Fascist de-nationalization policies in Istria

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Fascist de-nationalization policies in Istria

Fascist de-nationalization policies in Istria

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  • 1. Italian Fascist Denationalization Policies in Istria (1919-1943) David Orlović, ISHA Pula
  • 2. Ethnic composition in Istria
  • 3. Italian acquisitions in 1918
  • 4. PromisesVictor Emanuel III: “Our freedom-loving traditions urge us to (…) as much as possible respecttheir [the Slavs’] special laws and local customs”.Foreign minister Tittoni: “The people of the other nationality which now makes part of ourcountry should know that we are not keen on any denationalization or violence. Their language,cultural institutions and social rights will have all the privileges”.Admiral Cagni: all non-residents of Pula to leave the city in five days (5 XI 1918) close all Croatian reading rooms…they keep a rebel spirit among local Croats.
  • 5. The Fascist movement
  • 6. Benito Mussolini’s speech in Pola 1920 “Di fronte ad una razza come la slava, inferiore e barbara, non si deve seguire la politica che dà lo zuccherino, ma quella del bastone ... Io credo che si possano sacrificare 500.000 slavi barbari a 50.000 italiani”. “In the fight with a race such as the Slavic, an inferior and barbaric one, we should not stick to the politics of cookies, but of the club. (…) I believe it is possible to sacrifice 500,000 barbarian Slavs to 50,000 Italians”.
  • 7. Fascist violence 1920-1922
  • 8. “March on Rome” 28 X 1922
  • 9. Denationalization policiesSlavic speakers – allogeni – “people of another kind”Ban on speaking in Slovene /Croatian languages in publicspaces.Banning of cultural institutions – reading rooms, etcDestruction of printing studios, ban on press.Gentile school reform 1923 – non-Italian language classesbanned. Closure of Croatian and Slovene language schools.Law of 1923 on naming of toponyms – all names of towns,valleys and hills containing Slavic forms changedLaw on family names of 1926 – ex. Lučić – Lucchi, Jakovljić – Di Giacomo Radošević – Radossi, Vratović – Frattoni(“returning them into their natural Italian form”)Penalties: confination on islands south of Sicily,inprisonment, torture through beating and ricinus oil intake.
  • 10. Denationalization policiesBan on church service in Croatian / Slovene language - inprisonment and incarceration of Slavic priests.Enrollment of all children into regime organizations – e.g. Gioventu’Italiana del LittorioPauperization as a way of assimilation- To force the Slavic peasant into submission to his wealthy Italianlandlord-Destruction of the small Croatian and Slovene landlord (their land sold ata minor price to wealthy Italian landlords-Having the Fascist party membership card – a way to obtain workingplace- thus many Slavs unemployed-Enlargement of the number of poor people after the 1929 economiccollapse.
  • 11. ReactionsMassive emigration to South America and the neighbouring Kingdom ofYugoslaviaTwo big uprisings and several small scale protestsTerrorist methods used by Slavic organization TIGRAll-out popular uprising after the fall of fascism and Allies’ armisticewith Italy in World War II: September 1943- Included execution of several fascist figureheads, but also tit-for-tatkilling of a number of Italian civilians, too.
  • 12. BIBLIOGRAPHYBuršić H., Od ropstva do slobode. Istra 1918-1943, Pula 2011.Bosworth R.J., L’Italia di Mussolini, Milano 2009.Dukovski D., Fašizam u Istri, Pula 1998. THANKS FOR THE ATTENTION!!