Learning to Design
• What is Learning and how does it relate to
Instructional Design (ID)
• Different Learning Perspective...
Learning and Learning Theories
What is Learning? Is it transferable?
How is it acquired?
Is it generated,
trained, or
cons...
Learning assumptions
The activity or process of gaining knowledge or skill by studying,
practicing, being taught, or exper...
3 Classic Learning Epistemologies
• Behaviorist (1920-1960)
• Cognitivist (1960-1990 –to present)
• Constructivist (1990-p...
Behaviorist Perspective
• Learning is a change of behavior
• Methods:
▫ Drill and practice
▫ Mastery Learning
▫ Reinforcem...
Cognitivist Perspective
• Learning is a change in knowledge organization in internal memory
• CIP: Information Processing:...
Instruction:
• Goal: Organize information for Encoding,
Retrieval and Recall.
• Cognitivist Strategies:
▫ Use visuals
▫ Co...
Constructivist Perspective
• Learning is constructed from experience
• Learning is an Active process
• Learning is a Life-...
Instruction: Approaches:
• Problem-solving
• Simulations
• Collaboration
• Project-based
• Real-life problem
• Community b...
From Student-Centered to Student-
Directed Learning Environments
• Bringing students into metacognitive
environments to le...
Technology used to support learning,
through:
• Discussion
• Interaction
▫ Instructor-student
▫ Student-instructor
▫ Stude...
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Learning theory to instructional design review

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Review of 800 theories and their growth.

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Learning theory to instructional design review

  1. 1. Learning to Design • What is Learning and how does it relate to Instructional Design (ID) • Different Learning Perspectives ▫ Behaviorist/Cognitivist/Constructivist • Learning Principles and ID Design • Instructional Principles and ID Design • Implementation technologies
  2. 2. Learning and Learning Theories What is Learning? Is it transferable? How is it acquired? Is it generated, trained, or constructed? Or, none of the above? Or, all of the above? The Learning Virus
  3. 3. Learning assumptions The activity or process of gaining knowledge or skill by studying, practicing, being taught, or experiencing something….(Merriam Webster) • A Learner is capable of actions he/she could not perform before the learning occurred; • This change in performance (or potential) comes about as a result of the learner’s experience and interaction in, and with, the world. • Epistemologies describe different theories of how learning occurs. Marcy P. Driscoll (2005) 3rd Edition. Psychology of Learning for Instruction, p.9
  4. 4. 3 Classic Learning Epistemologies • Behaviorist (1920-1960) • Cognitivist (1960-1990 –to present) • Constructivist (1990-present)
  5. 5. Behaviorist Perspective • Learning is a change of behavior • Methods: ▫ Drill and practice ▫ Mastery Learning ▫ Reinforcement ▫ Reward/punishment • Instruction: ▫ Identify learner ▫ Set learning objectives ▫ Identify learning tasks and sequence tasks ▫ Instruct ▫ Test
  6. 6. Cognitivist Perspective • Learning is a change in knowledge organization in internal memory • CIP: Information Processing: input > process > output
  7. 7. Instruction: • Goal: Organize information for Encoding, Retrieval and Recall. • Cognitivist Strategies: ▫ Use visuals ▫ Connect new information with prior knowledge ▫ Compare and contrast ▫ Demonstration, examples ▫ Provide meaningful learning material ▫ Memory Aids: suggest ways to help the learner process information and construct meaning
  8. 8. Constructivist Perspective • Learning is constructed from experience • Learning is an Active process • Learning is a Life-long process • Knowledge is generated, discovered • Construction is a processing of thinking about and interpreting • Multiple interpretations of meaning • Learning is Social.
  9. 9. Instruction: Approaches: • Problem-solving • Simulations • Collaboration • Project-based • Real-life problem • Community based learning • Case studies • Critical thinking • Discovery learning • Modeling • On-the-job training • Coach/mentor • Create group learning activities • Provide complex problems with multiple solutions • Facilitate learning • Provide resources • Provide opportunities for cooperative and collaborative learning
  10. 10. From Student-Centered to Student- Directed Learning Environments • Bringing students into metacognitive environments to learn how to learn • Pedagogy > to Andragogy > Heutagogy • New Theories for a New Learning World ▫ Experiential & Inquiry Learning ▫ Communities of Practice/Learning ▫ Situated Cognition ▫ Activity Theory ▫ Social Learning Theories ▫ CSCL: Computer Supported Collaborative Learning
  11. 11. Technology used to support learning, through: • Discussion • Interaction ▫ Instructor-student ▫ Student-instructor ▫ Student-student • Problem-solving • Resource and information sharing • Peer review • Collaborative work
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