Migration is the movement of people from one region to another on a permanent basis
It usually occurs over some considerable distances and can be from country to country
International migrants are called immigrants (migrants who come into a country) and emigrants (migrants who leave a country)
In Medc's most internal migrants move from urban areas to rural areas
In Ledc's most internal movement is from rural areas to urban areas
Forced Migration is where people who are known as refugees migrate to escape persecution or natural disasters
Voluntary migration us where people move to improve their quality of life
Economic - To improve job prospects, income and standard of living which is usually the most important for the majority of people.
Social - The prospect of better educational opportunities, better medical services, or the desire to join families and friends.
Political - Religious or Political persecution, forcing people to flee for their lives.
Environmental - Problems caused by drought, famine, epidemics, volcanic eruptions or other environmental disasters.
Push factors - are disadvantages or problems with an area that cause people to leave - such as few jobs, lack of educational or medical facilities & religious persecution
Pull Factors - are advantages that attract migrants to a particular destination - They are often the opposite of push factors or could be more specific as in many wishing to come to Britain for their knowledge of the language for example
International migration is the movement of populations between countries
Around 70 million people migrate between countries every year
This type of migration is less common than internal population due to the longer distances involved and the political controls imposed by countries to restrict the free movement of people
Relief of shortages such as jobs, housing for country of departure
Emigrants send money back to their families
If migrants return they take back new skills with them
Reduction of birth rate as it is mainly the young males who leave the country
The host country acquire young energetic workers with enterprise
Cultural diversification and a more multi-ethnic society develops
Unwanted jobs are filled by cheap labour
The country of departure loses its most enterprising individuals
Only the very young and old remain creating a vicious circle of decline
Growth of emigration culture
Inhabitants depend on remittances from the people who have emigrated
In the host country there is increased pressure on resources such as housing
Discrimination can develop against the ethnic minorities
Congestion can develop in cities
Disease can spread - TB
Social problems can develop due predominance of young male migrants
There is a 2000km border between USA and Mexico.
1 million + Mexicans migrate to the USA every year.
Illegal migration is a huge problem for USA and Mexico
US Border Patrol guard the border and try to prevent illegal immigrants