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Marzano's Recognition & Rewards

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  1. 1. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Section 3 (pp. 95-115) Marzano’s Handbook for Classroom Instruction That Works
  2. 2. Reinforcing Effort Research and Theory <ul><li>Weiner (1972, 1983) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced effort will increase achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Covington (1983) & Harter (1980): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People generally attribute success at any given task to one of four causes : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability (“I can tackle anything!” VS. “I will sabotage my success.”) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effort (“I have a motivational tool that applies to any situation!”) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other People (“What happens when I’m alone?”) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Luck ( “What happens when my luck runs out?”) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Belief In Effort <ul><li>Most useful attribution to advanced achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Not all realize the importance of believing in it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers should EXPLAIN and EXEMPLIFY the “ effort belief ” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Students can learn to change their beliefs to an emphasis on effort </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overwalle and DeMetsenaere found that students who were taught about the relationship between effort and achievement increased their achievement. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Classroom Practice In Reinforcing Effort <ul><li>Teaching About Effort </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicitly teach and exemplify the connection between effort and achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep Tack of Effort and Achievement </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rubrics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Daily Work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data Portfolios </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Logs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Providing Recognition PAST Research and Theory <ul><li>PRAISE and REWARDS as forms of recognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t enhance achievement ( puzzle-solving for money ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detrimental to motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deci(1971), Lepper, Greene, and Nisbett (1973), and Morine-Dershimer (1982) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Most Recent Research <ul><li>Three generalizations have been extracted through a major meta-analyses conducted by Wiersma (1992) and Cameron & Pierce (1994) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Generalization #1 <ul><li>Rewards do not necessarily have a negative effect on intrinsic motivation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on the circumstance…” Rewards have a negative effect on intrinsic motivation only when it is operationalized as task behavior during a free time measure ” (Wiersma, 1992, p. 101) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reward ATTITUDE and ABILITY to perform </li></ul>
  8. 8. Generalization #2 <ul><li>Rewards are most effective when contingent on the attainment of some standard of performance. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Make a reward contingent on successful completion of the problems RATHER than promising students a tangible reward simply for doing the activity.” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Generalization #3 <ul><li>Abstract symbolic recognition is more effective than tangible rewards. </li></ul><ul><li>“ When praise and other forms of positive feedback are given and later removed, people continued to show interest in their work” (Cameron & Pierce, 1994). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Classroom Practice in Providing Recognition <ul><li>Personalizing Recognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps promote a PERSONAL BEST Honor Role </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pause, Prompt, and Praise </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete Symbols of Recognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TOKENS will not diminish intrinsic motivation if they are given for accomplishing specific performance goals. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 17. More Examples <ul><li>Personalizing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher conferences individually with student to discuss what they did well on and where they needed to improve in order to achieve their goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pause Prompt Praise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students interpret the standards into their own words. They choose the top 3 that look the most interesting and 3 that he didn’t understand. Teacher notes with child those that the child underlined, praised for doing it, prompt to move to next task </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concrete Symbols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students graph their reading progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drivers and Preventers (teams/groups make posters to list things that will drive them to reach their goal and then a list of things that will prevent them) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 18. Develop a Team Mission Statement <ul><li>Who are we? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we want to accomplish? </li></ul><ul><li>How are we going to get there? </li></ul><ul><li>3 posters. Individuals answer questions onto post-its. Read to group. </li></ul><ul><li>When done in the classroom, this helps students see the relationship between effort and achievement . </li></ul>
  13. 19. Closing <ul><li>It has been proven that effort needs to be explicitly taught in order to show students its direct effect on their achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing recognition is also critical to increasing student achievement </li></ul><ul><li>When students see how their effort and accountability directly affects their achievement, then advancements will be made in their academic growth. </li></ul>
  14. 20. Recognize YOUR Effort