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  • 1. “Differentiated instruction: unpacking the concept” Nicos Sifakis Assoc. Professor Hellenic Open U i H ll i O University i Serres, 22.02.2014 1  FB differentiated instruction page 2 1
  • 2. “The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn and relearn” Alvin Toffler 3 Some of th S f the problems… 4 2
  • 3. 5 6 3
  • 4. 7 8 4
  • 5. 9 10 5
  • 6. 11 12 6
  • 7. • When all learners receive the same instruction through which they are expected to learn the same thing in the same way on the same day One-size-fits-all approach 13 Teaching English For No Obvious Reason (Abbott 1981) • • • • Typical secondary-school learners Little or no motivation to learn Learning needs hard to define A situation where no obvious learning objective is envisaged • Curriculum: typically conservative T.E.N.O.R. 14 7
  • 8. What Wh t a solution l ti might look like… 15 “Differentiation is making sure that the right students get the i ht t d t t th right learning tasks at the right time.” (Earl, 2003: 86) Differentiated instruction 16 8
  • 9. • Autonomy • Belonging • Competence Key human needs 17 Key skills for the 21st century • Digital-Age Literacy – Basic scientific, economic and technological Basic, scientific economic, literacies – Visual and information literacies – Multicultural literacy and global awareness • Creative-Inventive Thinking – – – – Adaptability and managing complexity Self-direction Curiosity, creativity, and risk-taking Higher-order thinking and sound reasoning 18 9
  • 10. Key skills for the 21st century • Effective Communication – Teaming collaboration, and interpersonal skills Teaming, collaboration – Personal, social, and civic responsibility – Interactive communication • High Productivity – Prioritizing, planning, and managing for results – Effective use of real world tools real-world – Ability to produce relevant, high-quality products (NCREL, 2003) 19 “The main crisis in schools today is irrelevance” Dan Pink (2002) Free Agent Nation 20 10
  • 11. Age of Agriculture Industrial Age I d ti lA Age of Information Intensification Age of Creation Intensification [Source: M. Teruyasu, Nomura Research Institute] 11
  • 12. 23 “My wife and I went to a [kindergarten] parentteacher conference and were informed that our budding refrigerator artist, Christopher, would be receiving a grade of Unsatisfactory in t W i art. We were shocked. How could any child h k d H ld hild – let alone our child – receive a poor grade in art at such a young age?” “His teacher informed us that he had refused to l t color within the li ithi th lines, which was a state hi h t t requirement for demonstrating ‘grade-level motor skills’.” [Source: Jordan Aryan “AHA!”] 24 12
  • 13. “How many artists are there in the room? Would you please raise your hands. FIRST GRADE: En masse the children leapt from their seats, arms waving. Every child was an artist. SECOND GRADE: About half the kids raised their hands, shoulder high, no higher. The hands were still. THIRD GRADE: At best, 10 kids out of 30 would raise a hand best hand, tentatively, self-consciously. By the time I reached SIXTH GRADE, no more than one or two kids raised their hands, and then ever so slightly, betraying a fear of being identified by the Every school I visited was participating in the suppression of creative genius.” group as a ‘closet artist.’ The point is: Gordon MacKenzie, Orbiting the Giant Hairball: A Corporate Fool’s Guide to Surviving with Grace 26 13
  • 14. • Learner-centredness • Learning-centredness • Teacher autonomy • ICT-enhanced “New School – New Learning” 27 • NOT a set of instructional strategies… • BUT a philosophy, a way of thinking about teaching and learning; essentially, a set of principles… • which REQUIRES rethinking our classroom practice and results, an ongoing process of trial, reflection, adjustment in the classroom itself. What is differentiated instruction? 28 14
  • 15. • Every student is worthy of dignity and respect • Diversity is both inevitable and positive • The classroom should mirror the kind of society in which we want our students to live • Most students can learn most things that are essential to a given area of study Essential assumptions of DI 29 Guided by: • Respectful tasks • Flexible grouping • Ongoing assessment/adjustment Differentiation of instruction 30 15
  • 16. Teachers can differentiate: • Content • Process • Product Differentiation of instruction 31 …according to learners’ • Affect • Readiness • Interests • Learning Differentiation of instruction 32 16
  • 17. 1. ‘Attributes’: who they are – Age – Aptitude – Personality – Learning disabilities – Social identities In what ways are learners different? 33 2. ‘Conceptualisation’: how they conceptualise FL acquisition – Motivation – Attitude – Cognitive style – Beliefs 3. ‘Actions’: what they do to learn –L Learning strategies i t t i In what ways are learners different? 34 17
  • 18. Through a range of instructional/management strategies, such as: • Multiple intelligences • Jigsaw • V i d texts Varied t t • Literature circles • Small-group interaction • Group investigation • Independent study • Varied homework • ICT Differentiation of instruction 35 • • • • • • • • stations agendas centers tiered ti iti ti d activities learning contracts compacting independent study portfolios Strategies for DI 36 18
  • 19. 37 38 19
  • 20. 39 40 20
  • 21. 41 42 21
  • 22. 43 44 22
  • 23. 45 46 23
  • 24. 47 48 24
  • 25. 49 50 25
  • 26. • Delivering instruction online outside of class and moving “homework” into the classroom • What’s driving it: (a) prevalence of online video (b) poor learning outcomes of one-size-fits-all education model d ti d l • Khan Academy • Ideal for task-based and CLIL-related classes, use Moodle to store all materials (files, activity rubrics, video links, etc) for learners to access Reverse instruction (‘flipped classroom’) 51 52 26
  • 27. What should a language teacher KNOW? What should a language teacher BE? 53 • Subject-matter – English language –Teacher as Resource • Pedagogy – Teaching & Learning –Teacher as Pedagogue • Educational psychology p y gy – Handling group dynamics –Teacher as Leader 54 27
  • 28. Group characteristic features: • Interaction among group members • GM perceive themselves as a distinct unit and demonstrate a level of commitment to it. • GM share some purpose or goal for being together • Endurance for a reasonable period of time • Development of salient ‘internal structure’ (rules, standard, regulation of entry/departure, interpersonal patterns, status hierarchy) • G is held accountable of it members’ actions i h ld t bl f its b ’ ti What is a group? 55 A group/team is a WEB in FLUX 56 28
  • 29. • A group is a living developing process (a “system”) – Part of a broader physical, social, physical social economic and cultural environment What are groups made of? 57 58 29
  • 30. • A group is a living developing process (a “system”) – Enormous complexity of the in group in-group relations/communication channels Y = X2 - X What are groups made of? 59 60 30
  • 31. 61 62 31
  • 32. 63 • Forming • Storming • Norming • Performing • Adjourning/Mourning j g g Group dynamics stages 64 32
  • 33.  65 33
  • 34. Dr Nicos C. Sifakis  Hellenic Open University       State English Teachers' Union of Serres,  Serres, 22.02.2014   Seminar on Differentiated Instruction    Materials at varied readability levels  General but useful resources for reading levels:     Scholastic’s Book  Wizard allows  teachers  to  search for books by level, but not all books are leveled for each leveling system    guided  th reading levelling chart for grades kindergarten to 6  grade   the Fountas and Pinnell Leveled Books  Website for  subscribers  includes  a  database  of  18,000  leveled  books  as  well  as  suggestions for reading instruction, supporting materials and teacher tips   Focus  on  one  god  readability  levels  online  analyzer:  Lexile.   The Lexile Difference: Measuring Reader and Text: The  Lexile Framework evaluates both reading ability and text complexity on the same scale.  Unlike  other  systems,  the  Lexile  Framework  uses  assessment  results  to  match  readers  with texts essential for growth and monitor their progress toward standards. A student  gets his or her Lexile reader measure from a reading test or program. For example, if a  student  receives  an  880L  on  her  end‐of‐grade  reading  test,  she  is  an  880  Lexile  reader.  Higher  Lexile  measures  represent  a  higher  level  of  reading  ability.  A  Lexile  reader  measure can range from below 200L for beginning readers to above 1700L for advanced  readers. A book, article or piece of text gets a Lexile text measure when it's analyzed by  MetaMetrics. For example, the first "Harry Potter" book measures 880L, so it's called an  880 Lexile book.    Spelling assigned by proficiency   an online English spelling course with hundreds of pages of  teaching, spelling tests and games (written mainly with older students in mind: teenagers  and adults)    free  games  for  younger  learners,  such  as  hangman, scramble, etc.   software, has a feature where the correct spelling is  flashed onscreen when the user attempts to make an invented spelling. In that manner,  the  user  eventually  learns how  to  spell that  particular  word  correctly  each  time  it  is  encountered until such time that the 'reminder' no longer flashes.  1