Brick WallingAn Introduction for Stonemasons Stonemasonry Department 2011
Bricklaying Tools Most of the building tools used by bricklayers are very similar to those used by stonemasons. There are however a couple of tools you may not have seen before.
Bricklaying Tools Brick Hammer The bricklayers hammer has a flat square head on one side for hammering and a sharp chisel on the other end for chipping and cutting brick. Brick Jointer The brick jointer is used to apply a mortar finish to the beds and joints of a brick wall. It has a convex curve on either side and produces a “bucket handled” finish.
Brick Dimensions 102.5mm 65mm 215mm The standard dimensions for a brick are 215mm x 102.5mm x 65mm.
Brick Identification FrogStretcher Header Face Face The three faces of a brick are known as the header face, the stretcher face and the frog.
Brick Types Common Bricks are of low quality and low compressive strength but are useful for internal walls which will not be seen. They have no uniform colour, texture or appearance. Engineering Bricks are high in compressive strength and have low water absorption. They are particularly suited to use below ground level and in areas with exposure to water. Facing Bricks are of high quality and uniform appearance. They are generally used externally in areas of “seen” brickwork.
Brick Types Handmade Bricks are produced individually by an operative pressing clay into a mould. This means that they are more time consuming and expensive to produce. Imperial Bricks are made to the dimensions used prior to decimalisation. Although larger and no longer used as standard, they are particularly useful for work that is to match original brickwork in an older building. Reclaimed bricks are bricks which have been removed from a demolished building to be reused in a new project. Because it is usually older buildings which are demolished, the majority of reclaimed bricks are imperial sizes.
Brick Textures Heavy Textured Light Textured Smooth Stock Tumbled Bricks are available in a variety of textures, with each manufacturer having particular styles. As well as variations in texture, each style of brick can be ordered in a range of colours.
Beds and Joints Joint Bed Every brick is separated by beds and joints of mortar. The horizontal sections of mortar are called beds and the vertical sections joints. The purpose of the beds and joints is to allow for slight variations in the dimensions of each brick and to accommodate the slight structural movement a building is subjected to on a continual basis.
Joint Finishes Weathered Struck This finish is designed to shed water running down the wall and protect the brickwork. Recessed The mortar is raked out, leaving the arrises of the brick exposed. Flush This finish is left flush with the face of the brickwork. Bucket Handle This finish is produced with a rounded jointer to leave a half round concave mortar bed/joint. Reverse Struck This finish should be avoided as it exposes the top arris of each brick to weathering.
Brick Manufacture The video is from the popular “How it’s Made” programme shown on the Discovery Channel.
Building to Gauge It is essential to consider the height of the wall when building. Bricklayers use a gauge rod to ensure that the beds of mortar between each brick are uniform and to monitor the overall height of the wall as each course is laid. Gauge rods are generally made by the bricklayer using timber but they can also be bought in stainless steel.
Racking Back and Stopped Ends The image on this slide shows a half brick wall with a stop end and racking back. This method of construction is commonly used by bricklayers to build plumbings which allow them to plumb either end of the wall and build to a line in the middle of the wall. This process is much quicker than building the wall one course at a time.
Return Corners The image on this slide shows a half brick wall built with a return corner. This means that the wall turns (usually 90°) and continues in another direction. You should notice that the bond remains unchanged and that the course height remains constant on the return.
Toothing The image on this slide shows a half brick wall which has a stop end and is toothed. The purpose of toothing the brickwork is to allow for plumbings to be taking higher than racking back would normally allow. You should however try to avoid toothing brickwork to a significant height.
Stretcher Bond Stretcher bond consists of bricks laid with the stretcher face exposed with a half bond. This means that the centre of each brick is directly above the joint separating the two bricks on the course below.
English Bond English bond consists of alternating course of stretchers and headers.A quarter bond is maintained by incorporating queen closers in every second course. English bond is generally used in one brick walling.
Header BondHeader bond consists of courses of headers with a quarter bond. This bond is generally used in one brick walling.
Flemish Bond Flemish bond consists of courses of alternating stretchers andheaders. A minimum of a quarter bond is maintained at all times. This bond is generally one brick walling.
Activities There are a number of drawings related to brickwork which can be found in the “building drawings” section of MyCity.
Image References The image on the title slide of this presentation was sourced from http://www.freefoto.com/preview/33-32- 8/Brick-Texture The video on the “Brick Manufacture” slide of this presentation was sourced from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SbKvhHzn4hQ The images on the “Brick Texture” slide of this presentation were sourced from http://www.heidelbergcement.com/uk/en/hanson/product s/bricks/brickwork_details/brick_colours_and_textures.htm
Image References The image on the “Bricklayers Tools” slide of this presentation was sourced from http://www.diytools.co.uk/draper-13964-expert-560g- bricklayers-hammer-with-tubular-steel-shaft.html The image on the “Bricklayers Tools” slide of this presentation was sourced from http://www.building- tools.co.uk/64-104-thickbox/ragni-r801-brick-jointer-1-2in- x-5-8in.jpg The images on the “Brick Types” slides of this presentation were sourced from http://www.matchingbrick.co.uk/products.html#common
Developed by The Stonemasonry Department City of Glasgow College 2011