Coastal Case Studies

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  • 1. Happisburgh, Lyme Regis, Holderness and Mappleton, Blackpool, New Forest see your exercise books
  • 2.
    • Happisburgh
    • Lyme Regis
    • Holderness and Mappleton
    • Blackpool – A tourist resort
    • Coastal flooding in south-east England/Netherlands and Bangladesh
  • 3.  
  • 4.
    • This case study looks at the social, economic, political and environmental problems of cliff collapse and issues surrounding managed retreat
    • The link for the video we watched in class can be found here:
    • http://gatm.org.uk/geographyatthemovies/coasts.html
    • Also there are lots of other videos on coasts, feel free to watch them as they will help with revision
  • 5.  
  • 6.
    • It is a small village with a pub and tea shop
    • It is surrounded by farmland
    • No main road runs through it so it is not really worth protecting
    • Old coastal defences
      • Revetments – now damaged with reduced effectiveness
      • Rock armour – old rock armour – now reduced effectiveness
  • 7.
    • Political
      • If the Government or council does nothing they could lose popularity with voters
      • If the Government or council pays for a coastal defence scheme they may have to raise taxes which could be unpopular and therefore lose votes
    • Social
      • Loss of community
      • Re-housing the people made homeless
      • Loss of jobs
      • Having to move away from the area resulting in losing touch with friends
  • 8.
    • Economic
      • Insurance premiums rise due to an increased risk of your house falling into the sea
      • Houses near the cliff are worthless due to the fear they may fall into the sea
      • The cost to repair the revetment is £4.6 million – this is too expensive compared to the land it will protect
      • Loss of farmland – farmers lose income – governments get less tax resulting in a loss of money
      • Loss of businesses – Pub and tea shop
  • 9.
    • Environmental
      • Building rubble falling into the sea
      • Loss of habitat – land based ecosystems
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12.
    • Preventing the loss of houses and businesses
    • Built on some of the most unstable land in Britain
    • Very exposed to the sea on one of our most actively eroding stretches of coastline
    • Important tourist location
  • 13.
    • Started by West Dorset District Council in the early 1990’s
    • Most of the money comes from the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA)
    • Phase 1 – new sea wall and promenade east of the mouth of the River Lim – finished in 1995
    • Phase 2 – protect the foreshore and stabilise the land immediately behind it. Work started in 2005 and will cost £17 million
  • 14.
    • Further work is planned in future years
    • The aim of the scheme is:
      • to provide long-term protection for homes and businesses in the town
      • Protect the coast and the special natural environment that makes Lyme Regis so attractive to tourists
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17.  
  • 18. Mappleton
  • 19.
    • Has the highest rate of coastal erosion in Europe
    • 7 to 10m of land is lost each year
    • The coastline is 4km further west than in Roman times
    • 29 villages have been lost in the last 1000 years
    • Loss of farmland
    • Loss of homes
    • Loss of caravan sites and holiday homes
  • 20.
    • The cliffs are made of soft rock such as boulder clay and sand
    • This is often not consolidated (cemented together)
    • The waves wash away the clay and sands form between the boulders to leave them unsupported
    • When it rains, water enters cracks and spaces in the rock
    • After heavy rain this can make it unstable and cause slumping
  • 21. Coastal defences at Mappleton