Classical conditioning Learns associations between events it doesn’t control. Respondent behavior — behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus. (opposite of operant behavior) Responding to an uncontrollable event
Operant ConditioningWhat’s in it for ME? The learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to responses. Operant behavior – voluntary behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences.
B. F. Skinner 1904-1990 American psychologist, author, inventor, advocate for social reform, and poet. Wanted to find principles that controlled behavior. Wrote controversial books (“Walden II” and “Beyond Freedom and Dignity”) which describe utopian society based on rules of behaviorism.
Law of effect Rewarded behavior is likely to recur!!! Logically, behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely. Edward L. Thorndike This was Skinner’s starting point.
Skinner Box (operant chamber)
Shaping An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior. Training a rat to press a bar.
Reinforcers Any event or stimulus, that when following a response, increases the probability that the response will occur again. Can be material, such as a cookie, money, drugs. Can be immaterial, such as attention, praise, good grades, or the absence of something. Can be abstract, such as a sense of accomplishment or satisfaction, being “right.” Note: What is reinforcing for one may NOT be reinforcing for another.
Reinforcement (This is actually positive reinforcement) Response- event/stimulus same response again (behavior) Cleans His room gets a cookie - likely to do it again to get another cookie. Study hard For a test. - gets an A - will study hard next time to get an A again
Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows. A heat lamp positively reinforces a meerkat’s behavior in cold.
Two types of reinforcers Positive reinforcer The reinforcement of a response by the addition or experiencing of a pleasurable stimulus. (adding something to the equation) Examples: Training a dog using doggie treats Getting an “A” on a test. Paycheck at the end of the month. The high after taking cocaine. Giving a child what he wants when he throws a temper tantrum. (An example of bad behavior being positively reinforced!)
B. Negative reinforcer The reinforcement of a response by the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus. (i.e. subtracting something from the equation) Response unpleasant thing same response (behavior) removed, escaped, again or avoided Take Tylenol headache goes away take Tylenol again next time.
Negative Reinforcer Examples: Put on seat belt to stop the warning beeper. Drink alcohol to take the stress/anxiety away. After drinking coffee, grogginess goes away.
Parent gives a child what they wants to stop the whining. (unpleasant situation is escaped.)
Primary and conditioned reinforcers Primary Reinforcer:Innately reinforcing stimulus like food or drink. (Usually satisfies a biological need.) Conditioned Reinforcer:Is a learned reinforcer.It gets its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer. Sometimes called secondary reinforcers. (praise, paycheck, good grades, attention, etc)
15 Immediate & Delayed Reinforcers Immediate Reinforcer:A reinforcer that occurs closely to a behavior in time. Rat gets a food pellet for a bar press. Delayed Reinforcer:A reinforcer that is delayed in time for a certain behavior. A paycheck that comes at the end of a week. We may be more inclined to engage in small immediate reinforcers (watching TV) than large delayed reinforcers (Getting A in a course) which requires consistent study.
16 Reinforcement Schedules Continuous Reinforcement:the reinforcement of each and every correct response. Partial Reinforcement Effect:the tendency for a response that is reinforced after some, but not all, correct responses to be very resistant to extinction.
17 Ratio Schedules Fixed-ratio schedule: Reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses e.g., like piecework pay. Child gets a reward for every 10 stars he earns. Variable-ratio schedule: Reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses. Slot machines Fishing (Hard to extinguish because of unpredictability.)
18 Interval Schedules Fixed-interval schedule: Reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed. Paycheck comes every two weeks. Mail delivery once a day. Variable-interval schedule: Reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals. produces slow steady responding. Pop quizes. Unannounced inspections.
Reinforcement schedules Fixed Ratio—produces rapid rates of responding with short post-reinforcement pauses. Fixed Interval--produces a scalloped pattern of responding which there is fewer responses at the beginning of the interval, but as the interval nears the end, responding increases. Variable-ratio—produces an overall high consistent rate of responding. Variable-interval—produces a low consistent rate of responding.
20 Schedules of Reinforcement
You decide: A used car salesman gets a bonus of $1000 for every 10 cars he sells. Fixed ratio Each time you call into the radio station you get a chance to win the Grand Prize of a new car, but you can only call once a day. Fixed interval Credit card companies offer gift certificates after earning 5000 points through credit card purchases. Fixed ratio Joe doesn’t always get the phone number of an attractive girl he approaches. Variable ratio
You decide: The college will unexpectedly inspect dorm rooms to make sure they pass health codes, therefore students try to keep their rooms neat all the time. Variable interval Buying lottery tickets. Variable ratio Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 25,000 miles of travel. Fixed ratio.
23 Punishment An aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows. Response aversive event response doesn’t happen again Jimmy shaves Jimmy never the cat for fun spanking shaves the cat again (This is an example of positive punishment.)
Positive Punishment: an aversive stimulus that decreases the behavior that it follows. “Punishment by application.” A spanking. A parking ticket / prison sentence Negative Punishment: withdrawing a desirable stimulus that decreases the behavior that it follows. “Punishment by removal.” Response (behavior) remove pleasant don’t do that or desirable response again stimulus Time outs from privileges. Revoked drivers licenses.
25 Punishment It can cause the organism to avoid the punisher instead of the behavior. Punishment can create fear & anxiety, which does not promote learning. It conveys no information to the organism. Unwanted behaviors may reappear in its absence or another unwanted behavior replaces it. In people, it may encourage lying to avoid the punishment. It may result in aggression towards the agent. For people, hitting provides a successful model for aggression.
If you must punishment… It should immediately follow the behavior it is meant to punish. It should be consistent. Punishment of the wrong behavior should be paired, whenever possible with reinforcement of the right behavior.
Applying Operant conditioning… Behavior modification – the use of operant conditioning techniques to bring about desired changes in behavior. Used in schools, psychiatric wards, prisons…even animal training. Select target Choose reinforcer Reinforce right behavior; do not reinforce inappropriate behavior What is a token economy? a type of behavior modification in which desired behavior is rewarded with “tokens”
28 Applying Operant conditioning… In sports, reinforcement principles can enhance athletic performance.
29 Applying Operant Conditioning… At work, reinforcers affect productivity. Many companies now enable employees to share profits and participate in company ownership.