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BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
BUS137 Chapter 10
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BUS137 Chapter 10

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  • 1. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 2. Learning Objectives
    • L01: Behaviors managers need to motivate people
    • L02: Principles for setting goals that motivate employees
    • L03: How to reward good performance effectively
    • L04: Key beliefs that affect people’s motivation
    • L05: Ways in which people’s individual needs affect their behavior.
    • L06: Ways to create jobs that motivate.
    • L07: How people assess fairness and how to achieve fairness.
    • L08: Identify causes and consequences of a satisfied workforce.
    10-
  • 3. Motivating for Performance
    • Motivation
      • forces that energize, direct and sustain a person’s efforts.
    • Organizations want to motivate people to:
      • Join the organization, and stay
      • Come to work regularly
      • Work hard to achieve high output and high quality
      • Exhibit good citizenship
        • be committed and perform above and beyond the call of duty to help the company
    10-
  • 4. Goal Setting Theory
    • Proposes that people have conscious goals that energize them and direct their thoughts and behaviors toward a particular end
    10-
  • 5. Well-crafted goals are highly motivating
    • Meaningful
    • Acceptable
    • Challenging but Attainable
    • Specific and quantifiable
    10-
  • 6. Stretch Goals
    • Targets that are exceptionally demanding, and that some people would never even think of.
      • Vertical stretch goals are aligned with current activities including productivity and financial results
      • Horizontal stretch goals involve people’s professional development, such as attempting and learning new, difficult things
    10-
  • 7. Reinforcing Performance
    • Law of effect
      • Law formulated by Edward Thorndike in 1911
      • Behavior that is followed by positive consequences will likely be repeated
    • Reinforcers
      • Positive consequences that motivate behavior
    • Organizational behavior modification (OB mod)
      • Application of reinforcement theory in organizational settings
    10-
  • 8. Key Consequences of Behavior
    • Positive reinforcement
        • applying a consequence that increases the likelihood that the person will repeat the behavior that led to it.
    • Negative reinforcement
        • removing or withholding an undesirable consequence.
    • Punishment
        • administering an aversive consequence.
    • Extinction
        • withdrawing or failing to provide a reinforcing consequence.
    10-
  • 9. What do you want to reinforce?
    • Solid solutions NOT quick fixes
    • Risk taking NOT risk avoiding
    • Applied creativity NOT mindless conformity
    • Decision action NOT analysis paralysis
    • Smart work NOT busywork
    • Simplification NOT needless complication
    • Quietly effective behavior NOT squeaky wheels
    • Quality work NOT fast work
    • Loyalty NOT turnover
    • Working together NOT working against
    10-
  • 10. Rewards
    • Support the firm’s strategy
    • Relate people’s performance in relation to strategic objectives
    • Can be nonmonetary
      • intellectual challenge, greater responsibility, autonomy, recognition, flexible benefits, and greater influence over decisions
    10-
  • 11. Should you punish mistakes?
    • Appropriate
    • Violation of law, ethical standards, important safety rules
    • When employees perform like a slacker
    • Inappropriate
    • When poor performance is not the individual’s fault
    • When managers take out their frustrations on the wrong people
    10-
  • 12. How to Manage Mistakes
    • Recognize that everyone makes mistakes
      • Handle constructively by discussing and learning from them
    • Praise people who deliver based news to their bosses
    • Don’t punish, unsuccessful good-faith efforts
    • Encourage people to try new things and don’t punish them if what they try doesn’t work out.
    10-
  • 13. Performance-related Beliefs
    • Expectancy theory
      • people will behave based on their perceived likelihood that their effort will lead to a certain outcome and
      • on how highly they value that outcome.
    10-
      • Effort  Performance  Outcome
  • 14. Managerial Implications of Expectancy Theory
    • Increase expectancies
      • Provide work environment that facilitates good performance
      • Set realistically attainable performance goals
    • Identify positively valent outcomes
      • Understand want people want to get out of work
    • Make performance instrumental toward positive outcomes
      • Follow good performance by personal recognition and praise, favorable performance reviewers, pay increases, and other positive results
    10-
  • 15. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy 10-
  • 16. Types of Motivation
    • Extrinsic motivation
      • rewards given to a person by the boss, the company or some other person - EXTERNAL
    • Intrinsic motivation
      • rewards a worker derives directly from performing the job itself - INTERNAL
    10-
  • 17. Designing Motivating Jobs
    • Job rotation
      • changing from one routine task to another to alleviate boredom
    • Job enlargement
      • Giving people additional tasks at the same time to alleviate boredom
    • Job enrichment
      • Changing a task to make it inherently more rewarding, motivating, and satisfying
    10-
  • 18. Herzberg’s two-factor theory
    • Proposed two broad categories of factors that affect people working on their jobs
      • Hygiene factor
        • Workplace characteristics that can make people dissatisfied
        • Company policies, working conditions, pay, and supervision
      • Motivators
        • Factors that make a job more motivating
        • Additional job responsibilities, opportunities for personal growth and recognition, and feelings of achievement
    10-
  • 19. What is empowerment?
    • The process of sharing power with employees , thereby enhancing their confidence in their ability to perform their jobs and their belief that they are influential contributors to the organization.
    10-
  • 20. Equity Theory
    • Proposes that people assess how fairly they have been treated according to two key factors
      • Outcomes – various things the person receives on the job
      • Inputs – contributions the person makes to the organization
    10-
  • 21. How people restore equity
    • Reducing their inputs
    • Increase their outcomes
    • Decrease others’ outcomes
    • Increase others’ inputs
    10-
  • 22. Quality of work life programs
    • Create workplace that enhances employee well-being and satisfaction
    • Satisfy the full range of employee needs
    10-
  • 23.  
  • 24. Feedback should…
    • Be useful
    • Address your employee’s request for feedback
    10-
  • 25. YOU should be able to
    • L01: Identify the kinds of behaviors managers need to motivate people
    • L02: List principles for setting goals that motivate employees
    • L03: Summarize how to reward good performance effectively
    • L04: Describe the key beliefs that affect people’s motivation
    10-
  • 26. YOU should be able to
    • L05: Discuss ways in which people’s individual needs affect their behavior.
    • L06: Define ways to create jobs that motivate.
    • L07: Summarize how people assess fairness and how to achieve fairness.
    • L08: Identify causes and consequences of a satisfied workforce.
    10-
  • 27. 10-
  • 28. Test Your Knowledge
    • Describe the characteristics of goals that most effectively motivate people.
    10-
  • 29. Test Your Knowledge
    • Identify four examples of people advertently
    • reinforcing the wrong behaviors, or
    • punishing or extinguishing good behaviors
    10-
  • 30. Test Your Knowledge
    • Discuss the managerial implications of
    • expectancy theory. Relate them specifically
    • to expectancy theory.
    10-
  • 31. Test Your Knowledge
    • A difference between Maslow's Need Hierarchy and Alderfer's ERG Theory is that
    • A) ERG theory states that various needs operate simultaneously.
    • B) Maslow's hierarchy has more scientific validity.
    • C) Maslow's hierarchy reminds managers that even if one need seems to motivate people, other needs may still need attention.
    • D) ERG theory focuses on five levels of need.
    • E) only Maslow's theory serves to remind managers of the types of reinforcers that can be used to motivate people.
    10-
  • 32. Test Your Knowledge
    • Compare and contrast job enlargement, job enrichment, and job rotation. Give an example of each.
    10-
  • 33. Procedural Justice
    • Using a fair process in decision making and making sure others know that the process was as fair as possible.
    10-
  • 34. Test Your Knowledge
    • Describe a time when you felt unfairly treated and explain why. How did you respond to the inequity? What other options might you have had?
    10-
  • 35. Test Your Knowledge
    • Identify the cause and consequences of a satisfied workforce.
    10-

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