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Marzano's Similiarities & Differences

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  1. 1. Similarities and Differences <ul><li>Comparing </li></ul><ul><li>Classifying </li></ul><ul><li>Creating Metaphors </li></ul><ul><li>Creating Analogies </li></ul>
  2. 2. McREL’s Strategies <ul><li>Marzano (1998) analyzed selected research studies on instructional strategies that could be used by teachers in K-12 classrooms . </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1,251 22 .59 Questions, cues, and advance organizers 63 23 .61 Generating and testing hypotheses 408 23 .61 Setting objectives and providing feedback 122 27 .73 Cooperative learning 246 27 .75 Nonlinguistic representation 134 28 .77 Homework and Practice 21 29 .80 Reinforcing effort and providing recognition 179 34 1.00 Summarizing and note taking 31 45 1.61 Identifying similarities and differences Number of Effect Sizes Percentile Gain Average Effect size (ES) Category
  4. 4. Comparing pp. 11 &14 <ul><li>Examine how things are alike and different based on common characteristics. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Recommendations for practice: <ul><li>1. Give students a model for the process </li></ul>
  6. 6. Recommendations for practice: <ul><li>2. Use familiar content to teach students the steps for comparing. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Recommendations for practice: <ul><li>3. Give students graphic organizers for comparing </li></ul>z y x ?
  8. 8. Purpose: to compare and contrast __________ and ____________ How are they most alike? ___________________________ What is the greatest difference between them? ______________ ___________________________
  9. 9. Compare Two Sources: <ul><li>How is what Talmadge wrote like the painting? How is it different? </li></ul><ul><li>B. Identify each as a primary or secondary source. Explain the reasons for your choices. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Such a scene of sorrow and weeping I had never before witnessed.” </li></ul><ul><li>-Benjamin Talmadge </li></ul>
  10. 10. Classifying pp. 23-25 <ul><li>Consider how items are similar </li></ul><ul><li>and different then group using </li></ul><ul><li>similarities to define categories. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Metaphors pg. 34 <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><li>Figure of speech in which a word or phrase that literally denotes one object or ideas is used with or in place of another object or idea, to suggest a likeness between them. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>is
  12. 15. Why Metaphors? Think about a time when you used a metaphor to explain something that was otherwise difficult to explain.
  13. 16. Metaphors <ul><li>War is hell. </li></ul><ul><li>Love is a rose. </li></ul><ul><li>My brother is a killer whale. </li></ul><ul><li>No man is an island. </li></ul>
  14. 17. The pen is mightier than the sword
  15. 18. Graphic Organizer for Metaphors War Noun Characteristics Noun Characteristics Relationships is hell.
  16. 19. Metaphors versus Similes <ul><li>A metaphor states the comparison directly using “is”, for example, “He is a rock.” </li></ul><ul><li>A simile states the comparison using “like” and “as”, for example, “The stars were like jewels in the sky.” </li></ul>
  17. 20. Metaphors <ul><li>1. A circle is____________. </li></ul><ul><li>2. A dandelion is _____________. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The internet is _____________. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The cafeteria is ____________ . </li></ul><ul><li>5. Love is ____________. </li></ul><ul><li>6. A school is ___________. </li></ul>
  18. 21. Metaphors (continued) <ul><li>7. An airport is ____________. </li></ul><ul><li>8. A dictator is _____________. </li></ul><ul><li>9. My spouse is _____________. </li></ul><ul><li>10. A flute is ____________ . </li></ul><ul><li>11. A book is ____________. </li></ul>
  19. 22. Metaphor Websites <ul><li>http://www. sil . org/lingualLinks/lexicon/MetaphorsInEnglish/Index . htm </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  20. 23. Assessment: <ul><li>No man is an island . </li></ul><ul><li>In this metaphor, why is a man compared to an island? </li></ul><ul><li>Man is stronger than a lion. </li></ul><ul><li>Man needs others to survive. </li></ul><ul><li>Man has no feelings to share. </li></ul><ul><li>Man is smaller than the world. </li></ul>
  21. 24. Creating Analogies <ul><li>Involves relationships between pairs of elements </li></ul><ul><li>Looking for similarities between pairs of elements </li></ul><ul><li>Ruler: length :: measuring cup: __??___ </li></ul>
  22. 25. Creating Analogies
  23. 26. Analogies: It’s All About Relationships! <ul><li>help us make connections between things that are different; </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>help explain an unfamiliar concept by making a comparison to something we understand; </li></ul><ul><li>most complex format for identifying similarities and differences. </li></ul>
  24. 27. Graphic Organizer for Analogies       Relationship:   is to is to
  25. 28. Number of casualties in Vietnam War= 50,000 How to make this number real to students? Coors field seats Vietnam War casualties       Relationship:   is to is to
  26. 29. Creating Analogies: Type 1 George Bush: the US :: Tony Blair: Great Britain RELATIONSHIP:__________________________ Teacher Directed—students must explain the relationship
  27. 30. Creating Analogies: Type 2 Mitt Romney:MA :: _________: FL RELATIONSHIP:__________________________ Teacher Directed—Present students with one missing element; students must explain the relationship
  28. 31. Creating Analogies: Type 3 Happy: Sad:: _________: ________ RELATIONSHIP:__________________________ Student Directed—Students must provide more elements and explain the relationship
  29. 32. Creating Analogies: Type 4 Doctor: _______:: _________: ________ RELATIONSHIP:__________________________ Student Directed—Students must provide more elements and explain the relationship
  30. 33. Creating Analogies: Type 5 ______: _______:: _________: ________ RELATIONSHIP:__________________________ Student Directed—Students must provide all elements and explain the relationship
  31. 34. Web sites for Analogies <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>card game </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>explanation, examples, analogy of the day </li></ul><ul><li> analogy of the day </li></ul><ul><li> samples </li></ul><ul><li> game, like Jeopardy </li></ul>
  32. 35. Similarities and Differences <ul><li>Comparing </li></ul><ul><li>Classifying </li></ul><ul><li>Creating Metaphors </li></ul><ul><li>Creating Analogies </li></ul>