informal Organization LG6 8-
  • KEEPING THAT SMALL-COMPANY FEELING (Spotlight on Small Business) * *
    • Informal networks are easier to maintain in small businesses.
    • Communication among large corporate units isn’t managed as well, inhibiting innovation.
    • Large corporations could form cross-departmental sports teams or sponsor cross-departmental parties to get ideas flowing in more informal settings.
    8-
  • Review Only
  • PROGRESS ASSESSMENT * * Progress Assessment
        • What’s an inverted organization?
        • Why do organizations outsource functions?
        • What’s organizational culture?
    8-
  • PROGRESS ASSESSMENT * * Progress Assessment
        • Why are organizations becoming flatter?
        • What are some reasons for having a narrow span of control in an organization?
        • What are the advantages and disadvantages of departmentalization?
        • What are the various ways a firm can departmentalize?
    8-
  • PROGRESS ASSESSMENT * * Progress Assessment
        • What’s the difference between line and staff personnel?
        • What management principle does a matrix-style organization challenge?
        • What’s the main difference between a matrix-style organization’s structure and the use of cross-functional teams?
    8-
  • GE LOOKS for MORE PROFITS (Reaching Beyond Our Borders) * *
    • General Electric (GE) must restructure due to the financial crisis.
    • Some international units, like the GE Money unit, may need to be sold to cut costs.
    • Reorganized from six business segments to four.
      • Technology Infrastructure
      • Energy Infrastructure
      • GE Capital
      • NBC Universal
    8-
  • SAFETY vs. PROFIT (Making Ethical Decisions) * * You own a lawn-mowing business and are aware of the hazards in the job. But, you’ve seen other companies save money by eliminating safety equipment. You’d also like to make more money.
    • What do you do?
    • Save money with less safety precautions?
    • What are the consequences?
    8-
  • GOING BEYOND ORGANIZATIONAL BOUNDARIES * * Going Beyond Organizational Boundaries
    • Cross-functional teams work best when the voice of the customer is heard.
    • Teams that include customers, suppliers and distributors goes beyond organizational boundaries.
    • Government coordinators may assist in sharing market information beyond national boundaries.
    LG4 8-
  • * * KEEP in TOUCH Amazon and its Customer Database Adapting to Change
    • Amazon.com uses information stored in databases to reach out to customers. The company emails customers letting them know about CDs, DVDs or books they might like based on past purchases.
    • Have you ever received an email like this from Amazon or another company?
    • What benefits would a database of personal information, like past purchases, provide Amazon?
    • Do you think these databases are helpful for both companies and consumers or are they an invasion of privacy?
    LG5 8-