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Marzano's Recognition & Rewards

Marzano's Recognition & Rewards



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    Recognition&Rewards Recognition&Rewards Presentation Transcript

    • Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Section 3 (pp. 95-115) Marzano’s Handbook for Classroom Instruction That Works
    • Reinforcing Effort Research and Theory
      • Weiner (1972, 1983)
        • Advanced effort will increase achievement
      • Covington (1983) & Harter (1980):
        • People generally attribute success at any given task to one of four causes :
            • Ability (“I can tackle anything!” VS. “I will sabotage my success.”)
            • Effort (“I have a motivational tool that applies to any situation!”)
            • Other People (“What happens when I’m alone?”)
            • Luck ( “What happens when my luck runs out?”)
    • Belief In Effort
      • Most useful attribution to advanced achievement
      • Not all realize the importance of believing in it
        • Teachers should EXPLAIN and EXEMPLIFY the “ effort belief ”
      • Students can learn to change their beliefs to an emphasis on effort
        • Overwalle and DeMetsenaere found that students who were taught about the relationship between effort and achievement increased their achievement.
    • Classroom Practice In Reinforcing Effort
      • Teaching About Effort
        • Explicitly teach and exemplify the connection between effort and achievement
      • Keep Tack of Effort and Achievement
          • Rubrics
          • Daily Work
          • Reflections
          • Data Portfolios
          • Learning Logs
    • Providing Recognition PAST Research and Theory
      • PRAISE and REWARDS as forms of recognition
        • Doesn’t enhance achievement ( puzzle-solving for money )
        • Detrimental to motivation
      • Deci(1971), Lepper, Greene, and Nisbett (1973), and Morine-Dershimer (1982)
    • Most Recent Research
      • Three generalizations have been extracted through a major meta-analyses conducted by Wiersma (1992) and Cameron & Pierce (1994)
    • Generalization #1
      • Rewards do not necessarily have a negative effect on intrinsic motivation.
        • Depends on the circumstance…” Rewards have a negative effect on intrinsic motivation only when it is operationalized as task behavior during a free time measure ” (Wiersma, 1992, p. 101)
      • Reward ATTITUDE and ABILITY to perform
    • Generalization #2
      • Rewards are most effective when contingent on the attainment of some standard of performance.
      • “ Make a reward contingent on successful completion of the problems RATHER than promising students a tangible reward simply for doing the activity.”
    • Generalization #3
      • Abstract symbolic recognition is more effective than tangible rewards.
      • “ When praise and other forms of positive feedback are given and later removed, people continued to show interest in their work” (Cameron & Pierce, 1994).
    • Classroom Practice in Providing Recognition
      • Personalizing Recognition
        • Perhaps promote a PERSONAL BEST Honor Role
      • Pause, Prompt, and Praise
      • Concrete Symbols of Recognition
        • TOKENS will not diminish intrinsic motivation if they are given for accomplishing specific performance goals.
    • More Examples
      • Personalizing
        • Teacher conferences individually with student to discuss what they did well on and where they needed to improve in order to achieve their goals
      • Pause Prompt Praise
        • Students interpret the standards into their own words. They choose the top 3 that look the most interesting and 3 that he didn’t understand. Teacher notes with child those that the child underlined, praised for doing it, prompt to move to next task
      • Concrete Symbols
        • Students graph their reading progress
        • Drivers and Preventers (teams/groups make posters to list things that will drive them to reach their goal and then a list of things that will prevent them)
    • Develop a Team Mission Statement
      • Who are we?
      • What do we want to accomplish?
      • How are we going to get there?
      • 3 posters. Individuals answer questions onto post-its. Read to group.
      • When done in the classroom, this helps students see the relationship between effort and achievement .
    • Closing
      • It has been proven that effort needs to be explicitly taught in order to show students its direct effect on their achievement.
      • Providing recognition is also critical to increasing student achievement
      • When students see how their effort and accountability directly affects their achievement, then advancements will be made in their academic growth.
    • Recognize YOUR Effort