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Sifakis serres-global english Sifakis serres-global english Document Transcript

  • 24/2/2014 Understanding the role of English and English language teaching in the globalisation era Nicos Sifakis Assoc. P f A Professor Hellenic Open University Serres, 22.02.2014  sifakis@eap.gr http://eap.academia.edu/NicosCSifakis http://eap academia edu/NicosCSifakis 2 1
  • 24/2/2014 3 4 2
  • 24/2/2014 • Shrinking of space: people’s lives (jobs, salaries, health) are influenced by facts in other parts of the planet, often by facts they are not even aware of • Shrinking of time: f t development of Sh i ki f ti fast d l t f markets & technologies, decision-making & action-taking achieved at a distance • Disappearing borders: influences markets, movement of capital / information, ideas, values, lifestyles (UNDP, 1999) What is globalisation? 5    New technologies   New ways of working f ki   New communities Friedman’s 3 world “flatteners” 6 3
  • 24/2/2014 1. 1500-1800: European empires (Spain, Portugal); globalisation of peripheral commerce 2. 19th c: industrial revolution (UK, Germany, Japan, USA); colonisation 3. 1945-: USA-USSR; technology revolution (Robertson, 2003) Three “waves” of globalisation 7 “Without US leadership, it would have been difficult or impossible for other nations to slash their barriers and open their markets. Such widespread opening has contributed to the best half-century of world economic growth at least since the time of Christ, and probably ever.” (Bradford et al., 2006: 893) “So just “S j t as ‘th business of America is ‘the b i fA i i business’, manifestly English for business is business for English.” (Phillipson, 2001: 190-1) 8 4
  • 24/2/2014 • Working language of international organisations and conferences • Scientific publications • International banking, economic affairs and trade • Advertising for global brands • Audio-visual cultural products (e.g. film, TV, popular music) • International tourism • Tertiary education • International safety (e.g. airspeak, seaspeak) • As a rela lang age in interpretation and translation relay language, • Technology transfer • Internet communication Major international domains of English 9 Quiz: Who is “worth” more? 10 5
  • 24/2/2014 ...after McArthur (2005) • Level 1: “English language complex” • Level 2: Chinese, Spanish, Hindi-Urdu • Level 3: Arabic, French, German, Japanese, Malay • Level 4: Portoguese, Swedish, Swahili, etc. • Level 5: Greek, Icelandic, etc. • Level 6: Welsh, Navaho, Maori, etc. • L Level 7 Ab l 7: Abaga, A i D Ari, Dengalu, etc. l t Categorisations 11 ...after de Swaan (2001)’s “global language system” • Hypercentral: English • Supercentral: Arabic, Chinese, Hindi, French, German, Portoguese, Spanish, Swahili, etc. • Central: widely spoken languages, about 100, used by 95% of world population • P i h l th rest, about 6000 used by Peripheral: the t b t 6000, db 10% of world population Categorisations 12 6
  • 24/2/2014 • • D. Crystal video (link) Ostler (2005): – “Global powers make global languages”  but German speaking conquerors (Vandals, Goths) learned Latin-based Romance languages – Turkish/Mongol conquerors of China learned Chinese/Persian – Phoenicians dominated during 1 millenium BC but Greek was the lingua franca of the Mediterranean What makes a language global? 13 The “special” role of English 7
  • 24/2/2014 World English World Englishes Global English English as an International Language English as an Intercultural Language English as a Lingua Franca Lingua franca: “languages usually used by people g whose mother tongues are different with a purpose of simplifying communication between them” (UNESCO, 1953) Terminology 15 WHOSE English we teach defines WHAT English we teach • Native Speaker Standard English ESL, EFL • p English as Lingua Franca g g Non-Native Speaker EIL, ELF Combinations of the above? Implications 16 8
  • 24/2/2014 • Vowel quantity: the distinction between long and short vowels is more important than exact vowel quality, and should be our main concern with diphthongs, too • Consonant conflations: the substitution of one consonant for another can cause serious confusion for both NS and NNS listeners • Phonetic realisations: some such approximations may lead to unintelligibility • Prominence and weak forms: in terms of NNS production, teaching should focus on achieving correct prominence on stressed syllables, rather than on weak forms or schwa • Nuclear/contrastive stress but not tone: putting nuclear stress on the wrong word in an utterance, will direct the listener’s attention to the wrong place, leading to confusion Lingua Franca Core: a model for pronunciation instruction • • • 17 50+% of 20 y.o. in tertiary education At least 50% of student population learns 2 or more FLs 20% increase of English language learning (20022008) • 7.025 Foreign Language Centres • 23.720 teachers • 558.099 learners English: 478.423  German: 32.508  French: 24.922  Spanish: 12 274 12.274  Italian: 8.128  Some other language: 1.844 In Greece, we adore education… 18 9
  • 24/2/2014 German 6% Italian Spanish 1% 2% French 5% English E li h 86% 19 The broader context Greece: • Traditionally viewed as a societal context y characterised by a linguistically & culturally homogeneous narrative • Today, transformation from a migrantsending to a migrant-receiving country • Significant numbers of newly arrived immigrant and Greek-born children of immigrant parents in mainstream schools 20 10
  • 24/2/2014 The broader context Greek TESOL: • … seen as an Expanding Circle (EFL) context • … in which the traditional TESOL approach has been underpinned by the TEFL paradigm However: • Awareness of a new international function of English • Awareness of a new intranational function of English 21 • 91%: E. the most useful language after MT (Eurobarometer 2001) • 42%: self-acknowledged sufficient knowledge of E E. • Cambridge ESOL Exams (2006): – FCE: Greece 50th (out of 67 countries), 57% success rate – CPE: 31st (out of 31 countries), 46% success rate t How do we “feel” about English? 22 11
  • 24/2/2014 • How well do we believe we know E? 24% “very well” (Eurobarometer, 2001) Confidence vs. Competence: mismatch? How do we “feel” about English? 23 Characterising TESOL practice Traditionally: • (1) FOREIGN LANGUAGE • (2) EXAM-ORIENTED Another possibility: • (3) INTERNATIONAL (ELF/EIL) • (4) MULTICULTURAL (MATE) orientation: Multicultural awareness through English 24 12
  • 24/2/2014 Question: Which of the following descriptions best suits your current (or most recent) teaching situation? (1) FOREIGN LANGUAGE (2) EXAM-ORIENTED (3) INTERNATIONAL (ELF/EIL) (4) MULTICULTURAL (MATE) orientation: Multicultural awareness through English 25 • “EFL”? – “Standard English”, mid-Atlantic (NS) – “the expression ‘foreign’ indicates ‘distance’” (Ehlich, (Ehlich 2009: 27); this has individual and societal consequences • “EIL”? – One variety or many? Which variety (-ies)? y y y( ) What English do we teach? 26 13
  • 24/2/2014 • “ELF”? – Intelligibility, comprehensibility (NNS-NNS) – How? • Exam-bound? – Washforward? Washback? • A hybrid? “old-school”: correct-incorrect new-school : appropriacy, “new-school”: appropriacy purposedriven What English do we teach? 27 Question: Fluency / Accuracy: Does this polarity belong to the “old” or the “new” school? And why? What English do we teach? 28 14
  • 24/2/2014 • “We don’t have to teach each and every variety of English in the world (or the standard Englishes of Inner Circle communities); we simply have to change our understanding of language learning To begin with we have learning. with, hitherto taught English in terms of a ‘target language’. The target has been defined in terms of a ‘native’ variety. […] Now we should teach in terms of a repertoire of language competence.’ p (Canagarajah, 2005: 209-10) What English do we teach? 29 • In the FL classroom – – – – Curriculum Coursebook Additional material Computer l b C t lab • Outside the FL classroom – Social media (e.g., Facebook) – Gaming (online, offline) – M bil t h l Mobile technology ( (e.g., iPh iPhone, iP d PSP etc) iPod, PSP, t ) What English do we learn? 30 15
  • 24/2/2014 • Making learners aware of the fluidity of language and communication: – new means of communication emerge (Kress, 1996: 195) ) – new linguistic forms arise • Our learners already have access to most of these forms and means (e.g., “digital natives”) i ”) How do we teach English? 31 • “Previously learned languages can be acknowledged and used within the classroom context by students and teachers alike as bridge languages. The g g g explicit acknowledgement of the existence of previous languages, plus recognition of their status as useful pedagogical tools will naturally ease the new language learning process. process ” (Hufeisen & Jessner, 2009: 126) Jessner How do we teach English? 32 16
  • 24/2/2014 • Cultural authentication of the FL with reference to learners’ ethnic cultures as they emerge at the level of the classroom culture (McKay & Bokhorst-Heng, 2008) ( y g, ) • “small cultures” (Holliday, 1999) • “MATE”: “multicultural awareness through English” – FL as a “neutral” springboard for communication (Fay et al, 2010) How do we teach English? 33 A. E. as subject-matter:  School literacy  “Standard English” B. E. as communication skills:  Successful usage in diverse communicative domains (written, spoken)  Competent, autonomous intercultural “nonnative” user “ ti ” “owning” th FL i ” the A two-tiered proposal 34 17
  • 24/2/2014 Teacher preparation Teacher autonomy Teacher empowerment Going beyond the coursebook 35 36 18
  • 24/2/2014 Thank you!  sifakis@eap.gr http://eap.academia.edu/NicosCSifakis 37 19