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BUS137 Chapter 12

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  • 1. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 2. Learning Objectives
    • L01: Advantages of two-way communication
    • L02: Communication problems to avoid
    • L03: How to become a better “sender” and “receiver” of information
  • 3. Interpersonal Communication
    • Communication
      • Transmission of information and meaning from one party to another through the of shared symbols
    • One-Way Communication
      • Information flows in only one direction – from sender to receiver, no feedback loop
    • Two-Way Communication
      • Information flows in two directions - receiver provides feedback, and sender is receptive to feedback
  • 4. Interpersonal Communication Pitfalls
    • Perception
      • process of receiving and interpreting information
    • Filtering
      • process of withholding, ignoring, or distorting information
  • 5. Verbal Behavior
    • Clear, slow speech
      • Enunciate each word. Do not use colloquial expressions.
    • Repetition
      • Repeat each important idea using different words to explain the same concept.
    • Simple sentences
      • Avoid compound, long sentences.
    • Active verbs
      • Avoid passive verbs.
  • 6. Nonverbal Behavior
    • Visual restatements
      • Use as many visual restatements as possible, such as pictures, graphs, tables, and slides.
    • Gestures
      • Use more facial and appropriate hand gestures to emphasize meaning of words.
    • Demonstrations
      • Act out as many themes as possible.
    • Pauses
      • Pause more frequently.
    • Summaries
    • Hand out written summaries of your verbal presentation.
  • 7. Accurate Information
    • Silence
      • Do not jump in to fill the silence.
    • Intelligence
      • Do not equate poor grammar and mispronunciation with lack of intelligence
    • Differences
      • If unsure, assume difference, not similarity.
  • 8. Comprehension
    • Understanding
      • Do not just assume that they understand
    • Checking comprehension
      • Have colleagues repeat their understanding of material back to you.
  • 9. Design
    • Breaks
      • Take more frequent breaks.
    • Small modules
      • Divide material to be presented into smaller modules.
    • Longer time frame
      • Allocate more time for each module than you usually need for presenting same material to native speakers of your language.
  • 10. Motivation
    • Encouragement. Verbally and nonverbally encourage and reinforce speaking by nonnative-language participants.
    • Drawing out. Explicitly draw out marginal and passive participants.
    • Reinforcement. Do not embarrass novice speakers.
  • 11. Various Channels of Communication
    • Oral communication
      • face-to-face & telephone conversations, formal presentations
    • Written communication
      • email, memos, letters, reports, computer files, & other written documents
    • There are advantages and disadvantages of oral and written communication
  • 12. Electronic Media
    • Advantages
      • Flexible and efficient channels
      • Reduce time and expenses
      • Ability to work virtually
      • Availability of “richer” media for complex or critical messages
    • Disadvantages
      • Difficulty in solving some complex problems
      • Less suitable for confidential information, conflict management, and negotiating
      • Electronic overload
  • 13. Improving Communication Skills
    • Senders can improve their:
      • Presentations
      • Writing
      • Word choice
      • Body language
  • 14. Improving Presentations
    • Spend adequate time on the content of the presentation.
    • Clearly understand the objective of the presentation.
    • Tell the audience the purpose of the presentation
    • Provide meaning, not just data.
    • Practice, practice, practice
  • 15. Improving Presentations (cont’d)
    • Remember that a presentation is more like a conversation than a speech.
    • Remember the incredible power of eye contact.
    • Allow imperfection.
    • Be prepared to answer tough questions.
    • Provide a crisp wrap-up.
  • 16. Improving Writing & Language Skills
    • Correct spelling, punctuation, & grammar
      • Refer to a dictionary or thesaurus when necessary
    • Think through message you want to convey
      • Make it clear and logical
    • Make message organized, readable, and succinct
    • Put it away and let it simmer
    • Revise 1st draft; delete unnecessary words, sentences, and paragraphs
    • Use jargon appropriately.
  • 17. Improving Nonverbal Communication
    • Use time appropriately
    • Make your office arrangement conducive to open communication
    • Remember your body language
    • Be aware of the difference in nonverbal signals in different countries
  • 18. Improving Listening Skills
    • Find an area of interest.
    • Judge content, not delivery.
    • Hold your fire.
    • Listen for ideas.
    • Be flexible.
    • Restrict distraction.
    • Exercise your mind.
    • Keep your mind open.
    • Capitalize on thought speed.
    • Work at listening.
  • 19. Improving Reading Skills
    • Read memos and e-mail as soon as possible.
    • Skim most messages, but carefully read important messages
    • Consider taking courses to improve your reading comprehension
    • Read materials outside of your immediate concern or area
  • 20. Improving Observing & Interpreting Skills
    • Practice reading the nonverbal cues of your audience
    • Become aware of cultural differences to minimize misinterpretations
  • 21.  
  • 22. YOU should be able to
    • L01: Discuss important advantages of two-way communication
    • L02: Identify communication problems to avoid
    • L03: Describe when and how to use various communication channels
  • 23. YOU should be able to
    • L04: Summarize ways to become a better “sender” and “receiver” of information
    • L05: Explain how to improve downward, upward, and horizontal communication
    • L06: Summarize how to work with the company grapevine
    • L07: Describe the boundaryless organization and its advantages
  • 24.  
  • 25. Test Your Knowledge
    • Read the story on page 268
    • Corporate Accountability International uses several methods to gets its “Think Outside the Bottle” message across. Identify which methods demonstrate one-way communication (from CAI to the public) and which demonstrate two-way communication (between CAI to the public).
    • The group uses a variety of communication channels or mechanisms to educate consumers about bottled versus tap water. List as many as you can. Which do you think are most effective, and why?
  • 26. Test Your Knowledge
    • Which of the following might demonstrate top management support and commitment to managing diversity?
    • A) Affirmative action programs to recruit minority members
    • B) Integration of corporate facilities (i.e. disabled access)
    • C) Establishment of support groups
    • D) Linking management compensation to diversity efforts
    • E) Adhering to all civil rights legislation
  • 27. Test Your Knowledge
    • Which of the following is NOT likely to facilitate
    • effective communication with someone who speaks a
    • different language?
    • A) Take frequent breaks
    • B) use many visual aids
    • C) Use hand and facial gestures
    • D) Repeat important ideas in alternative ways
    • E) Use passive verbs
  • 28. Test Your Knowledge
    • Improving your sender skills includes which of
    • the following?
    • A) Making persuasive presentations
    • B) Writing
    • C) Language use
    • D) Sending nonverbal messages
    • E) All of the above.
  • 29. Test Your Knowledge
    • Coordination, conflict resolution and social
    • support are all important functions of:
    • A) vertical communication.
    • B) horizontal communication.
    • C) downward communication.
    • D) upward communication.
    • E) staff communication.
  • 30. Test Your Knowledge
    • XYZ Corporation is an organization where information
    • is available as needed, moving quickly and easily
    • enough so that the organization functions far better as
    • a whole team than as separate parts. XYZ Corporation can best
    • be described as which type of organization?
    • A) Vertical
    • B) Horizontal
    • C) Downward
    • D) Upward
    • E) Boundaryless