FROM GENOMICS TO PLANT IMPROVEMENT            基因组学与植物改良Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference         of Plant Mo...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant                 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 20...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant                  第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant                     第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant                     第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant                     第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant                    第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9,...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant                   第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, ...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant                 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 20...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant            第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, B...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant             第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, ...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant               第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant               第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant                   第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, ...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant                第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 201...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant                    第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9,...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant          第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Bei...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant              第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010,...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant        第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beiji...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant            第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, B...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant                 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 20...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant           第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Be...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant             第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, ...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant                第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 201...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant        第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beiji...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant             第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, ...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant                 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 20...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant            第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, B...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant            第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, B...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant            第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, B...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant              第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010,...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant               第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant            第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, B...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant             第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, ...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant          第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Bei...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant             第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, ...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant             第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, ...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant                第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 201...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant           第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Be...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant           第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Be...
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant                 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 20...
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  1. 1. FROM GENOMICS TO PLANT IMPROVEMENT 基因组学与植物改良Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant Molecular Breeding 第三届植物分子育种国际会议论文摘要 Beijing,September 5-9, 2010 北京,2010 年 9 月 5-9 日
  2. 2. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京ICPMB2010 OrganizationHonorary Presidents Dr. JM Ribaut, Generation Challenge Program, CGIAR Dr. Huqu Zhai, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Dr. Qifa Zhang, Huazhong Agricultural University Dr. Jiayang Li, Chinese Academy of SciencesPresident Dr. Zhikang Li, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences & International Rice Research InstituteCo-Presidents Dr. Jianmin Wan, Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Dr. Aimin Zhang, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of SciencesInternational Organizing CommitteeChair : Zhikang Li, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences & International Rice Research InstituteCo-Chair : JM Ribaut, Generation Challenge Program, CGIARMembers: Aimin Zhang, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Andrew H. Paterson, University of Georgia, USA Christian Jung, Plant Breeding Institute, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel David Mackill, International Rice Research Institute, Philippines Jiayang Li, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Jinguo Hu, USDA-ARS, USA John Z Yu, USDA-ARS, Crop Germplasm Research, Texas A&M University, USA Lijun Luo, SAGC, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences Mark J. van Haaren, Keygene N.V. Masahiro Yano, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Japan Graham McLaren, The Generation Challenge Program, CGIAR Henry T. Nguyen, University of Missouri, USA Noel Ellis, John Innes Centre, UK Peter Langridge, Australia National Center for Plant Functional Genomics, Adelaide, Australia Qifa Zhang, Huazhong Agricultural University Roberto Tuberosa, University of Bologna, Italy Swapan Datta, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, India Yunbi Xu, CIMMYT, Mexico Xingwang Deng, Peking University, China; Yale University, USA 2
  3. 3. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京 Zhonghu He, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences & CIMMYT Michael Thomson, International Rice Research Institute, PhilippinesLocal Organizing CommitteeChair : Jianmin Wan, Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesCo-Chairs : Aimin Zhang, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Shuming Wang, Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesMembers : Daowen Wang, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Yuxian Zhu, Peking University, China Zhen Zhu, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of SciencesProgram CommitteeChair : Zhikang Li, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences & International Rice Research InstituteCo-Chair: Jinguo Hu, USDA-ARS, USAMembers: Aimin Zhang, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences David Mackill, International Rice Research Institute, Ithaca, New York, USA JM Ribaut, Generation Challenge Program, CGIAR Masahiro Yano, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Japan Mark J. van Haaren, Keygene N.V. Noel Ellis, John Innes Centre, UK Peter Langridge, Australia Center for Plant Functional Genomics Qifa Zhang, Huazhong Agricultural University, China Roberto Tuberosa, University of Bologna, Italy Swapan Datta, Indian Institute of Agricultural Research, India Xingwang Deng, Peking University, China; Yale University, USA Yongbiao Xue, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences 3
  4. 4. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京 ContentsLECTURESPlenary Session I……………………………………………………………….……………..10-13Molecular breeding in developing countries: not a dream anymore. Ribaut JMProgress of rice functional genomics research and the implications in crop genetic improvement. Zhang QFTowards molecular design of super rice. Li JYProgress and challenges in molecular breeding for drought tolerance in crop plants. Nguyen HTPlenary Session II…………………………………………………………….……………..14-18Three genetic systems controlling rice growth and productivity–a reevaluation of the green revolution. Li ZKGenomics-assisted germplasm enhancement and its integration to breeding in rice. Yano MMolecular basis of heterosis in crop plants: From nonadditive gene expression to gene regulatory network.Sun QXTransgenic trait development and deployment circa 2010. Bedbrook JTransgenic crop research in India-current status and perspectives. Datta SPlenary Session III……………………………………………………………….…………..19-23Fostering molecular breeding in developing countries: The GCP approach. Delannay XThe sorghum genome, the diversification of cereals, and the productivity of tropical grasses. Paterson AHPolyploidy and epigenetics: direct application and impact on crop improvement. Chen ZJIdentification of key regulators for flowering time control and their application in breeding of biennial cropspecies. Jung CWhole genome strategies for molecular plant breeding. Xu YBPlenary Session IV…………………………………………………………….……………..24-28Global epigenetic and transcriptional trends among two rice subspecies and their reciprocal hybrid. Deng XWBreeding seeds of innovation. Hervé PM 4
  5. 5. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Breeding by design and innovations in molecular plant breeding. Sorensen AMeeting the challenge of higher nutritional value in seeds: a novel way of increasing methionine content inseeds of the model plant of tobacco. Amir RAssociation mapping for enhancing maize genetic improvement. Yan JBConcurrent session 1: Molecular breeding for abiotic stress tolerances……………….…29-35Mapping QTLs for root morphology in relation to nutrient uptake in wheat. Tong YPThe research progress of drought tolerance and molecular breeding in maize. Wang GYTowards molecular breeding for salt tolerance through modification of root System architecture. Li XMapping and validating QTLs for plant height developmental behaviours in bread wheat. Jing RLDiscovery of genes for drought resistance improvement of rice by systematic genetic and functional genomicapproaches. Xiong LZHeat stress transcriptome analysis and functional characterization of responsive genes in wheat. Ni ZFConcurrent session 2: Gene discovery and function……………………………………….36-42Identification and application of the rice broad-spectrum blast resistance gene Pigm. He ZHMutant resources for functional studies of genes related to fertility in rice. Wu CYGene discovery from common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff). Sun CQDiscovery of brown planthopper resistance gene in rice. He GCMolecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility in rice. Liu YGToward map-based cloning of a good eating-quality QTL derived from an elite Japanese rice cultivarKoshihikari. Hori KMap-based cloning of QTL genes for flowering time/maturity in soybean. Xia ZJConcurrent session 3: Molecular breeding for biotic stresses…………………….……….43-49From QTLs for fungal disease resistance to marker-assisted selection in durum wheat. Maccaferri MGenomic approaches to plant defense research and crop improvement for insect resistance. Huang YHImprovement of maize resistance to head smut and stalk rot. Xu MLEnhancing broad spectrum resistance to rice diseases. Wang SPMolecular mapping of adult-plant resistance genes to stripe rust and powdery mildew and validation of allelic 5
  6. 6. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京specific markers for Lr34/Yr18/Pm38 in Chinese wheat cultivars. Xia XCInfection character and rice resistance screening of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus, a new Fiji virusthreating rice production in Asia. Zhou GHConcurrent session 4: New transgenic technologies, products and markets……………..50-58New transgenic technologies. Broglie RSimultaneously changing several quality traits of Brassica napus by one transgenic event. Liu CLIn situ Pistil Delivery: A High Throughput Method of Brassica Genetic Transformation. Guo XLWheat genetic transformation in China, current status, challenges and future perspectives. Xia LQA new effective selection marker for crop transformation. Xia MEnhancing the lysine in wheat grain by genetic transformation of a lysine rich protein gene Cflr. Ma HXTransgenic strategies for improving drought tolerance traits in chickpea. Bhatnagar-Mathur PIdentification of stress-inducible and tissue-specific promoters in rice. Zhou JLConcurrent session 5: Molecular breeding for cotton, brassica and bio-energy crops…..59-65Progress toward genome sequencing of upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum. Yu SXMaternal effects and genetic improvement of seed oil content in Brassica napus. Wang HZTowards establishing a molecular breeding platform in cotton: Progress and challenges. Kumpatla SPMolecular breeding of apomixis hickory. Huang JQMining of novel genes for cotton fiber improvement. Yu JZRational design and molecular breeding of sorghum, a dedicated bioenergy crop. Huang YHMolecular breeding for cottonseed quality improvement. Zhu SJMolecular focus in commercial plant breeding. Rossouw JDConcurrent session 6: Maize molecular breeding……………………………………….....66-72QTL fine mapping of leaf angle and leaf orientation value in maize. Chen YHApplication of molecular techniques in maize haploid breeding. Chang MTIdentification of gene marker sets for screening maize lines for resistance to aflatoxin contamination. Luo MMaize disease resistance gene discovery and utilization through association and linkage mapping. Mahuku G 6
  7. 7. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Forward to molecular breeding from genetics in high-oil maize. Li JSGenome-wide association study identifies known as well as novel loci for maize kernel tocopherol content andcomposition. Li QConcurrent session 7: Applied plant genomics: from genomics to field…………………..73-77Molecular breeding in chickpea- still a dream or the reality now! Varshney RKSingle-base resolution DNA methylomes of rice and new regulatory roles of DNA methylation in plant geneexpression. Li XInsertion site-based polymorphism markers open new perspectives for genome saturation and marker-assistedselection in wheat. Paux EIntegrating technologies for genetic improvement of quantitative traits in sorghum. Mace EIrradiation mutant mapping of wild beet translocation lines carrying resistance genes against the beet cystnematode. Capistrano GConcurrent session 8: Rice molecular breeding…………………………………..………..78-85Development of 384-plex SNP marker sets for diversity analysis, mapping, and marker-assisted selection in rice.Thomson MJEpigenetic and genetic control of drought tolerance in rice – a merging story of Larmarkism and Mendelism.Li ZKClustered QTLs for source leaf size and yield traits in rice (Oryza sativa L). Yu SBMolecular breeding approaches for sustainable disease resistance in rice: Current and future strategies.Vera Cruz CMMAS pyramiding of disease and pest resistant genes into drought tolerant hybrid rice. Mei HWDevelopment of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detection platforms for genetic analyses andmolecular breeding of rice. Chen HDIdentification of a new blast resistant gene from Dacca6, a useful donor to improve the wide spectrum resistanceof Jin23 against rice blast fungi (Magnaporthe grisea) in Southeast China. Shi BHConcurrent session 9: Wheat molecular breeding…………………………………….……86-93Towards systematic genetic and functional analyses of the complex gliadin gene family in common wheat.Wang DWDevelopment and application of molecular markers for improving processing quality in common wheat. 7
  8. 8. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京He ZHNew insights into the organization, recombination, expression and functional mechanism of low molecularweight glutenin subunit genes at the complex glu-3 loci in bread wheat. Ling HQQTL mapping and marker assisted selection for some quality traits in bread wheat. Gupta PApplication of MAS for resistance to Fusarium head blight in a wheat breeding program Fedak GGenomic distribution of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield and yield-related traits in common wheat(Triticum aestivum). Zhang LYGene function and modulation of DREB (dehydration-responsive element binding protein) genes from soybean.Chen MConcurrent session 10: Molecular breeding platform and new technologies…………...94-98The integrated breeding platform: vision and practice. McLaren GOptimization of NGS-based SNP discovery approaches for facilitating molecular breeding in orphan cropspecies. Varshney RISMAB: A data visualization and decision support tool for crop improvement. Shah TBringing genomic data to breeding: what we expect from the IBP to help future breeding. Liang CZDevelopment and optimization of the 50K infinium chip for maize diversity analysis. Ganal MConcurrent session 11: Germplasm and genetic diversity…………………………..…..99-106Core collection-based genomic stocks in wheat. Jia JZHigh-throughput SNP genotyping of a subset of lettuce landraces for genetic diversity assessment. Hu JGThe genetic diversity, structure and classification of rice germplasm in China Li ZCGenetic Diversity Studies on Cool Season Legumes. Zong XXMolecular diversity reveals narrow genetic base of local Ghanaian accessions. Quain MDThe strategy and potential utilization of temperate germplasm for tropical germplasm improvement—a casestudy in maize (Zea mays. L). Wen WWConcurrent session 12: Molecular breeding in legumes and trees crops…………….....107-110Concentration of genetic diversity for gene discovery and broadening genetic base of modern cultivar insoybean. Qiu LJ 8
  9. 9. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Development and application of genomic resources for molecular breeding in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L).Pandey MThe genomics path from pre-breeding to marker-assisted selection in wheat and barley. Tuberosa RGenomics tools to aid cassava breeding for drought tolerance Rabinowicz PGenetic networks controlling zygomorphic development in legumes Luo DPOSTERS……………………………………………………………………………..….111-231 9
  10. 10. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Plenary Session IMolecular breeding in developing countries: not a dream anymoreRibaut JMGeneration Challenge Programme (GCP), c/o CIMMYT, Int APDO Postal 6-641, 06600 Mexico, DF, Mexico.Email: J.RIBAUT@cgiar.orgMolecular breeding (MB) is definitely an efficient approach, when the necessary minimum humanand operational resources are already in place.This is because MB increases genetic gain per cropcycle, stacksfavourable alleles at target loci and reduces the number of selection cycles. In the lastdecade, the private sector has benefitted immensely from MB, which demonstrates its efficacy. Incontrast, MB adoption is still limited in the public sector, and hardly used in developing countries.Major bottlenecks in these countries include shortage of well-trained personnel, inadequatehigh-throughput capacity, poor phenotyping infrastructure, lack of information systems or adaptedanalysis tools, or simply resource-limited breeding programmes.The emerging virtual platformsaided by the information and communication technology revolution will help to overcome someof these limitations, by providing breeders with better access to genomic resources, advancedlaboratory services, and robust analytical and data management tools. It is unrealistic to projectthat large-scale MB breeding activities will be conducted in the near-term in developing countries.However, the exponential development of genomic resources,the ever-decreasing cost of markertechnologiesand the emergence of platforms for accessing MB tools and support services, plus theincreasing public–private partnerships and needs-driven demand for improved varieties to counterthe global food crisis, are all grounds to predict that MB will have a significant impact on cropbreeding in developing countries. 10
  11. 11. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Plenary Session IProgress of rice functional genomics research and the implications in cropgenetic improvementZhang QFNational Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement and National Center of Plant Gene Research, HuazhongAgricultural University, Wuhan 430070, ChinaEmail: qifazh@mail.hzau.edu.cnThere has been a large global effort in rice functional genomics research aiming atcharacterization of the full complement of the rice genes. The Chinese program on rice functionalgenomic research is composed of the following components: (1) development of technologicalplatforms, (2) functional genomics of agriculturally important traits, (3) molecular cloning ofimportant genes and, (4) gene discovery by resequencing natural diversity of the rice species. Thetraits targeted for functional genomic studies include yield, grain quality, stress tolerance, diseaseand insect resistances, and nutrient use efficiency. Major progress has been made in a number offronts. Totally 270,000 independent transformants have been generated for the T-DNA insertionmutant library and are now being screened for mutations of important traits. Over 50000 flankingsequences have been isolated, and their analyses identified a number of interesting features ofnonrandom distributions of the T-DNA insertions in the rice genome. A large number of mutantshave now been targeted for gene isolation. For genome-wide expression profiling, data have beengenerated from a large number of tissues covering the whole life cycle of the rice plants grownunder various conditions. Map-based cloning has been applied to isolate genes of agronomicimportance, including dozens of genes for yield, grain quality, fertility restoration, resistances tobiotic and abiotic stresses. Hundreds of accessions of rice germplasm have been resequencedusing new sequencing technologies. The implications of these developments in crop geneticimprovement will be discussed in the presentation. 11
  12. 12. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Plenary Session ITowards Molecular Design of Super RiceLi JY, Wang YHInstitute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, ChinaEmail: jyli@genetics.ac.cnRice (Oryza sativa. L) is one of the most important staple crop, feeding more than half of theworld’s population. To achieve super rice varieties, we focus on the improvement of the grainyield, grain quality, disease and insect resistance. Rice plant architecture, a collection of theimportant agronomic traits that determine grain production, is mainly affected by factorsincluding tillering (tiller number and tiller angle), plant height, and panicle morphology. Toelucidate molecular mechanisms that control rice plant architecture, we have identified severalkey genes that contribute greatly to the plant architecture of rice. Among them, theMONOCULM1 (MOC1) gene was characterized as an essential regulator involved in tiller budinitiation and outgrowth; the DWARF27 (D27) gene acts as a new component involved in thebiosynthesis of strigolactones and controls rice tiller number by regulating the outgrowth of tillerbuds; the LA1 gene plays an important role in determining tiller angle by negatively regulatingpolar auxin transport (PAT); the SHORT PANICLE1 (SP1) gene encodes a transporter thatregulates the panicle size. The quantitative trait locus (QTL) gene, Ideal Plant Architecture 1(IPA1), profoundly affects rice plant architecture and substantially enhances rice grain yield. Ourstudies demonstrate that the application of these genes will facilitate to breed new elite varietiesby modifying tiller number, tiller angle, plant height, panicle morphology and lodging resistance.To improve the rice grain quality, we carried out a systematic examination of geneticdeterminations of rice grain ECQ through a comprehensive association analysis, the results ofwhich were then further have been confirmed by gene transformation. A series of molecularmarkers have been developed for MAS. Our research findings provided a much clearer picture ofhow starch synthesis system regulates grain quality. Also, we engage in cloning insect resistancegenes and developing molecular markers that are linked to quantitative trait loci for rice insectresistance. Our studies will provide a molecular basis for developing super rice varieties in thefuture. 12
  13. 13. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Plenary Session IProgress and challenges in molecular breeding for drought tolerance in cropplantsNguyen HT, Valliyodan B, Manavalan LDivision of Plant Sciences and National Center for Soybean Biotechnology, University of Missouri, Columbia,MO 65211Email: nguyenhenry@missouri.eduProduction of sufficient food for the growing world population during the verge of global climatechanges will be one of the major challenges for the future. This demands the requirement ofdirected adaptation of crop species on an unprecedented magnitude. The global grain demand isexpected to be double by 2050. Much effort is being made by agricultural researchers worldwideto reduce water use by crops to address the challenge which especially affect farmers indrought-prone environments across the developing world. Understanding the concept andcomponents of drought resistance is a key factor for improving drought tolerance of crops.Research to date has shown that improvements in crop drought resistance are from the increasingdehydration avoidance, specifically increasing water availability for plant functions throughchanges such as earlier development, smaller leaves, and deeper roots. In addition, plasticityresponse of root growth under water deficit conditions, and dehydration tolerance traits such as;osmotic adjustment, cell membrane stability, and mobilization of stem carbohydrate reserves incrops also play specific roles in drought resistance mechanisms.Molecular breeding approaches through identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) andmarker-assisted selection offers an opportunity for significant improvements in the droughttolerance of crops; however the successful application of marker assisted selection to cropbreeding is still in the preliminary stage. Past studies aimed at osmo-protection did not result infield performance for drought tolerance in crops. Recent work on engineering candidate genesincluding transcription factors and cold shock responsive proteins to enhance drought toleranceshowed promising results in field conditions. Transgenic maize plants with a transcription factorshow tolerance to drought based on the responses of a number of stress-related parameters,including; stomatal conductance, leaf temperature, reduced wilting, and maintenance ofphotosynthesis. Another example is engineering farnesylation machinery for plant droughttolerance and yield protection-through stomatal closure, and these transgenic plants showedpromising field performance. Enhanced drought tolerance has also been observed in transgenicplants expressing a cold shock protein under field conditions. Research advances in the area ofintegrated functional genomics will certainly be helpful to improve the molecular breeding andplant transformation approaches to achieve a significant progress in the generation of crop plantswith enhanced drought resistance. 13
  14. 14. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Plenary Session IIThree Genetic systems Controlling Rice Growth and productivity – AReevaluation of the Green RevolutionZhang F1, Xu JL1, Gao YM1, Yu SB2, Fu BY1, Ali J2 and Li ZK1,2 , *1 Institute of Crop Sciences/National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, ChineseAcademy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China; 2 IRRI, DAPO Box 7777, Metro Manila, ThePhilippines.*Email: zhkli@yahoo.com.cnThe well-known Green Revolution (GR) since 1960s has more than doubled the productivity of rice, whichresults from loss of function alleles at the GAox-2 locus encoding gibberellin 20-oxidase. Over 95% of thecurrent worldwide rice breeding programs are carried out in the mutant sd1 genetic backgrounds withoutfunctional gibberellin acids (GA). To better understand the effects of sd1 on rice yield and related traits, thephenotypic data of the IR64/Azucena DH population across 11 diverse environments were reanalyzedusing a new molecular-quantitative genetics model. Three genetic systems controlling rice growth andproductivity in rice were revealed, resulting in the discovery of 157 functional genetic units (FGUs)affecting 9 traits related to rice growth, development and productivity. The first one was the GA-mediatedpathways controlled by SD1 and its 43 downstream FGUs for increased plant height (PH), increasedbiomass, reduced spikelet fertility (SF), delayed heading (HD), reduced harvest index (HI), reduced paniclenumber (PN), increased grain weight (GW) and reduced yield. Their effects gain yield (GY) and spikeletnumber per panicle (SN) varied depending on the environments. Of these downstream FGUs, 3 PH QTLs(QPh2b, QPh3b and QPh4a) had effects highly correlated with the mean PH values of the SD1subpopulation, suggesting their positive responses to the overall soil fertility levels of the test environments.Together, the GA-mediated pathways explained 38.6%, ranging from 16.0% for SF to 54.8% for PH. Thesecond system was the GA-repressed pathways that were expressed only in the mutant (sd1) background,which comprised of 39 FGUs for PH, SF, biomass, HD, SN, PN, HI, GW, and yield. The effect directionsof most these pathways could not be determined based on available QTL information. The GA-repressedpathways collectively explained 32.3% of the total genotypic variation of the 9 traits in the DH population,ranging from 14.7% for PN to 59.3% for SN. The third one was the GA independent pathways controlledby 75 FGUs that affected all measured traits. Together, the GA-independent pathways explained 29.2% ofthe total genotypic variation of the 9 traits in the DH population, ranging from 6.0% for PH to 55.8% forPN. Because the overall effects of the GR are reflected by the differences between the GA-mediated andGA-repressed pathways, detailed Comparison between them indicated that the former had larger effects onPH, HD, PN, HI and GY, whereas the latter influenced more SN and SF. Based on these results, theadvantages and potential consequences of the GR gene, sd1, were discussed in the context of the globalrice improvement and its challenges. Alternative breeding strategies for developing “Green Super Rice”cultivars that have high yield potential with less input are proposed based on our discoveries. 14
  15. 15. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Plenary Session IIGenomics-assisted germplasm enhancement and its integration to breeding inriceYano M*, Hori K, Uga Y, Fukuoka S, Ebana K, Yonemaru J and Yamamoto TQTL Genomics Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Japan.*E-mail: myano@nias.affrc.go.jpProgresses on recent genomics in rice have provided a new tools and opportunities to enhanceactivity in crop improvement. Elucidation of the association between nucleotide and phenotypicchanges is inevitable to this end and has been a big challenge in molecular genetics and breedingof rice. Toward this goal, we have been involved in the genetic dissection of natural phenotypicvariations in rice and have identified several genes involved in complex traits, including headingdate, shattering habit, pre-harvest sprouting, root morphology, disease resistance, seed size andeating quality. To enhance the power of genetic dissection of complex phenotypes, we aredeveloping several mapping populations, such as recombinant inbred lines and chromosomesegment substitution lines, which will allow us to extract the useful alleles from natural variants.Recently, QTL for durable resistance to rice blast has been cloned from Japanese upland rice. Thisfinding has opened new opportunity to introduction of the unique blast resistance gene without alinkage drag of low eating quality. We have also detected a major QTL for deeper rooting onchromosome 9. This finding has open new opportunity to enhance drought avoidance in rice. Tofacilitate allele mining using novel plant materials, we have also embarked on the genome-widediscovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In particular, to overcome a shortage ofSNPs among temperate japonica cultivars, we have attempted whole-genome sequencing ofseveral Japanese cultivars using next-generation sequencing approaches. This SNP discovery hasled to the development of an array-based SNP genotyping system in Japanese rice cultivars.Large-scale genotyping of these SNPs has made it possible to visualize pedigree haplotypes ofparticular chromosome segments in the Japanese landraces and modern cultivars. These efforts ingenomics have opened up new opportunities to accelerate not only the genetic dissection ofcomplex traits, but also integration of genomics to breeding in rice. 15
  16. 16. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Plenary Session IIMolecular basis of heterosis in crop plants: From nonadditive gene expressionto gene regulatory networkSun QX, Ni ZF, Yao YY, Peng HR, Du JKChina Agricultural University, Beijing 100183, China.*Email: qxsun@cau.edu.cnWhole genome expression analysis in hybrid and its parental inbreds provides a platform to identifynonadditively expressed genes in hybrids, which have given some insights into the understanding ofmechanisms of heterosis. In this study, two wheat (Triticum aesticum L.) hybrid F1 derived from same femaleparent but displaying contrasting heterosis in primary root are used for expression analysis by using wheatgenome array. The expression polymorphism analysis between the parental inbreds indicates that up to 4%genes display expression difference, but more than 3 times more present-absent genes between the two parentalinbreds are detected in highly heterotic Hybrid A than in nonheterotic Hybrid B. Differential expression (DE)analysis in hybrids and their parental inbreds identify 1019 (4.94%) and 698 (3.23%) DE genes in Hybrid A andB, respectively. It is interesting to note that heterotic Hybrid A tends to have more DE genes of dominance andpartial dominance expression modes than nonheterotic Hybrid B which, however, tends to have more DE genesof negative partial dominance expression mode. By adopting the “Wooden Barrel Principle”, we propose thataccumulation of dominance and partial dominance expression in wheat hybrid could be a major determinant ofroot heterosis. We also find that a substantial number of stress-related genes as well as retrotransposon-like andtransposon-like genes are also included in the DE genes. We propose that as compared to the interspecifichybridization which can be a source of genomic shock as described by Barbara McClintock, hybrids derivedfrom less distantly-related two inbreds can be a source of “mild genomic shock” or “intrinsic stress” in thehybrid genome, which, in turn, could cause expression changes of genes, especially stress-related genes andretrotransposon. Heterosis in internode elongation and plant height are commonly observed in hybrid plants, andhigher GAs contents were found to be correlated with the heterosis in plant height. By using the uppermostinternode tissues of wheat, we examined expression patterns of genes participating in both GA biosynthesis andGA response pathways between a hybrid and its parental inbreds. Our results indicated that among the 18 genesanalyzed, genes encoding enzymes that promote synthesis of bioactive GAs, and genes that act as positivecomponents in the GA response pathways were up-regulated in hybrid, whereas genes encoding enzymes thatdeactivate bioactive GAs, and genes that act as negative components of GA response pathways weredown-regulated in hybrid. Moreover, the putative wheat GA receptor gene TaGID1, and two GA responsivegenes participating in internode elongation, GIP and XET, were also up-regulated in hybrid. A model for GAand heterosis in wheat plant height was proposed. This model is also validated by using 16 wheat hybrids withdifferent level of heterosis in plant height. Our results provided molecular evidences not only for the higher GAlevels and more active GA biosynthesis in hybrid, but also for the heterosis in plant height of wheat and possiblyother cereal crops. Moreover, overexpression of 6 differentially expressed genes suggested that up-regulatedgenes in hybrids could enhance the trait performance but the down-regulated genes in hybrids can have negativeeffects on the trait performance. 16
  17. 17. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Plenary Session IITransgenic Trait Development and Deployment Circa 2010Bedbrook JVice President, DuPont Agricultural BiotechnologyTransgenic traits providing weed and insect pest control solutions, first introduced in the mid1990’s have been rapidly adopted globally in corn, soybean and cotton. Next generationtransgenic traits providing new functionalities, including; grain quality attributes, abiotic stresstolerance, disease resistance and seed production systems are close to commercialization. In thispaper I describe DuPont’s approaches to genetic based gene discovery, event selection, traitdevelopment and commercial deployment for these next generation traits. 17
  18. 18. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Plenary Session IITransgenic Crop Research in India-Current status and perspectivesDatta SKCrop Science Division, ICAR, Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi-110114, IndiaEmail: swpndatta@yahoo.comFunctional genomics provides powerful tool for the identification of desirable genes and theirintroduction into crops for the trait improvement. The ability to introduce beneficial genes underthe control of specific promoters through transgenic approaches is the path towards targeted cropimprovement. Development and commercialization of transgenic crops expressing a wide range ofagronomic traits during mid-nineties has virtually revolutionized the face of global agriculture.Safety of transgenic crops, especially GM food crops is a major concern. To address all the issuesrelated to biosafety, environmental safety, risk assessment, biodiversity and socio-economicimpact the GM crops, Government of India has entrusted the task to the Ministry of Science andTechnology to develop one window regulatory mechanism to approve and release the GM in thefield through NBRA (National Biotechnology Regulatory Authority). The environmental releaseof transgenic cotton with insect-pest resistance in 2002 is a landmark in Indian agriculture. It hasplaced India at the forefront of global cotton production and trade. At the global level, cultivationof transgenic crops in the past twelve years has conferred significant social, economic andenvironmental benefits to mankind. Such a sea change in the production of major food crops is theneed of the hour. Bt cotton, which confers resistance to important insect pests of cotton, was firstadopted in India as hybrids in 2002. The number of events, as well as the number of Bt cottonhybrids and companies marketing approved hybrids increased from one event and 20 hybrids in2005 by more than three-fold in 2009 to six events and 282 hybrids. India currently produces >30million bales of cotton per year and occupies # 2 position in terms of global cotton productionand now #1 in Bt cotton areas. Other Crops such as Bt rice, Bt brinjal, transgenic tomato,Sorghum, Brassica, Groundnut etc are at the different stages of development. 18
  19. 19. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Plenary Session IIIFostering Molecular Breeding in Developing Countries -the GCP approachXavier DelannayGeneration Challenge Program, CGIAREmail:x.delannay@cgiar.orgAn important focus of the Generation Challenge Programme (GCP) since its inception has been topromote an increased use of molecular marker technologies in developing country breedingprogrammes. This started with the implementation in applied breeding programmes ofmarker-assisted selection for new important traits that had been mapped with funding assistancefrom the GCP. More recently, the GCP has focused on the implementation of new integratedbreeding programmes in developing country crops through the use of molecular breedingtechnologies such as marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS). The use of MARS should helpaccelerate the improvement of crops growing under suboptimal conditions of Africa and Asia,which is also a focus of the GCP. This development will be greatly facilitated by the IntegratedBreeding Platform that is concurrently being developed by the GCP. Examples will be shown ofpractical applications of molecular breeding being used or being put in place in developingcountries for crops such as rice, cassava, sorghum, cowpea and chickpea. 19
  20. 20. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Plenary Session IIIThe sorghum genome, the diversification of cereals, and the productivity oftropical grassesPaterson AHPlant Genome Mapping Laboratory, University of Georgia 111 Riverbend Road, Rm 228, Athens, GA 30602Email: paterson@plantbio.uga.eduSorghum, an African grass related to sugarcane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fiber, and fuel,is representative of tropical grasses that are among the most efficient biomass accumulators thanksto ‘C4’ photosynthesis. An initial analysis of the sorghum genome placed ~98% of genes in theirchromosomal context using whole genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, physical, andsynteny information. Genetic recombination is largely confined to about one-third of the sorghumgenome with gene order and density similar to those of rice. Retrotransposon accumulation inrecombinationally-recalcitrant heterochromatin explains the ~75% larger genome size of sorghumthan rice. While gene and repetitive DNA distributions have been preserved sincepaleopolyploidization ~70 million years ago, most duplicated gene sets lost one member beforesorghum/rice divergence. Concerted evolution makes one duplicated chromosomal segmentappear only a few million years old. About 24% of genes are grass-specific and 7% aresorghum-specific. Recent gene and miRNA duplications may contribute to sorghum’s droughttolerance. The sorghum sequence offers new means to improve sorghum itself and new or existingbiofuel crops, and to try to control weedy and invasive plants. 20
  21. 21. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Plenary Session IIIPolyploidy and epigenetics: direct application and impact on cropimprovementChen ZJInstitute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Austin, Texas 78712, USA.Email: zjchen@mail.utexas.eduPolyploidy, or whole-genome duplication (WGD), is common in some animals and many plants,including important crops such as wheat, cotton, canola, sugar cane, and switchgrass. Thecommon occurrence of polyploidy suggests an evolutionary advantage of having multiple sets ofgenetic material for adaptive evolution and crop domestication. However, increased gene andgenome dosages in autopolyploids (duplications within species) and allopolyploids (combinationof two or more divergent genomes among species) often cause genome instabilities, chromosomeimbalances, regulatory incompatibilities, and reproductive failures. Therefore, new allopolyploidsmust establish a compatible relationship between alien cytoplasm and nuclei and between twodivergent genomes, leading to rapid changes in genome structure, gene expression, anddevelopmental traits such as fertility, inbreeding, apomixis, flowering time, and hybrid vigor.Although the underlying mechanisms for these changes are poorly understood, some themes areemerging. There is compelling evidence for epigenetic changes during early stages of polyploidformation. Using Arabidopsis allopolyploids and hybrids as model systems, we found thatchanges in cis- and trans-acting effects, chromatin modifications, RNA-mediated pathways, andregulatory networks modulate differential expression of homoeologous genes and phenotypicvariation such as flowering time. We have shown that nonadditive gene expression, small RNAs,and epigenetic regulation of circadian-mediated metabolic pathways, play central roles in growthvigor in hybrids and allopolyploids. Understanding epigenetic mechanisms for polyploidy andhybrid vigor will facilitate the use and exploitation of the increased biomass and yield in hybridsand allopolyploids for food, feed, and fuels. 21
  22. 22. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Plenary Session IIIIdentification of key regulators for flowering time control and their applicationin breeding of biennial crop speciesJung C*, Wafa SAE, Büttner B, Schulze-Buxloh G, Müller APlant Breeding Institute, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel*Email: c.jung@plantbreeding.uni-kiel.deFloral transition is a major developmental switch that is tightly controlled by regulatory pathwaysthat integrate endogenous and environmental cues to ensure flowering under favourableconditions. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is a biennial crop which bolts and flowers after a period ofcold temperatures over winter, however annual types without vernalization requirement exist. Wehave identified >30 flowering time regulators from the beet genome by different approaches. Theexistence of an FLC-like gene in beet suggests similar regulatory pathways as in Arabidopsis. In acomplementary approach additional components of the floral transition gene network in sugarbeet are being identified by homology to genes from model species and genome-wide transcriptprofiling. We found a number of ESTs with homology to Arabidopsis genes. Using RACE andBAC cloning we identified full length cDNA and genomic sequences. We functionallycharacterized these sequences by expression analysis and transformation into Arabidopsis. Wefound evidence for the existence of autonomous and vernalization pathways in beet similar toArabidopsis, however substantial differences between both species exist. Annuality is controlledby the bolting locus B. We have identified by map based cloning sequences from the B locus withhomology to floral transition genes from other species that suggest that they mediate bolting timecontrol in response to environmental cues. Another QTL for early bolting was mapped withmolecular markers demonstrating for the first time that at least two loci cause early bolting inbeets. A beet TILLING platform now also enables the identification of mutants and functionalcharacterization of candidate genes. New beet prototypes with altered vernalization requirementhave been produced either by EMS mutagenesis or transformation. These mutants in combinationwith transgenic beets with altered bolting behaviors are needed for the breeding of winter beetswhich are sown before winter. Apart from winter hardiness these beets must be completely boltingresistant to prevent bolting after winter. Different approaches to establish fully bolting resistantbeet prototypes are presented. 22
  23. 23. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Plenary Session IIIWhole Genome Strategies for Molecular Plant BreedingXu YB1*, Lu YL2 and Gao SB21 Institute of Crop Science and CIMMYT, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, National Key Facilitiesfor Crop Genetic Resources and Improvement, 12 Zhongguancun South St., Beijing 100081, China. 2MaizeResearch Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya’an, Sichuan 625014, China.*Email: y.xu@cgiar.orgMolecular breeding for complex traits in plants needs to understand and manipulate many factorsinfluencing plant growth and development including genotypes, environments and theirinteraction. Molecular breeding procedures can be facilitated and revolutionized through wholegenome strategies, which are featured by utilizing full genome sequence and genome-widemolecular markers to address all genomic and environmental factors through a representative orcomplete set of genetics and breeding germplasm. The strategies should be developed forunderstanding specific genomic region, genes, haplotypes, linkage disequilibrium block or allelesand their contribution to specific phenotypes and breeding products. Genotyping-by-sequencingand genomewide selection are two important components of the strategies. These strategies needto be integrated with precision phenotyping and powerful population management systems.Examples of such integrated systems include joint linkage-linkage-disequilibrium mapping formarker development and gene discovery, breeding-to-genetics approaches by using existinggenetic and breeding materials, and simultaneous genomewide improvement for multiple traits.As components of whole genome strategies, molecular breeding platforms and methodologiesshould be backed up with strong supporting systems such as breeding informatics and decisionsupport tools. Some basic strategies will be discussed using maize as an example, including (1)seed DNA-based genotyping for simplifying marker-assisted selection, reducing breeding cost andincreasing scale and efficiency, (2) selective genotyping and phenotyping for capturing mostimportant contributing factors with optimized breeding design, (3) flexible genotyping systemsrefined for different selection methods including marker assisted selection, marker assistedrecurrent selection and genomic selection, and (4) sequence-based strategies for markerdevelopment, allele mining, gene discovery and molecular breeding. 23
  24. 24. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Plenary Session IVGlobal Epigenetic and Transcriptional Trends among Two Rice Subspecies andTheir Reciprocal HybridsHe GM, Zhu XP, Elling AA, Chen LB, Chen RS and Deng XW*Peking-Yale Joint Center of Plant Molecular Genetics and Agrobiotechnology, College of Life Sciences, PekingUniversity, Beijing 100871, China. Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, YaleUniversity, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 DatunRoad, Beijing 100101, China*Email: xingwang.deng@yale.eduThe behavior of transcriptomes and epigenomes in hybrids of heterotic parents is of fundamentalinterest. Here we report highly integrated maps of the epigenome, mRNA and small RNAtranscriptomes of two rice subspecies and their reciprocal hybrids. We found that gene activitywas correlated with DNA methylation and both active and repressive histone modifications intranscribed regions. Differential epigenetic modifications correlated with changes in transcriptlevels among hybrids and parental lines. Distinct patterns in gene expression and epigeneticmodifications in reciprocal hybrids were observed. Through analyses of single nucleotidepolymorphisms from our sequence data, we observed a high correlation of allelic bias ofepigenetic modifications or gene expression in reciprocal hybrids with their differences in theparental lines. The abundance of distinct small RNA size classes differed between the parents andmore small RNAs were down-regulated than up-regulated in the reciprocal hybrids. Together, ourdata reveal a comprehensive overview of transcriptional and epigenetic trends in heterotic ricecrosses, and provides a very useful resource for the rice community. 24
  25. 25. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Plenary Session IVBreeding Seeds of InnovationHervé PMBayer Cropscience, Bioscience NV BelgiumAt Bayer Cropscience, we help farmers worldwide meet the ever-increasing demand foraffordable and high quality food, feed, fiber and energy crops. We aim at providing sustainablecrop solutions from seed to harvest, with outstanding seeds and modern crop protection products.Major technology platforms based on the complementary of modern breeding methods and plantbiotechnology are used to develop new seeds and innovative traits solutions. An update of ourSeeds & Traits Pipeline and key examples of successful molecular breeding solutions for our corecrops will be presented. 25
  26. 26. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Plenary Session IVBreeding by design and innovation in molecular plant breedingSørensen AP, van Schriek M, Hofstede R, Guerra J, Prins M and Buntjer JBKeygene N.V., Agro Business Park 90, P.O. Box 216, 6700 AE Wageningen, the NetherlandsSince the concept of Breeding by Design (BBD) was launched by KeyGene in 2003, DNAtechnologies have developed with a dramatic acceleration; especially high-throughput sequencingtechnologies are revolutionizing the DNA research arena. The possibilities for genetic research toelucidate the molecular mechanism of phenotypic expression have increased significantly. As aconsequence, implementing BBD or BBD like approaches for trait and variety improvementprograms is ongoing.We will discuss here a selection of current genomic tools and applications. Whole genomesequence scaffolds and whole genome BAC based physical maps of commercial crop species arebeing developed, following the examples of model plant organisms. The discovery of totalgermplasm variation at the genotypic level and at the gene haplotype level is practically feasiblefor many crop species. Phenotypic evaluation of germplasm variability is performed with highprecision digital imaging systems and supported by statistical tools for evaluation ofreproducibility, heritability and interrelatedness of phenotypic scores.The current challenge for plant geneticists clearly lies in the ability to integrate and aggregate thedifferent and large data sources, in order to make firm and robust associations between thephenotypic variability and the genotypic variability, after which these can immediately beexploited by modern plant breeders. Furthermore novel technologies for generation of mutantalleles of interesting plant genes are in development and will increase the genetic variability ofgermplasm available for variety improvement programs. We will present some of the approachestaken by Keygene to assist plant breeders in these novel opportunities. 26
  27. 27. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Plenary Session IVMeeting the challenge of higher nutritional value in seeds: a novel way ofincreasing methionine content in seeds of the model plant of tobaccoGodo I, Matityahu I, Hacham Y, Amir RLaboratory of Plant Science, Migal Galilee Technology Center, P.O. Box 831, Kiryat Shmona 12100, IsraelThe sulfur-containing amino acid, methionine, is an essential amino acid whose level limits the nutritionalvalue of crop plants. Yet, aside from its nutritional importance, methionine is also a fundamentalmetabolite in plant cells because it indirectly regulates a variety of cellular processes as the precursor ofS-adenosyl methionine (SAM). This study describes the first modification of methionine biosynthesis inseeds using the model plant, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Overexpression of the unregulated form ofcystathionine gamma synthase (AtD-CGS), the first unique enzyme of methionine biosynthesis pathwayfrom Arabidopsis in tobacco plants, led to an over 10-fold increase in methionine content. However, inthese transgenic plants, the methionine level inside their seeds increased only by 15% compared towild-type seeds. Similar results were obtained when AtD-CGS was seed-specific expressed in tobaccoplants. This suggests that the CGS expression level does not limit methionine synthesis in tobacco seeds.To further study the factors regulating methionine synthesis in seeds, the receptacle of developing podswere fed with homoserine, the substrate of CGS. Seeds from these pods demonstrated three-fold higherlevels of methionine, suggesting that homoserine content limits methionine synthesis. To further test thisassumption, we next crossed between plants seed specific expressing AtD-CGS with those seed-specificexpressing the feedback-insensitive bacterial aspartate kinase (bAK), which evidence suggests their seedshave a higher homoserine content. Seeds obtained from the progenies of this cross showed a three-foldhigher level of methionine compared to wild-type seeds. In addition, the level of threonine, an importantessential amino acid that limits the nutritional quality of cereals, accumulated significantly in these seeds.Our next goal was to reveal if the developing transgenic seeds are tolerant to metabolic perturbations thatoccur with changes in methionine and threonine levels. To this end, we performed metabolic profiling towild-type and transgenic seeds expressing AtD-CGS, bAK and AtD-CGS/bAK using GC-MS. A principalcomponent analysis of about 150 metabolites from each transgenic line shows that these lines differsignificantly from one another. Of these metabolites, only 12 compounds significantly changed andcontributed to this diversity. These include the main amino acids, glutamine and asparagine, and severalsugars, trehalose, galactose, glycerol and melbiose. A further study should be performed to reveal therelationships between these metabolites and methionine metabolism. In general, this study demonstrates anovel way of increasing methionine content in seeds, which consequently contributes to enhancing theirnutritional value. 27
  28. 28. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Plenary Session IVAssociation mapping for enhancing maize genetic improvementYan JB 1,2 *, Li JS 21 International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, (CIMMYT), Apartado Postal 6-640, 06600 Mexico, DF,Mexico China2 National Maize Improvement Center of China, CAU, Beijing 100193, ChinaE-mail: j.yan@cgiar.orgAssociation mapping through linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis is a powerful tool for thedissection of complex agronomic traits and for the identification of alleles that can contribute tothe enhancement of a target trait. With the developments of high throughput genotypingtechniques and advanced statistical approaches as well as the assembling and characterization ofmultiple association mapping panels, maize has become the model crop for association analysis.In this talk, we summarize the progress in maize association mapping and the impacts of geneticdiversity, rate of LD decay, population size and population structure. We also report the use ofcandidate genes and gene-based markers in maize association mapping studies which hasgenerated particularly promising results. In addition, we examine recent developments ingenome-wide genotyping techniques which promise to improve the power of association mappingand significantly refine our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex quantitative traits.Already these seem to be suggesting that the structure of agronomic traits in maize has more incommon with important traits in humans and animals than it does with similar traits inArabidopsis and rice. The new challenges and opportunities associated with genome-wideanalysis studies will be discussed. 28
  29. 29. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Concurrent session 1: Molecular breeding for abiotic stress tolerancesMapping QTLs for root morphology in relation to nutrient uptake in wheatHe X, Li JJ, Ren YZ, Zhao XQ, Li B, Li ZS and Tong YP*State Key Laboratory for Plant Cell and Chromosome Engineering, Institute of Genetics and DevelopmentalSciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101.*Email: yptong@genetics.ac.cnNitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers are required to maximize crop yields in manyagricultural systems. However, the recovery rates of fertilizer N and P were low. To increase Nand P recovery rates, systematic approaches are required, including optimizing managementpractices and breeding crops with improved N and P use efficiency.Previous studies have shown that vigorous early root growth is a major factor influencing N and Puptake in wheat. However, roots, the ‘unseen half’ of wheat plants, are difficult to be selecteddirectly by wheat breeders. Therefore, identifying QTLs/genes regulating root traits can helpwheat breeders to develop wheat varieties with ideal root system for efficient use of nutrientsthrough MAS approach.A RIL population of derived from two Chinese wheat varieties Xiaoyan 54 and Jing 411 was usedto map QTLs for root traits in relation to N and P uptake. A hydroponic culture and a soil columnexperiment were carried to phenotype the RIL population at seedling stage. For the hydroponicculture, the maximal root length (MRL), root dry weight (RDW), shoot dry weight (SDW), N(NUP) and P (PUP) uptake of this RIL population were investigated under sufficient nutrientsupply, low N and low P conditions. Phenotype variation explained by individual QTL variedfrom 4.6% to 32.7%. For the soil column experiment, root distribution in the soil profiles, SDW,NUP and PUP were investigated under sufficient nutrient condition. Phenotype variationexplained by individual QTL varied from 5.2% to 22.5%. To develop MAS for breeding wheatroot traits, we analyzed the effects of pyramiding multi-QTLs on RDW, as well as SDW, NUP andPUP investigated in these tow experiments. The results showed that pyramiding the three QTLslinked with Xgwm157-2D, Xgwm533.2-3B and Xbarc90-4B, respectively, significantly increasedRDW, SDW, NUP and PUP under different N and P supply levels in the hydroponic culture. TheRILs harboring the positive alleles at these three loci had, averagely, 33%-69% higher SDW,RDW, NUP and PUP than those with the negative alleles under different N and P conditions. Inthe soil column experiment, pyramiding the three QTLs linked with Xgwm157-2D,Xgwm533.2-3B and Xbarc70.1-4A, respectively, significantly increased SDW, RDW, NUP andPUP. The RILs harboring all the three positive alleles had, averagely, 30% higher SDW, 25%higher RDW in the 0-30 cm soil layer, 48% higher RDW in the 30-60 cm soil layer, 43% higherRDW in the 60-90 cm soil layer, 31% higher total RDW, 31% higher NUP and 30% higher PUPthan those with the negative alleles. 29
  30. 30. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Concurrent session 1: Molecular breeding for abiotic stress tolerancesThe research progress of drought tolerance and molecular breeding in maize *Zheng J, Fu JJ, Liu YJ, Jian M, Wang GYInstitute of Crop Sciences and National Center for Plant Gene Research, Chinese Academy of AgriculturalSciences, Beijing 100081, China.* Email: gywang@caas.net.cnDrought stress greatly affects maize growth and its yield potential. In order to understand themolecular basis in response to drought stress, and further to improve the drought tolerance inmaize, transcriptome analysis, QTL mapping and transgenic approaches were performed in ourlab. Genome-wide gene expression profiling was analyzed between the drought-tolerant lineHan21 and drought-sensitive line Ye478. Our data identified a common set of ~2,600 regulatedgenes under drought stress between the two lines, and showed that the drought tolerant line hasfewer genes with altered expression. The potential components of the abscisic acid signalingpathway were significantly identified from the common set of genes. A total of 827 genes withsignificantly differential expression between the two lines under drought stress were identified. AF2 population of Han21×Ye478 was used to construct the genetic linkage map and QTL mapping.Drought tolerant NILs (near-isogenic lines) were also screened out from the backcross populationof Han21×Ye478 under severe drought stress conditions. Additionally, the transgenic maize thatoverexpressed HDG11, which encodes a homeodomain-START transcription factor, hadincreased the drought tolerance with improved maize root system and reduced stomatal density. 30
  31. 31. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Concurrent session 1: Molecular breeding for abiotic stress tolerancesTowards molecular breeding for salt tolerance through modification of rootSystem architectureZhao YK, Wang T, Wang ZJ and Li X* Plant Cell & Chromosome Engineering, Center of Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetics andDevelopmental Biology, 286 Huaizhong Road, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, P.R. China.*Email: xli@genetics.ac.cnSalinity is a major constraint to crop growth and production. Root system architecture has beenconsidered as one of most important traits of crops in response to various abiotic stresses.Research on root traits is a major breeding objective in genetic improvement in nutrient useefficiency and drought tolerance. Some quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and genes conferringsuperior root system architecture have been identified. However, the role of developmentalplasticity of root system architecture under salt stress is largely unknown, and the genes and QTLsmediating this trait remains to be identified. To investigate the response of plant root system tosalt stress, we have conducted a systematic study using Arabidopsis plants. We found that the rootsystem architecture is highly sensitive to salt stress. The SOS (Salt Overly Sensitive) genes areessential for root plastic development in response to salt stress. Loss of function in the SOS genesare hypersensitive to salt, particularly the mutant plants exhibited developmental failure in lateralroot initiation and emergence. In contrast, the transgenic plants overexpressing the SOS genesshowed enhanced tolerance to salt stress and developed more root mass. Further, we haveidentified the STS1 (Sensitive To Salt1) gene as an upstream regulator in the root traits mediatedby the SOS signaling pathway in response to salt stress. STS1 gene encodes a WD40 repeatprotein and is induced by salt stress. Interestingly, STS1 interacts with ABI2, a key regulator ofABA signaling pathway, suggesting that ABA may play an important role in the root trait. TheSOS and STS1 genes are found to be conserved in Arabidopsis and winter wheat. The functions ofthe genes and the SOS and ABA signaling in developmental plasticity of root system architecturein various winter wheat with different salt tolerance are under investigation. These results willfurther our understanding of the genetics of salt tolerance in crops and to provide novel insightsinto improvement of their performance under salt stress conditions. 31
  32. 32. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Concurrent session 1: Molecular breeding for abiotic stress tolerancesMapping and validating QTLs for plant height developmental behaviours inbread wheatWu XS, Wang ZH, Zhang JN, Wei TM, Shi W, Zhang B, Jing RL*The National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement; Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.* Email: jingrl@caas.net.cnPlant height (PH), a crucial trait related to yield potential in crop plants, is known to be typicallyquantitatively inherited. However, its full expression can be inhibited by a limited water supply.As a trait easily measured, plant height is also a suitable model trait for exploring droughttolerance from jointing stage to flowering time in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In this study, wemapped and validated QTLs for plant height developmental behaviours in wheat by a doubledhaploid (DH) population, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, a collection of accessionsand backcross lines. The genetic basis of the developmental behaviour of PH was assessed in a150-line doubled haploid population (Hanxuan 10 × Lumai 14) grown in 10 environments (year ×site × water regime combinations) by unconditional and conditional quantitative trait locus (QTL)analyses in a mixed linear model. QTLs with additive and epistatic effects that expressedselectively during ontogeny were identified. Total of seven genomic regions covering PH QTLclusters on different chromosomes identified from the DH population were used as the candidateQTLs and extensively analyzed in a RIL population derived from the same cross as the DH. Fiveadditive QTLs and eight pairs of epistatic QTLs significantly affecting plant height developmentwere detected by unconditional QTL mapping method. Six additive QTLs and four pairs ofepistatic QTLs were validated using conditional mapping approach. Among them, three additiveQTLs and three pairs of epistatic QTLs were common QTLs detected by both methods. ThreeQTLs were expressed under both drought and well-water conditions. Total of 270 historical winterwheat accessions planted in northern China were genotyped using 60 PH candidate markers on sixchromosomes. A list of association was identified in the regions of gene Rht, indicating aconsistency of association analysis with linkage mapping. A total of 68 backcross lines of BC3F3-4were used to validate the QTLs detected in the genetic populations and natural collection. Theresults showed that some lines pyramiding multi-allele with effect of increasing or decreasingplant height exhibited superiority over the opposite lines. This case, mapping and validating QTLsfor plant height developmental behaviours in wheat indicates the possibility of molecular breedingfor plant complex quantitative traits. 32
  33. 33. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Concurrent session 1: Molecular breeding for abiotic stress tolerancesDiscovery of genes for drought resistance improvement of rice by systematicgenetic and functional genomic approachesXiong LZNational Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070,ChinaE-mail: lizhongx@mail.hzau.edu.cnDrought resistance is a very complex trait with distinct molecular and physiological mechanismsin different plant species. Irrigated rice has been domesticated in full irrigation ecosystem and it isextreme sensitive to drought. With a long-term goal of improving drought resistance in irrigatedrice, we have adopted a strategy by integrating the approaches including germplasm exploitation,genetic and functional genomics approaches to identify loci/genes effective for drought resistanceimprovement of rice. In this paper, we described the approaches and the major progresses made todiscover genes for drought resistance improvement. On the basis of genetic dissection of droughtresistance of rice, more than 30 QTLs have been targeted for construction of near isogenic linesand marker-assisted molecular breeding. Several drought resistance-associated genes wereidentified through drought screening of T-DNA insertion mutants of rice. Hundreds of genesdifferentially involved in drought responses and adaptation were identified through comparativeexpression profiling analysis. More than 200 drought-responsive candidate genes weretransformed into rice for drought resistance testing, and a few genes (such as SNAC1, OsSKIPa,and OsLEA3-1) showed significant effect in improving drought resistance of transgenic rice.Finally, problems and perspectives of drought resistance improvement in rice will be discussed. 33
  34. 34. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Concurrent session 1: Molecular breeding for abiotic stress tolerancesHeat stress transcriptome analysis and Functional Characterization ofResponsive Genes in wheatQin DD1, 2, Peng HR1, 2, Ni ZF1, 2, Yao YY 1, 2, Zhou CL1, 2, Sun QX 1, 2, *1 Department of Plant Genetics & Breeding and State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, ChinaAgricultural University, Beijing100193, China2 Key Laboratory of Crop Heterosis and Utilization (MOE), Key Laboratory of Crop Genomics and GeneticImprovement (MOA) and Beijing Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, China Agricultural University,Beijing100193, ChinaEmail: qxsun@cau.edu.cnWheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop around the world, and heat stress during the latestage affects its yield and quality badly. So, it’s urgent to elucidate the mechanisms of wheat heattolerance, and identify thermotolerance-related genes for future thermotolerant wheat breedingprogramme.In this study, using Affymetrix Genechip® Wheat Genome Array, we analyzed genome-widegene expression profiles of the leaves between two wheat genotypes with contrastingthermotolerance under heat treatment, namely, heat susceptible ‘Chinese Spring’ and heat tolerant‘TAM107’. A total of 6560 (~10.7%) probe sets were identified as heat responsive in our study.Except for heat shock proteins and heat shock factors, these genes also included transcriptionfactors, components involved in hormone biosynthesis and signaling, calcium signal pathway,RNA metabolism, primary and secondary metabolisms, as well as other stresses related proteins.Further analysis showed that, 313 probe sets were differentially regulated between the twogenotypes, 1314 were between heat treatments with and without pre-acclimation, while 4533between short and prolonged heat treatments. Furthermore, two genes, TaMBF1c (Multiproteinbridging factor 1, MBF1) and TaGAST (Gibberellin stimulated transcript), which were stronginduced by heat stress in both genotypes were cloned and functionally characterized.The complete ORF encoding TaMBF1c included 471bp, the deduced amino acid sequencerevealed existence of MBF1 and helix-turn-helix conserved domains at the N- and C-terminus,respectively, and was highly homologous to rice ERETC and AtMBF1c. TaMBF1c contained nointron in it. The 1074bp promoter region of it contained three heat shock elements (HSEs),identifying it as a potential heat shock factor regulated gene. Northern blot analyses showed thatthere was no detectable expression of TaMBF1c under control condition, and the expression of itwas rapidly and significantly induced by heat stress not only at seedling stage but also atflowering stage, and was only slightly induced by drought and H2O2 stresses, ABA and ACCapplication, however, not by rhythm, salt and MeJA treatments. In addition, ectopicover-expression of TaMBF1c in yeast imparts high temperature stress tolerance to wild type yeastcells. The most important is that thermotolerance was significantly increased in TaMBF1coverexpressed transgenic rice. 34
  35. 35. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Another heat-induced gene TaGAST was also gotten by in silico cloning and RT-PCR.Bioinformatic analysis showed that the sequence of TaGAST encoded a protein with 99 aminoacids which had a GASA domain in the C-terminal. In addition, the promoter region of TaGASTwas cloned using BD Genome Walker method, and HSE and several cis-elements involving inother abiotic stress response were found in this region.Consistently, the expression of TaGASTwas at low level in seedling leaves of the two wheat genotypes mentioned above, but stronglyinduced by stress factors, such as PEG, high salinity, oxidation and high temperature, and also thephytohormones such as ABA, ACC and MeJA treatment.The results suggested that this genemight be involved in various abiotic stress respons.In order to investigate the role of TaGAST inplant thermotolerance, it was over-expressed in Arabidopsis by Agrobacterium-mediatedtransformation method. The transgenic lines overexpressing TaGAST showed no phenotypicdifference compared to wild type under normal growth condition, but showedmembrane-thermostabler than WT. And had significantly higher survival rate under heat stress.All the above results indicate that these two genes have potential importance in improvingthermotolerance of wheat and other cereals, and the transgenic of wheat is underway. 35
  36. 36. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Concurrent session 2: Gene discovery and functionIdentification and application of the rice broad-spectrum blast resistance genePigmHe ZH*, Deng YWNational Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, ShanghaiInstitutes for biological Sciences, CAS, Shanghai 200032, China*E-mail zhhe@sibs.ac.cn).Rice blast is one of the most destructive diseases of rice. The identification and utilization ofbroad-spectrum resistance genes has been the most effective and economical approach to controlthe disease. A native Chinese variety, GM4, was identified with broad-spectrum and durableresistance. Genetic and mapping analysis indicated that blast resistance to nine isolates ofdifferent races in GM4 is controlled by the same dominant locus designated as Pigm, which wasidentified resistance gene cluster including 13 NBS-LRR members on chromosome 6 bymap-based cloning strategy, allelic to two known blast resistance genes Pi2 and Pi9. Sequencecomparison of the orthologous and paralogous genes between the Pigm/Pi9/Pi2 loci showed thatthe Pigm loci had undergone duplication result from LTR retrotransposon, unequal cross andillegitimate recombination during the evolution of the resistance gene cluster. Furthermore, ouranalysis showed that Pigm confers resistance to blast isolates from different cultivated regionsthan Pi9/Pi2/Pizt/Piz. In the Pigm locus, Pigm-1 controls leaf blast resistance, Pigm-2 confersneck blast which leads to large loss of grain yield. Genetic and transcriptional analysis suggestedthat broad-spectrum resistance might be attributed to the different expression patterns of diverse Rgenes. We have succeeded in developing elite hybrid rice lines with broad-spectrum blastresistance with molecular markers-assisted selection for Pigm, indicating good potential of thegene in rice molecular breeding. All the elite hybrid rice lines harboring the Pigm exhibited a highresistance or immunity to blast in natural blast nurseries nationwide from 2008 to 2010. 36
  37. 37. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Concurrent session 2: Gene discovery and functionMutant resources for functional studies of genes related to fertility in riceWu CYNational Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement and National Center of Plant Gene Research, HuazhongAgricultural University, Wuhan 430070, ChinaEmail: cywu@mail.hzau.edu.cnT-DNA tagging strategy is a high throughput approach for function analysis the plant genome.We have generated more than 100 thousand independent transgenic lines using the enhancer trapconstruct, consisting of the GAL4/VP16-UAS elements with GUS (or GFP) as the reporter. Thesystem has three built-in strategies for functional analysis of the rice genome. First, T-DNAinsertions cause gene mutations, providing an efficient approach for gene identification andisolation. Second, expression of the reporter gene indicates the presence of an enhancer element inthe neighboring genomic region, which can be used for isolation and characterization of theenhancer. Third, the lines showing spatial- or temporal-specific expression of the reporter genecan be used to drive ectopic expression of a transgene, thus useful for unveiling latent functions ofunknown or known genes.Employing our rice T-DNA insertional mutant library, we identified two genes, designed PAIR3and OsRPA1a, which play essential roles in DNA metabolism during meiosis process. Both pair3and Osrpa1a mutants exhibit a phenotype of completely sterile compared with their wild types.Genetic analysis of those mutants revealed that the T-DNA insertion tag co-segregated with thesterility phenotype. During meiotic prophase I, the pair3 mutant fails in homologous chromosomepairing and synapsis, resulting in no formation of bivalents and subsequent random segregation ofthe univalents in anaphase I. PAIR3 encodes a protein that contains putative coiled-coil motifs, butdoes not have any close homologs in other organisms. Primary results suggest that PAIR3 plays acrucial role in homologous chromosome pairing and synapsis in meiosis. Another mutant osrpa1aexhibits abnormal chromosomal fragmentation occurred in male meiocytes after anaphase I.Further study identified that the leaves of Osrpa1a were hypersensitive to DNA mutagens.Genetic complementation and RNAi results confirmed that OsRPA1a was responsible to themutant phenotypes in Osrpa1a. Our data suggest that OsRPA1a plays an essential role in DNArepair but may not participate in, or at least is dispensable for, DNA replication and homologousrecombination in rice. 37
  38. 38. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Concurrent session 2: Gene discovery and functionGene discovery from common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.)Sun CQState Key Laboratory of Plant Physilogy and Biochemistry, National Center for the Evaluation of AgriculturalWild Plants (Rice), China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, P R China.Email: suncq@cau.edu.cnCommon wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.), ancestor species of cultivated rice (O. sativa L.),constitute an important gene pool for rice improvement. To discover favorable genes from wildrice which have been lost or weakened in cultivated rice has become more and more important formodern breeding strategy. In recent years, we have developed two sets of introgression lines (ILs)derived from the cross between O. rufipogon from Jiangxi and Yunnan province of China, as thedonor, and elite cultivars, as the recipient. Several QTLs for yield-related traits, quality traits andtolerence to abiotic stress were mapped using introgression lines. Some major QTLs werefine-mapped and cloned. Two key genes, PROG1 and SHA1, controlling rice domestication wereidentified. PROG1 controlling prostrate growth of wild rice on chromosome 7 encodes a singleCys2-His2 zinc-finger protein. prog1 variants identified in O. sativa disrupt the prog1 functionand inactivate prog1 expression, leading to erect growth, greater grain number and higher grainyield in cultivated rice. SHA1 controlling seed shattering of wild rice on chromosome 4 encodes amember of the trihelix family of plant-specific transcription factors. The predicted amino acidsequence of SHA1 in wild rice is distinguished from that in cultivated rice by only a single aminoacid substitution (K79N) caused by a single nucleotide change (g237t). 38
  39. 39. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Concurrent session 2: Gene discovery and functionDiscovery of brown planthopper resistance gene in riceHe GCCollege of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, ChinaEmail: gche@whu.edu.cnThe brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stal; BPH) is an insect that feeds on the leaf sheath ofrice (Oryza sativa L.) plants, ingesting nutrients specifically from the rice phloem using its styletmouthparts. In the last decade, the BPH has frequently caused widespread destruction of ricecrops and heavy losses of yields. The most economic and efficient method for controlling theBPH is to use the host resistance as part of IPM.To date, more than 19 BPH resistance genes in rice have been reported. Resistance of Bph1, bph2and Bph3 has been reported to be overcome by new biotypes of BPH. Wild rice germplasm is animportant gene pool for rice breeding. Two major loci for BPH resistance, Bph14 and Bph15,were detected in the F2 population and RIL population of Minghui63 X B5. Bph14 was mappedon the long arm of chromosome 3 and Bph15 on the short arm of chromosome 4. These loci werealso found to confer resistance to the white-backed planthopper.Analysis of recombination events in the Bph14 region delimited the gene to genomic segment of34-kb between SM1 and G1318. Two predicted genes encoding putative resistance proteins,designated Ra and Rb respectively, were identified after sequencing this region. Transgenicexperiment showed that Ra confers the resistance phenotype and is the Bph14 gene. The Bph14gene encodes a putative 1,323 amino acid protein containing a coiled-coil, nucleotide-binding andleucine-rich repeat (CC-NB-LRR) motif. Comparison analysis showed that in the LRR domain 54residues and two deletions of Bph14 were unique.Electronic penetration graphs (EPG) revealed that BPH insects spent more time walking, but lesstime ingesting phloem, on the plants carrying resistance genes Bph14 and Bph15 than they did onsusceptible plants. Tests with [14C]sucrose showed that insects ingested much less phloem sap onthe resistant plants than on susceptible plants. In the plants infested with the BPH, callose wasfound deposited on the sieve plates of the target sieve tubes, where the stylets had been inserted.Counts of the bright callose plugs revealed more callosic sieve plates in the resistant than insusceptible plants. Moreover, with prolonged BPH feeding, the callose deposition decreasedquickly in susceptible plants. It was found that the genes encode for callose decomposing enzymeβ-1,3-glucanase were differetially regulated in the resistant and susceptible rice plants. In thesusceptible rice the β-1,3-glucanase gene Osg1 and Gns5 were enhanced, and thereby facilitatedthe BPH’s continued feeding from the phloem in the susceptible plants, while in the resistantplants, these genes expression unchanged. As a result, BPH feeding on the resistant rice plantswere suppresed. 39
  40. 40. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Concurrent session 2: Gene discovery and functionMolecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility in riceWang Z, Zou Y, Luo D, Liu Z, Xu H, Wu H, Guo J, Zhang Q, Ye S, Chen Y, Liu YG*Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics and Biotechnology of Education Department, Guangdong Province,College of Life Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.*Email: ygliu@scau.edu.cnThe successful breeding and commercial cultivation of hybrid rice is one of the most importantachievements in agriculture. Hybrid rice has been developed and released in 1970s in China, whichhas about 20% yield advantage over improved inbred varieties. Since the late of 1980’s, hybrid ricehas occupied ~55% (~15-17 million hectares) of the total rice planting area each year in China.Therefore, hybrid rice has contributed tremendously to the food security in China, and given a greatimpact to agriculture. The successful development of hybrid rice is mainly due to the developmentand utilization of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) systems. Three types of CMS systems,Wild-abotive (WA), Boro II (BT), and Hong-Lian (HL), have been used for the hybrid breeding.To reveal the molecular basis of the cytoplasmic male sterility systems in rice, we have identifiedand functionally studied the genes conferring the CMS and restoration. We found that amitochondrial open reading frame of previously unknown function in Boro II cytoplasm, orf79,encodes a cytotoxic peptide that causes the male sterility. Furthermore, we isolated two restorergenes, Rf1a and Rf1b, at the previously reported single locus Rf1, revealing that Rf1 is a complexlocus. Rf1a and Rf1b encode PPR (Pentatrico Peptide Repeat) proteins, and they target tomitochondria to cleave and degrade the orf79 mRNA, respectively, thus silence orf79 and restorethe mal fertility. When both restorers are present in the hybrids, Rf1a preferentially cleave the orf79mRNA, showing an epistatic effect over Rf1b. The study further revealed that Rf1a has a role topromote the editing of the mitochondrial atp6 mRNA, suggesting that this may be its primaryfunction, while the action as the fertility restorer be a new function.CMS-WA is the most widely used system for hybrid rice. We identified a novel mitochondrial geneconferring CMS-WA. Transformation of rice and Arabidopsis with this gene caused male sterility.CMS-WA is restored by Rf loci, Rf3 and Rf4, via suppressing the function of this CMS gene withdifferent mechanisms. Evolutionary analysis revealed that this CMS gene was generated throughrearrangement of multiple fragments of the mitochondrial genomes and unknown sources in thislocus during the evolution of wild rice species. Further, we studied the molecular mechanism of theCMS induction involving in the cytoplasmic-nuclear interaction. 40
  41. 41. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Plant 第三届植物分子育种国际学术会议摘要Molecular Breeding, Sept 5-9, 2010, Beijing, China 2010 年 9 月 5-9 日,中国,北京Concurrent session 2: Gene discovery and functionToward map-based cloning of a good eating-quality QTL derived from an eliteJapanese rice cultivar KoshihikariHori K1*, Takeuchi Y2, Nagasaki H1, Ando I2, Yano M11 National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 2-1-2 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602, Japan2 National Institute of Crop Science, 2-1-18 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8518, Japan*E-mail: horikiyo@affrc.go.jpEating quality is an important trait to consider in rice breeding, because it determines consumerpreference and the rice price. The eating quality of cooked rice is a complex trait determined bymultiple genes and is largely affected by environmental factors. Although several physicochemicalproperties of the rice grain, such as amylose and protein contents, pasting properties and gelconsistency are used to evaluate eating quality, a sensory test of cooked rice is still required forthe final selection procedure in rice breeding. The sensory test is time-consuming andlabor-intensive because trained panels evaluate each breeding line for appearance, taste, andtexture of the cooked rice by eating it. A japonica rice cultivar Koshihikari has a good eatingquality including high glossiness, a high level of stickiness, good taste, and low hardness ofcooked rice. We evaluated the eating quality of cooked rice using the sensory test in a set ofreciprocal backcrossed inbred lines (BILs) from crosses between Nipponbare and Koshihikari in2006 and 2007. The major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for eating quality were detected on theshort arm of chromosome 3 in the two BILs. The Koshihikari allele of the QTL increased eatingquality. To validate the eating quality QTL, we developed a substitution line with a Koshihikarisegment on the short arm of chromosome 3 in a Nipponbare genetic background, and evaluatedthe eating quality of the substitution line using sensory tests in 2008 and 2009. The eating qualityof the substitution line was improved as compared with Nipponbare in both seasons. In order toscreen for putative candidate genes of the eating quality QTL, a large chromosome segment (11.3Mbp) of the genome was sequenced. Sequence comparison between Nipponbare and Koshihikarirevealed insertion/deletion polymorphisms and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the sequencesof 13 predicted genes in the candidate region of the QTL. RT-PCR revealed that nine of the 13genes were expressed in the endosperm during the ripening period after pollination. Forfine-mapping of the eating quality QTL, we developed additional substitution lines to replacedifferent Koshihikari segments on the short arm of chromosome 3 in the Nipponbare background.Sensory tests of these substitution lines are now underway to narrow down the candidate regionfor the eating quality QTL. 41

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