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Vision chapter 3-2
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Vision chapter 3-2



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  • What strikes our eyes is not color but pulses of electromagnetic energy that our visual system perceives as color. Bees see a different specturm—can’t see red but ultraviolet light.
  • Nearsightedness: distant objects focus in front of the retina. Farsightedness: near objects focus behind the retina.
  • In the eye of a person with nearsighted vision, the light rays from distant objects focus in front of the retina. When their image reaches the retina, the rays are spreading out, blurring the image.
  • The light rays from nearby objects come into focus behind the retina, resulting in blurred images.


  • 1. How does the eye transform particles of light energy into colorful sights that the mind registers into vision?
  • 2.
    • Conversion of one form of energy into another.
    • Sensory transduction: the process by which our sensory systems encode stimulus energy as neural messages.
  • 3.
    • Transduce (transform) light energy into neural messages that the brain then processes into what you consciously see.
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6.  
  • 7.
    • Pupil: The adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters.
    • Iris: a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening.
  • 8.
    • Lens: the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina.
    • Retina: the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, contain the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing visual information.
  • 9.
    • Cones : retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. Detect fine detail and color.
    • Scientists still debate exactly how we see color!
    • Cones will be sensitive to one of three colors: red, green or blue.
  • 10.
    • Rods are responsible for vision at low light levels. They do not mediate color vision.
    • Retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don’t respond.
  • 11.
    • Fovea: The ventral focal point in the retina, around which the eye’s cones cluster
    • Optic nerve: The nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.
    • Blind spot: the point at which the optic nerves leaves the eye, creating a “blind” spot because no receptor ells are located there.
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14.  
  • 15.
    • Dark Adaptation : The recovery of the eye’s sensitivity to visual stimuli in darkness after exposure to bright lights . (example: night blindness)
    • Light Adaptation : The
    • recovery of the eye’s
    • sensitivity to visual
    • stimuli in light after
    • exposure to darkness.
  • 16.  
  • 17.
    • “ The Miracle of Eyesight”
  • 18.
    • The sharpness of vision, which can be affected by small distortions in the eye’s shape.
      • Nearsightedness: nearby objects are seen more clearly.
      • Farsightedness: faraway objects are seen more clearly than near objects.
  • 19.  
  • 20.  
  • 21.  
  • 22.
    • Nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement.
  • 23.  
  • 24.
    • The processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’s natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision.
    • Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.
  • 25.  
  • 26.
    • Requires about 30 percent of the cerebral cortex.
      • Brain takes in visual content through the eyes back to the visual cortex and adjacent areas.
      • Compares it to stored memories.
      • Connects what is seen with memory, enabling recognition!