BUS137 Chapter 11


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BUS137 Chapter 11

  1. 1. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>L01: How teams contribute to organization’s effectiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>L02: Distinguish new team environment from traditional work groups. </li></ul><ul><li>L03: How do groups become teams? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives <ul><li>L04: Why do groups sometimes fail? </li></ul><ul><li>L05: How to build an effective team. </li></ul><ul><li>L06: List methods for managing a team’s relationships with other teams. </li></ul><ul><li>L07: Identify ways to manage conflict. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Contributions of Teams <ul><li>Teams can be powerfully effective as a building block for organization structure. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increase productivity, improve quality, enhance speed, and reduce costs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>powerful forces for innovation and change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide benefits for members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>useful learning, feedback, growth, and development mechanisms. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The New Team Environment <ul><li>Team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>small number of people with complementary skills committed to a common purpose and set of performance goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hold themselves mutually accountable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Working group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>collection of people who work in the same area or come together to undertake a task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>do not necessarily have a common purpose </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Different Types of Organizational Teams <ul><li>Project and Development Teams - teams that work on long-term projects but disband once the work is completed </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Circles - voluntary groups of people drawn from various production teams who make suggestions about quality </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Managed Teams - Autonomous work groups in which workers are trained to do all or most of the jobs in a unit, have no immediate supervisor, and make decisions previously made by first-line supervisors </li></ul>
  7. 7. Team Autonomy Continuum
  8. 8. How Groups Become Real Teams <ul><li>Forming - Group members lay ground rules for what types of behavior are acceptable. </li></ul><ul><li>Storming - Hostilities and conflict arise; people jock for positions of power and status. </li></ul><ul><li>Norming - Group members agree on shared goals; norms and closer relationships develop. </li></ul><ul><li>Performing - Group channels its energies into performing tasks. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Why do groups sometimes fail? <ul><li>Ineffective communication </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of effective chartering, visioning, and goal setting </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of clarity about roles </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping morale and momentum high </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping productivity high </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of trust </li></ul>
  10. 10. Building Team Effectiveness <ul><li>The productive output of the team meets or exceeds the standards of quantity and quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Team members realize satisfaction of their personal needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Team members remain committed to working together again. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective teams: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>focus on performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>need feedback on their performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have skilled members </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Managers motivate effective teamwork <ul><li>Social loafing - working less hard and being less productive when in a group </li></ul><ul><li>Social loafing occurs when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>individuals believe their contributions are not important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>others will do the work for them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their lack of effort will go undetected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they will be the lone sucker if they work hard but others don’t </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social facilitation effect - working harder when in a group than when working alone </li></ul>
  12. 12. Roles & Cohesiveness for team effectiveness <ul><li>Roles - different sets of expectations for how different individuals should behave </li></ul><ul><li>Task Specialist - An individual who has more advanced job-related skills and abilities than other group members possess </li></ul><ul><li>Team Maintenance Specialist - Individual who develops and maintains team harmony </li></ul><ul><li>Cohesiveness - The degree to which a group is attractive to its members, members are motivated to remain in the group, and members influence one another </li></ul>
  13. 13. Building Cohesiveness and High-Performance Norms <ul><li>Recruit members with similar attitudes, values, and backgrounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain high entrance and socialization standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the team small. </li></ul><ul><li>Help the team succeed, and publicize its successes. </li></ul><ul><li>Be a participative leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Present a challenge from outside the team. </li></ul><ul><li>Tie rewards to team performance. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Managing Lateral Relationships <ul><li>Gatekeeper - a team member who stays abreast of current information and informs the group of important developments </li></ul>
  15. 15. Conflict Management Strategies
  16. 16. Managing Conflict within and among Teams <ul><li>Avoidance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reaction to conflict that involves ignoring problem by doing nothing at all, or deemphasizing disagreement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accommodation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>style of dealing with conflict involving cooperation on behalf of other party but not being assertive about one’s own interests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compromise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a style of dealing with conflict involving moderate attention to both parties </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Managing Conflict within and among Teams <ul><li>Competing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>style of dealing with conflict involving strong focus on one’s own goals and little or no concern for other person’s goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>style of dealing with conflict emphasizing both cooperation and assertiveness in order to maximize both parties’ satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mediator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>third party who intervenes to help others manage their conflict </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Strategies HR Managers use to settle disputes <ul><li>Interview all parties to gather information. </li></ul><ul><li>Decide how to resolve the dispute, often in conjunction with disputants’ bosses. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain decisions and reasoning; advise or train disputants to avoid future incidents. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow up to make sure everyone understands solution, document conflict and resolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor results by checking back with disputants and bosses. </li></ul>
  19. 20. YOU should be able to <ul><li>L01: Discuss how teams can contribute to an organization’s effectiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>L02: Distinguish the new team environment from that of traditional work groups. </li></ul><ul><li>L03: Summarize how groups become teams. </li></ul>
  20. 21. YOU should be able to <ul><li>L04: Explain why groups sometimes fail. </li></ul><ul><li>L05: Describe how to build an effective team. </li></ul><ul><li>L06: List methods for managing a team’s relationships with other teams. </li></ul><ul><li>L07: Identify ways to manage conflict. </li></ul>
  21. 23. Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>Explain at least four ways that teams can help organizations. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>Sebastian Stabilio just joined a team of people from throughout his organization whose primary task is to recommend valuable uses for the scrap generated in the manufacturing process. The team meets twice per week; otherwise members work within the usual organizational structure. The team, not permanent, which Sebastian has joined, would be considered a: </li></ul><ul><li>A) work team. </li></ul><ul><li>B) working group. </li></ul><ul><li>C) project group. </li></ul><ul><li>D) project team. </li></ul><ul><li>E) parallel team. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>Describe the process by which groups become real teams. </li></ul>
  24. 26. Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>Read the Starbucks story on page 252. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the Jumpstart team’s common purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>How does the establishment of a permanent </li></ul><ul><li>location contribute to the achievement of this </li></ul><ul><li>purpose? </li></ul><ul><li>How might the performance of the Jumpstart UNO </li></ul><ul><li>program be measured? </li></ul><ul><li>Write a few possible performance goals </li></ul><ul><li>the team could use. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>Prior to hiring a consultant to assist with a departmental </li></ul><ul><li>reorganization, the departmental manager was required </li></ul><ul><li>to get the project (and the project's expense) approved by </li></ul><ul><li>two other departments: accounting and human resources. </li></ul><ul><li>This type of requirement facilitates ______ relationships in </li></ul><ul><li>the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>A) service </li></ul><ul><li>B) advisory </li></ul><ul><li>C) audit </li></ul><ul><li>D) stabilization </li></ul><ul><li>E) liaison </li></ul>
  26. 28. Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>Discuss the conflict management strategies. When are each most appropriate? </li></ul>