BUS137 Chapter 14


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BUS137 Chapter 14

  1. 1. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>L01: Summarize how to assess technology needs. </li></ul><ul><li>L02: Evaluate ways of acquiring new technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>L03: Describe elements of innovative organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>L04: Describe how to manage change effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>L05 List tactics for creating a successful future. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Forces Driving Technological Development <ul><li>A need or demand exists for the technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting need must be theoretically possible </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge must be available from basic science. </li></ul><ul><li>Convert the scientific knowledge into practice in engineering and economic terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Funding, skilled labor, time, space, and other resources must be available. </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial initiative must identify and pull all the necessary elements together. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Assessing Organizational Needs for Technologies <ul><li>Internal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology Audit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measure current technologies vis-à-vis emerging trends </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determine if new technologies will advance competitive goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>External </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benchmarking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comparing organization’s technologies with other organizations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental scanning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying/monitoring sources of new technology for an industry </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Relevant Criteria on which to Base Technology Decisions <ul><li>Anticipated market receptiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In short run, new technology should have immediate, valuable application. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In long run, technology must be able to satisfy market needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technological feasibility </li></ul><ul><li>Economic viability </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational suitability </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipated Competency Development </li></ul>
  6. 6. Technology Acquisition Strategies
  7. 7. Technological Innovation Roles <ul><li>Chief Information Officer (CIO) or Chief Technology Officer (CTO) </li></ul><ul><li>Information Technology Group </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneur </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Innovator </li></ul><ul><li>Product Champion </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Champion </li></ul>
  8. 8. Characteristics of Innovative Companies Source: Schermerhorn, Exploring Management, 2e
  9. 9. Experts Speak on Innovation <ul><li>A Refined View </li></ul><ul><li>A Rogue View </li></ul>
  10. 10. Organizational Development <ul><li>Organizational development (OD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>application of behavioral science knowledge to develop, improve, and reinforce strategies, structure, and processes that lead to organizational effectiveness . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four basic types of OD techniques: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic interventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technostructural interventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resources management interventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human processes intervention </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. What is Change All About? <ul><li>Thinking Out of the Box </li></ul>
  12. 12. Managing Change <ul><li>Shared leadership and change agents needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivate people to change. </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for resistance to change: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inertia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misunderstanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management tactics </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Three-Stage Change Management Model Source: Schermerhorn, Exploring Management, 2e
  14. 14. Approaches to Encourage Cooperation <ul><li>Education and communication </li></ul><ul><li>Participation and involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitation and support </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation and rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulation and cooptation </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit and implicit coercion </li></ul><ul><li>Managers must lead change. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Leading Change
  16. 16. Be a Change Agent for Y ou! <ul><li>Go beyond your job description </li></ul><ul><li>Share ideas and advice with others </li></ul><ul><li>Offer opinions and respect those of others </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct a skill inventory every few months </li></ul><ul><li>Learn something new every week </li></ul><ul><li>Engage on active thought and deliberate action </li></ul><ul><li>Take calculated risks </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize, research and pursue opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate yourself – be in it to win! </li></ul>
  17. 17. Wrap-up <ul><li>The Essence of Innovation – </li></ul><ul><li>I have not failed. </li></ul><ul><li>I’ve just found 10,000 ways that don’t work. </li></ul><ul><li>-- Thomas Edison </li></ul><ul><li>The Challenge of Change </li></ul><ul><li>Almost everyone is more enthusiastic about change when [it’s] their idea, and less enthusiastic if they feel the change is being imposed on them. </li></ul><ul><li>-- Maggie Bayless, managing partner, Zing Train </li></ul>
  18. 18. For Review Only
  19. 19. YOU should be able to <ul><li>L01: Summarize how to assess technology needs. </li></ul><ul><li>L02: Identify the criteria on which to base technology decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>L03: Evaluate key ways of acquiring new technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>L04: Describe the elements of an innovative organization. </li></ul>
  20. 20. YOU should be able to <ul><li>L05: List characteristics of successful development projects. </li></ul><ul><li>L06: Discuss what it takes to be world class. </li></ul><ul><li>L07: Describe how to manage change effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>L08: List tactics for creating a successful future. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Test your knowledge <ul><li>______ tells whether there is a good financial incentive for “pulling off” a technological innovation. </li></ul><ul><li>A) Technological feasibility </li></ul><ul><li>B) Market receptiveness </li></ul><ul><li>C) Economic viability </li></ul><ul><li>D) Organizational suitability </li></ul><ul><li>E) Competency development </li></ul>
  22. 23. Test your knowledge <ul><li>It was recently announced that the state university had </li></ul><ul><li>agreed to develop (or try to develop) a new hybrid seed </li></ul><ul><li>or northern climates. The company that has provided the </li></ul><ul><li>funding for this project hopes to sell the hybrid in the </li></ul><ul><li>former Soviet Union. The company seems to be </li></ul><ul><li>attempting to acquire technology through: </li></ul><ul><li>A) state funding. </li></ul><ul><li>B) internal development. </li></ul><ul><li>C) technology trading. </li></ul><ul><li>D) licensing. </li></ul><ul><li>E) contracted development. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Test your knowledge <ul><li>Identify and explain the elements of an innovative organization. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Test your knowledge <ul><li>Read the story on page 318 </li></ul><ul><li>How does Nau carry out the two basic kinds of innovation—exploiting existing capabilities and exploring new knowledge? </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity is part of the organizational culture at Nau. How might Chris Van Dyke and Mark Galbraith encourage employees to make the most of failures? </li></ul>
  25. 26. Test your knowledge <ul><li>The system-wide application of behavioral science to organizational effectiveness is called: </li></ul><ul><li>A) organization development </li></ul><ul><li>B) organization strategy </li></ul><ul><li>C) organization systems </li></ul><ul><li>D) leadership </li></ul><ul><li>E) none of the above </li></ul>
  26. 27. Test your knowledge <ul><li>Describe the six specific approaches to enlisting cooperation in the change process. In what situations would each be used? </li></ul>
  27. 28. Three-Stage Change Management Model <ul><li>Unfreeze </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Realize current practices are inappropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New behavior must be enacted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance gap - the difference between actual performance and desired performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Move </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institute the change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Force-field analysis - an approach to implementing Lewin’s unfreezing/moving/freezing model, involving identifying the forces that prevent people from changing and those that will drive people toward change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Refreeze </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthen new behaviors that support the change </li></ul></ul>