Transcript of "OT Session 8 Major Prophets (Part 2)"
Session #8. Encountering theProphetic Books (Part 2) Covering the books of Daniel & Ezekiel
The Torah (5 books of the Law)The Prophets Former: Joshua, Judges, Samuel & Kings Latter: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel & The TwelveThe Writings Major: Job, Psalms, Proverbs The Five Scrolls: Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes & Esther
1 2 3 Fall of Samaria & 1st Return from Assyrian captivity captivity: 538BC ISRAEL 722BCJonah? Amos Hosea Temple rebuilt Fall of Jerusalem & 516 BC Babylonian captivity 586BC Zechariah Malachi JUDAH HaggaiJoel? Isaiah Nahum Micah Zephaniah Ezra 458 BC Habakkuk Daniel Nehemiah 444 BC Obadiah Jeremiah Ezekiel Before the exile During exile After the exile
Context: Josiah’s reforms. Ezekiel born/ Daniel later. Jehoiakim warned by Jeremiah yet rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar (2 Kings 24; Jer. 36-39)605 BCE 1st invasion (Nebuchadnezzar overcomes Jehoiakim, carries off hostages, inc. Daniel) Surrender of Jehoiachin (2 Kings 24; 2 Chron. 36)597 BCE 2nd invasion (Ezekiel & 10,000 taken captive) Rebellion of Zedekiah (2 Kings 24; 2 Chron.36; Jer. 39)586 BCE 3rd & final invasion. Destroys city & temple. Jeremiah = older prophet, ministering from Jerusalem Daniel/ Ezekiel = younger prophets who ministered at the king’s court & among the exiles in Babylon
Historical section (1-6) Prophetic section (7-12)Captivity of Daniel 1st yr of Belshazzar (7) & the young nobles (1) 3rd yr of Belshazzar (8)Conversion of Nebuchadnezzar (2-4) 1st yr of Darius/ Cyrus (9)Judgment of Belshazzar (5) 3rd yr of Cyrus (10-12)Witness to Darius (6)
Ch. 1 3rd year of Jehoiakim (605)Ch. 2 2nd year of NebuchadnezzarChs. 3-4 ? years of NebuchadnezzarCh. 7 1st year of Belshazzar/ NabonidusCh. 8 3rd year of BelshazzarCh. 5 Final year of Belshazzar/ 1st year of CyrusCh. 9 1st year of Darius/ Cyrus (539)Ch. 6 1st year of Darius/ Cyrus (Lions den)Chs. 10-12 3rd year of Cyrus
Nebuchadnezzar (chaps. 2 - 4) receives dreams during 2nd yr. & later is convertedBelshazzar (chap. 5) receives vision during last night of his reign/ first yr. of Darius/ Daniel receives visions during 1st & 3rd yrsDarius (chap. 6) Daniel receives vision of 70 “weeks” during first yr. of his reign (& is soon after thrown into Lion’s den)
Chapter 1.1. The strange surroundings2. Courage & faithfulness3. The remarkable result“To these four young men God gave know-ledge and understanding of all kinds of literature and learning. And Daniel could understand visions and dreams of all kinds.” (1:17)
His dream of the statue (ch. 2)Daniel replied, “…there is a God in heaven who reveals mysteries (v.28)…The God of heaven has given you dominion and power and might and glory.” (v.37)“In the time of those kings, the God of heaven will set up a kingdom that will never be destroyed, nor will it be left to another people. It will crush all those kingdoms and bring them to an end, but it will itself endure forever.” (v.44)The king said to Daniel, “Surely your God is the God of gods and the Lord of kings and a revealer of mysteries.”
His construction of the image of gold (ch.3)King Nebuchadnezzar made an image of gold – “you must fall down and worship the image of gold that King Nebuchadnezzar has set up.” (vv. 1,5)“Then what god will be able to rescue you from my hand?” (v.15)“If we are thrown into the blazing furnace, the God we serve is able to save us from it, and he will rescue us from your hand, O king. But even if he does not, we want you to know, O king, that we will not serve your gods or worship the image of gold you have set up.” (vv. 17-18)
He said, “Look! I see four men walking around in the fire, unbound and unharmed, and the fourth looks like a son of the gods.” (v. 25)Nebuchadnezzar said, “Praise be to the God of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego, who has sent his angel and rescued his servants! They trusted in him and defied the kings command and were willing to give up their lives rather than serve or worship any god except their own God. Therefore I decree that the people of any nation or language who say anything against the God of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego be cut into pieces and their houses be turned into piles of rubble, for no other god can save in this way.” (vv. 28-29)
His dream of the tree (ch. 4)“It is my pleasure to tell you about the miraculous signs and wonders that the Most High God has performed for me. How great are his signs, how mighty his wonders! His kingdom is an eternal kingdom; his dominion endures from generation to generation.” (vv. 2-3)“…the spirit of the holy gods is in him.” (vv. 8, 9, 18)“I saw …a messenger, a holy one, coming down from heaven.” (v. 13)
“Seven times (years) will pass by for you until you acknowledge that the Most High is sovereign over the kingdoms of men and gives them to anyone he wishes …Acknowledge that Heaven rules… Renounce your sins by doing what is right, and your wickedness by being kind to the oppressed.”Twelve months later, as the king was walking on the roof of the royal palace of Babylon, he said, “Is not this the great Babylon I have built…by my mighty power and for the glory of my majesty?” (vv. 29-30)“Your royal authority has been taken from you…until you acknowledge that the Most High is sovereign over the kingdoms of men and gives them to anyone he wishes.” (v. 32)
“At the end of that time, I, Nebuchadnezzar, raised my eyes toward heaven…Then I praised the Most High; I honored and glorified him who lives forever. His dominion is an eternal dominion; his kingdom endures from generation to generation.All the peoples of the earth are regarded as nothing. He does as he pleases with the powers of heaven and the peoples of the earth. No one can hold back his hand or say to him: ‘What have you done?’Now I, Nebuchadnezzar, praise and exalt and glorify the King of heaven, because everything he does is right and all his ways are just. And those who walk in pride he is able to humble.” (vv. 34-37)
The impious feast (ch.5: 1-4)The hand of God (vv. 5-16)The prophetic interpretation (vv. 17-28) Mene, Mene, Tekel, Parsin numbered, numbered, weighed, divided
2 7 8“Head of gold” Lion/ eagle BABYLON(2:38)Chest/ Bear Ram MEDO-arms of silver” (with 2 horns) PERSIA (8:20)“Belly/thighs of bronze” Leopard Goat GREECE (8:21) (with 4 horns)“Legs of iron/ Indescribable (ROME)Feet & toes of beastiron & clay” (with 10 horns)
Daniel’s discovery: Jer. 29:10-15Daniel’s prayer: Who God is What they had done What had resulted What they needed God to doYahweh’s response: The messenger The message
“we have sinned & done wrong” (chattah & awon) “We have not“ we have acted wickedly/ are guilty” (rasha) listened to your servants“we have rebelled/ revolted” (marad) the prophets”“we have turned away/ departed from your commands & laws” (sur)
Seventy sevens (490 years) are decreed for your people and your holy city:1. …to finish transgression (pesha),2. …to put an end to sin (chattah),3. …to atone for wickedness (awon),4. …to bring in everlasting righteousness,5. …to seal up vision and prophecy,6. and to anoint the most holy (place).
“From the issuing of the decree” (458 BC. 2nd decree. Ezra the Scribe)“to restore & rebuild Jerusalem”“after 7 & 62 sevens, the Anointed One will come” (458 – 483 years = 26CE beginning of Jesus’ ministry)“7 sevens” = 49 years – 50th = Jubilee (Lev. 25, 27)“62 sevens” = 434 years(69 sevens = 483 years)“1 seven” = 7 years (or 2 x 31/2 years)
Daniel 10: “The great war”Who did he really see?1. His appearance2. His words3. His actionsWhat was really going on?1. Michael (angel/ “chief prince” – v.13; cf. 12:1)2. Prince of Persia (v. 13)3. Prince of Greece (v. 20)
A very confusing bookAn oft disputed bookA much needed book For what it reveals about God For what it reveals about us For what it promises (hope & a new age) For sheer entertainment value!“Like a precious pearl, it must be prized from the encasing shell.” (Peter Craigie)
“He was a cataleptic (muscular seizures), a neurotic, a victim of hysteria, a psychopath, a paranoid schizophrenic, who was endowed with powers of clairvoyance and levitation.” (DMG Stalker)
He was born into a priestly family (623 BCE)He was taken captive into Babylon (597) 2 Kings 24:14He was called to be a prophet after 5 years (592), & he served (in exile) for about 22 years (571).He saw & spoke of the holiness of God the sinfulness of all people the reason for judgement the mercy/forgiveness of God
Ezekiel = “God strengthens” He was a perfect combination of:1. The hammer of judgment (1-32) “God will destroy”2. The soothing oil of forgiveness (33-48) “God will rebuild” Tomb of Ezekiel (al-Kifl, Iraq).
Called into ministry at 30 (1:1)Training for priesthood began in 20 th (1 Chr. 23:24) and 25th (Numb. 8:24) yearsEntered priesthood age 30 (Numb. 4:3; 1 Chr. 23:3)30 = the age of maturity & responsibilityJesus’ baptism, descent of the Spirit & commencement of his ministry @ 30“The Glory of God” (1:1, 28; 3:12, 23; 8:4; 9:3; 10:4, 18-19; 11:22-23; 43:1-5; 44:4)
Ezekiel’s call & commission Chs. 1-3Prophetic theme: Judgment on Israel Chs 4-24…ends with Jerusalem besieged & his wife’s death (24:2,18)Prophetic theme: Judgment on foreign nations Chs.…Ammon, Moab, Edom, Philistia, Tyre, Egypt 25-32Prophetic theme: Restoration of Israel Chs. 33-48
1. 1:1-2 1. Call of prophet 5932. 8:1 2. Vision of Jerusalem 5923. 20:1 3. Deputation of elders 5914. 24:1 4. Beginning of siege 5885. 26:1 5. Message against Tyre 5866. 29:1 6. Message against Egypt 5877. 29:17 7. Destruction of Egypt 5718. 30:20 8. Pharaohs “broken arm” 5879. 31:1 9. Message against Pharaoh 58710. 32:1, 17 10. Lament over Pharaoh 58511. 33:21 11. “The city has fallen” 58612. 40:1 12. “New Jerusalem” 573
Ponderous & repetitiveSymbolic & apocalyptic (ie. Revelation)He preached sermons, he saw visions, he expounded allegories & he enacted parables.Priestly (holiness, defilement & worship)Prophetic (judgement & salvation)Pastoral (mercy & forgiveness for people) “Then you will know that I am the LORD” (x50)
Both take a lone stand for truth Both lament the destruction of Jerusalem & temple Both look forward to a length exile Both insist the future lies with the exiles Both are critical of bad shepherds Both encounter a rejection of their message Both encounter suffering, pain & extreme circumstances Both emphasize individual responsibility, retribution & repentance (18:4, 20) Both pronounce judgment on surrounding nations Both reject fatalism (there is hope) Both point to a “new covenant” (& a “new heart”) Both look forward to messianic figure, like David
The word of the LORD came to me: 13 "Son of man, if a country sins against me by being unfaithful and I stretch out my hand against it to cut off its food supply and send famine upon it and kill its men and their animals, 14 even if these three men—Noah, Daniel and Job—were in it, they could save only themselves by their righteousness, declares the Sovereign LORD.15 "Or if I send wild beasts through that country and they leave it childless and it becomes desolate so that no one can pass through it because of the beasts, 16 as surely as I live, declares the Sovereign LORD, even if these three men were in it, they could not save their own sons or daughters. They alone would be saved, but the land would be desolate.17 "Or if I bring a sword against that country and say, Let the sword pass throughout the land, and I kill its men and their animals, 18 as surely as I live, declares the Sovereign LORD, even if these three men were in it, they could not save their own sons or daughters. They alone would be saved.19 "Or if I send a plague into that land and pour out my wrath upon it through bloodshed, killing its men and their animals, 20 as surely as I live, declares the Sovereign LORD, even if Noah, Daniel and Job were in it, they could save neither son nor daughter. They would save only themselves by their righteousness. (14:12-20)
"Son of man, I have made you a watchman for the house of Israel; so hear the word I speak and give them warning from me.“ (3:17)The word of the LORD came to me: 2 "Son of man, speak to your countrymen and say to them: When I bring the sword against a land, and the people of the land choose one of their men and make him their watchman, 3 and he sees the sword coming against the land and blows the trumpet to warn the people, 4 then if anyone hears the trumpet but does not take warning and the sword comes and takes his life, his blood will be on his own head. 5 Since he heard the sound of the trumpet but did not take warning, his blood will be on his own head. If he had taken warning, he would have saved himself. 6 But if the watchman sees the sword coming and does not blow the trumpet to warn the people and the sword comes and takes the life of one of them, that man will be taken away because of his sin, but I will hold the watchman accountable for his blood.‘7 "Son of man, I have made you a watchman for the house of Israel; so hear the word I speak and give them warning from me. 8 When I say to the wicked, O wicked man, you will surely die, and you do not speak out to dissuade him from his ways, that wicked man will die for his sin, and I will hold you accountable for his blood. 9 But if you do warn the wicked man to turn from his ways and he does not do so, he will die for his sin, but you will have saved yourself. (33:1-7)
Dramatic acts/ visionsLie on side 390 days; bound with ropes; eat defiled food, over dung, shaves off hair & weighs it; wife dies/ can’t mourn; cooking pot; Pelatiah (11:1-14)“Inner meaning of the agony going on in their fatherland” Holy Spiritx7 transported “by the Spirit” (3:12,14; 8:3; 11:1,24; 37:1; 43:5)x8 references the work of the Spirit (1:12,20-21; 10:17; 36:26-27; 37:14; 39:29)
The adulterous wife (16:1-63)The rebellious fathers (20:1-31)The two prostitute sisters (23:1-49)Key = breaking the covenant (16:8, 59-62; 17:18-19)
" For I will gather you from all the countries and bring you back into your own land. 25 I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you will be clean; I will cleanse you from all your impurities and from all your idols. 26 I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit in you; I will remove from you your heart of stone and give you a heart of flesh. 27 And I will put my Spirit in you and move you to follow my decrees and be careful to keep my laws. 28 You will live in the land I gave your forefathers; you will be my people, and I will be your God. 29 I will save you from all your uncleanness.33 " This is what the Sovereign LORD says: On the day I cleanse you from all your sins, I will resettle your towns, and the ruins will be rebuilt. 34 The desolate land will be cultivated instead of lying desolate in the sight of all who pass through it. 35 They will say, "This land that was laid waste has become like the garden of Eden; the cities that were lying in ruins, desolate and destroyed, are now fortified and inhabited." 36 Then the nations around you that remain will know that I the LORD have rebuilt what was destroyed and have replanted what was desolate. I the LORD have spoken, and I will do it. (36:24-36)
VISIONS…The valley of dry bones (ch. 37-39)The new “temple” (chs. 40-46)The river of life/ new Jerusalem (ch. 47) “The LORD is there ”
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