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This is a presentation that examines the nature of effect pigments and how they can be used in plastic applications

This is a presentation that examines the nature of effect pigments and how they can be used in plastic applications

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Basf Linked In Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Presented by Doreen Becker Technical Marketing Manager BASF Effect Pigments for Plastics Effect Pigments in Plastics
  • 2. Overview
    • Introduction: overview of effect pigments
    • Features and benefits of product lines for plastics
    • Common resins employed in processing
    • Challenges of using effect pigments in plastics
    • Styling for trend and color forecasts
    • Real-world examples and finished products
  • 3. Effect pigments
    • Pearlescent pigments
      • White pearlescent mica-based pigments such as MagnaPearls
    • Interference pigments
      • Mica-based pigments that change color on the flop angle
    • Metallescent pigments
      • Mica-based pigments have metallic and pearlescent effects
    • Borosilicate-based pigments
            • Glass flake pigments that have color travel and transparency
    • Special effect pigments
      • Dynacolors, Black Olive, Mark-It etc
                                                        
  • 4. Pigment structure Mica Mica TiO 2 or other metal oxides With optional absorption colorant layer Substrates Mica Borosilicate Al 2 O 3 SiO 2 Graphite Others? 50 nm TiO 2 50 nm TiO 2 500 nm Mica
  • 5. Metal oxide coated mica pigment / / / Metal oxide coated mica O O O O O M M M M >700  C O O O O O O H H H H H H M M M
  • 6. Oxide thickness determines interference color TiO 2 TiO 2 Mica TiO 2 TiO 2
  • 7. Titanium dioxide coated mica by reflectance microscopy Gold Red Violet Blue Green
  • 8. Absorption color depends on oxide color and thickness Mica Bronze Fe 2 O 3 Fe 2 O 3 Mica Russet Fe 2 O 3 Fe 2 O 3
  • 9. Iron oxide coated mica by reflectance microscopy Bronze Russet
  • 10. Mica versus metallic pigments Reflectance of a pearlescent and metallic flake pigment in a transparent resin Pearlescent pigment transparent platelets Metallic flake pigment opaque platelets
  • 11. White pearlescent pigments MagnaPearl®
      • Highest luster pigments (blue shade)
      • Least mica undertone contribution
      • Developed for plastics packaging industry
      • Particle sizes
        • MP3000= 2-10 microns (high hiding)
        • MP2000= 5-25 microns (velvet effect)
        • MP1000= 8-48 microns (satin effect)
        • MP 5000= 14-95 microns (sparkle effect)
        • MP8000= 5-80 microns
        • MP4000= 15-150 microns (glittery effect)
                                                                             
  • 12. Interference Pigments
    • Lumina® Colors (D Fraction)
      • Higher, purer chroma
      • 6-48 microns
    • Hi-Lite Super pigments (Z Fraction)
      • Older coating technology
      • Lower chroma, more pearly
      • 6-48 microns
    • Mearlin® Micro-Pearl pigments
      • Small particle size, 2-24 microns
  • 13. Metallescent Pigments
    • Combines a metallic appearance with the softness of pearl
    • Silver
    • Gold/Brass
    • Bronze
    • Copper
    • Russet
  • 14. Firemist ® pigments
    • Firemist ®
      • 5-300um
      • 5 microns thick
      • High transparency
      • No flow lines
    • Firemist ® Super pigments
      • 5-60 um
      • 0.5 microns thick
      • Smooth appearance
  • 15. Special effect pigments
    • Black Olive ™ pigment
      • Mica-based product that imparts a dark silvery effect
      • Used in men’s packaging, electronics, styling tint
    • Dynacolor ® pigments
      • Interference mica pigment with additional organic layer
      • Used in kid’s packaging and other brightly colored applications
    • Mark-it ™ Laser marking pigment
      • Provides high-definition marking for barcodes and graphics-YAg
  • 16. Special effect pigments
    • Mearlite ® pigments (UFI)
      • Bismuth oxychloride pigments
      • 2-25um sized crystals
      • Imparts a very white lustrous
      • appearance to plastics
      • Used in high-end cosmetic packaging
  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19. Common resins employed in processing
    • Styrenics: GPPS, K-resin for bottles
    • Polycarbonate: PC/ABS for compacts, PC for closures,clear packaging and lenses
    • Polyolefins: LDPE for pinch tubes, PP& HDPE for closures and blowmolded bottles
    • Polyester: PET & PETG used for bottles
    • and films
  • 20. PVC
    • Products:
      • Pinch tubes, closures and blowmolded bottles, calendered film (flexible)
      • Vertical blinds, capstock, trim etc (rigid)
    • Effect Pigment loading
      • 5.0% or more in Banbury (batch process) or two roll mill
      • 5.0% in 20mil flexible films (from concentrate)
      • 1.0% in injection molded pieces
      • Flexible concentrate up to 20% in a twin screw extruder
    • Additives
      • Add pigments incrementally,
      • Generally not needed
      • Mineral Oil or phthalate (1g in 1000g batch) for dry blends
    • Plateout
      • Decrease loading of pigment and or plasticizer
      • Extrude films more slowly to achieve better contact with rolls or use air knife
  • 21. Solid Surfaces
    • Polyester
      • Corian
    • Polyester & Quartz
      • Zodiac
    • PMMA
      • Aristech
  • 22. Processing challenges- Injection Molding & Blow Molding
    • Flow Lines
      • Caused by poorly designed molds
      • Flow lines enhanced by color and
      • effect pigments
      • Solutions
        • Change label placement
        • Mold design or redesign
          • Reduce sharp angles of molded piece
          • Reduce mold openings or pins
          • Center gating rather than edge gating
          • Hot runners or static mixers
          • Use CAD programs to predict where flow lines will emerge
        • Processing changes
          • Slower injection speeds
          • Lower injection pressures
  • 23. Processing challenges- Injection Molding & Blow Molding
    • Flow Lines (continued)
        • Processing changes
          • Reduced clamping pressures
          • Increased mold temperatures
          • Longer residence time (curing) in the mold
        • Formulation changes
          • Larger particle sized pigments
          • Less opaque pigments
          • More transparent resins
          • Lower pigment loadings
  • 24. Processing challenges- Injection Molding & Blow Molding
    • Splay
      • Incompatibility of additives or letdown resins
      • Excess moisture
        • Dry pigments and resin prior to processing
      • Overloading of pigments
        • Add less than 2% of effect pigments
    • Poor resin clarity
      • Moisture
      • Incompatibility of additives or letdown resins
    Splay from gated edge
  • 25. Processing challenges- Injection Molding & Blow Molding
    • Streaked bottles
      • Poor dispersion
        • Raise processing temperatures
        • Increase screw speed
        • Use an olefin screw if possible
      • Dirty equipment
        • Mandrel becomes clogged with charred resin or pigments
        • Molder isn’t thoroughly purged from prior resin
    • Weld line failure & stress fractures
      • Moisture
      • Incompatibility of additives or letdown resins
      • Wall thickness
      • Pigment selection
    Streaked bottle Clean bottle
  • 26. Mechanical Solutions-Injection Molding
    • Metering Screw Design
      • L/D ratio-smaller ratio is better
        • Screw length to outside diameter (20:1)
      • Profile- use a longer transition and shorter meter
        • Length of each zone (10:5:5) feed:transition:meter
      • Channel depth of meter zone
        • Deeper channel is better for effect pigments
      • Compression ratio- lower compression ratios are better
        • Depth of feed channel:depth of meter channel
      • Helix angle-larger helix angle is better
        • Pitch of screw flights
  • 27. Processing challenges-Extrusion
    • Loading limits
    • Dusting
    • Strand breakage
    • Processing temperatures
    • Throughput limits
    • Pigment damage
  • 28. MagnaPearl ® X Series High performance pigment
    • High performance white pearlescent pigment
      • Developed for the master batch industry
      • Pigment is encapsulated in a proprietary
        • preparation
      • Appearance benefits
      • Unique performance attributes
      • Approved for food contact applications
    Engelhard’s high performance effect pigments improve manufacturing efficiency & reduce costs
  • 29. MagnaPearl ® X2100 High performance pigment
    • Increased throughput
      • 50% improvement vs untreated product
      • 25% improvement vs competitive products
    • Enhanced visual appearance
      • Less damage to pigments from extrusion
    • Reduction in processing additives
      • Reduces dusting
      • Improves feed flow
      • Reduces strand breakage
    • Increased loadings
      • Greater than 35%
    • Reduced processing temperatures
    • Easier cleanup and purging
    Experiments *Not attainable 35 160 MagnaPearl ® X2100 35 N/A* MagnaPearl ® 2100 25 160 MagnaPearl ® X2100 25 100 MagnaPearl ® 2100 Loading % pigment Throughput Grams/minute Sample
  • 30. Mechanical solutions-extrusion
    • Twin screw extrusion
      • Allows for higher pigment loading
      • Yields higher throughput
    • 2 feed system
      • Allows for higher pigment loading
      • Less pigment damage
      • Better dispersion
    • Screw design and Static Mixers
      • Low shear design
      • Distributive rather than dispersive mixing
    Distributive Mixing (elongational flow)* Dispersive Mixing (shear flow)* *Courtesy of Rauwendaal Extrusion Engineering
  • 31. Blending Guide for Effect Pigments
    • For Polypropylene
      • 1% Pearlescent pigment
      • 0.125% Mineral Oil or DOP
      • 1% LDPE Wax or other plasticizer
    • For ABS
      • 2% Pearlescent pigment
      • 0.125% Mineral Oil or DOP
      • 0.125% Magnesium Stearate
    • For Polystyrene
      • 0.5% to 1.0% Pearlescent pigment
      • 0.125% Mineral Oil or DOP
      • 1% LDPE Wax or other plasticizer
    • Blending Procedure
    • Blend resin and oil for five minutes
    • Add the wax or stearate
    • Add the pearlescent pigment
    • Tumble for 20 minutes
  • 32. Styling for trend and color forecasts
    • Packaging Trend
    • Trendance
      • (Teletronics/Interior Automotive)
  • 33. Real-world Technical Experience
    • Technical Services
      • Color/Effect matches
      • Resin compatibility issues
    • Customer requests
      • Styling
      • Product updates and offsets
      • Plant and production trials
    • Industries Served
      • Concentrate Houses
      • Molding and Extrusion Customers
      • Other raw material suppliers
      • Electronics, packaging and
      • appliance designers
  • 34. Interested in an Innovation Session for your products? Contact Information
    • Doreen Becker
      • Office: 914-737-0985 x 227
      • Email: doreen.becker@basf.com