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  • Instincts In humansSome sociobiologists and ethologists have attempted to comprehend human and animalsocial behavior in terms of instincts. Psychoanalysts have stated that instinct refers to human motivational forces (such as sex and aggression), sometimes represented as life instinct and death instinct. This use of the term motivational forces has mainly been replaced by the term instinctual drives.Instincts in humans can also be seen in what are called instinctive reflexes. Reflexes, such as the Babinski Reflex (fanning of the toes when foot is stroked), are seen in babies and are indicative of stages of development. These reflexes can truly be considered instinctive because they are generally free of environmental influences or conditioning.Additional human traits that have been looked at as instincts are: altruism, disgust, face perception, language acquisitions, "fight or flight" and "subjugate or be subjugated". Some experiments in human and primate societies have also come to the conclusion that a sense of fairness could be considered instinctual, with humans and apes willing to harm their own interests in protesting unfair treatment of self or others.[1][2]Other sociologists argue that humans have no instincts, defining them as a "complex pattern of behavior present in every specimen of a particular species, that is innate, and that cannot be overridden." Said sociologists argue that drives such as sex and hunger cannot be considered instincts, as they can be overridden. This definitory argument is present in many introductory sociology and biology textbooks,[3] but is still hotly debated.Newborn Instinctive reflexesNewborn babies, although helpless, do have innate reflexes that help them to survive. These reflexes are called rooting and sucking.A baby’s rooting reflex is the instinctive turning of their head toward something that touches either cheek. "They will search or "root" for the object that made the touch." (Marzollo, 16). This instinctive reflex can be best put to use by the parent when trying to feed the baby a bottle. When the bottle’s nipple is placed against the baby’s cheek, the hungry baby will turn towards the bottle with an open mouth.Babies are also born with a sucking reflex. This reflex enables babies to suck liquids from a bottle, or their mother’s breast. This reflex is not always instantly realized by every baby, however. "Some babies can do this instantly while others need a little practice." (Marzollo, 16).Newborn babies also have several other reflexes that, while not needed for survival, are the baseline developments for future growth. Infants can grasp a parent’s finger and hold on tight with a grasping reflex. They also have very brief head control which allows them to lift their head and turn it to the side when they are laying face-down in the crib. The Moro reflex is an infant’s instinctive reaction to sudden and loud noises. "Infants react to sudden physical sensations and loud noises by throwing their arms and legs out, almost as if they were pushing the noise away..." (Marzollo, 18). The Babinksi reflex is interesting because it is the exact opposite of that of a mature person: "When the sole of the foot is gently stroked from heel to toe, the toes flare upward and the foot turns in." (Eisenberg et al., 48).Another interesting infant reflex is that of reflex walking. Babies are apparently born with the knowledge of how to walk, but not the strength to do it. While holding a newborn baby up, carefully supporting the head and neck, with the infant’s feet barely touching a flat surface, an infant will actually take a few steps. This reflex disappears after a few months, and will it take about a year before the child can walk on his or her own.The aural and visual world around an infant can be interesting, calming, or frightening. A newborn infant can hear everything an adult can hear, but does not have the ability yet to make sense of the sounds. As mentioned before, loud, startling sounds causes an infant to throw out his or her arms and legs in what is called the Moro reflex. Inside the womb, the baby became used to the rhythmic pulse of his or her mother’s pulse, and perhaps for this reason newborn babies seem to prefer soft, steady musical beats.Visually, the world around an infant is limited to about eight to twelve inches from his or her face. They will turn their eyes and heads to light, and close their eyes if the light is too strong. Unable to take it all in, or make sense of what they see, it is not common for a newborn infant to gaze at any one object for a great deal of time. The most interesting object for a newborn’s gaze is that of a human face. Research has been done in which forty newborns were shown four different diagrams of a human face. "The babies turned their heads and eyes and displayed interest in the diagram that showed the facial parts in the right configuration." (Sears, 418).
  • The hot water is the US The jumping back is the UR The toilet flush is the CS The jumping back to the flush alone is the CR
  • The flu sickness is the US. The nausea is the UR. The new food is the CS. The nausea to the new food is the CR.
  • The drug is the US. The accelerated heart rate is the UR. The small room is the CS. The accelerated heart rate to the room is the CR.

Learning chapter 5 Learning chapter 5 Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction
    Classical Conditioning
    LEARNING—Chapter 5
  • What is “learning”?
    Hummingbirds know to fly south in the winter. Is this learning?
    Hummingbirds found feeders in my yard and drink from them regularly through the summer. Is this learning?
    If my feeders were consistently empty, would they keep coming back?
  • Instinct
    An inherited tendency of an organism to behave in a certain way, usually in reaction to its environment and for the purpose of fulfilling a specific need. The development and performance of instinctive behavior does not depend upon the specific details of an individual's learning experiences. (The American Heritage Science Dictionary)
    Salmon spawning
    Birds building nests
    Bears hibernating
  • Learning
    Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice.
  • 1. Learning by Association
    Learning that certain events occur together
    1. Simple Associations
    Aplysia Snails
    Lightning and Thunder
    2. Response-Outcome Associations
    Trained Seals
    Studying for an exam
  • Conditioning!
    Another word for “Learning by Association”
  • 2 kinds of Conditioning
    Classical Conditioning— simple association.
    Operant conditioning— response-outcome association
  • 2nd Kind of “Learning”
    By Observation
    Learning from others’ experiences and examples
  • Classical Conditioning
    Behaviorism: the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes.
    John B. Watson (1878-1958) – the Father of behaviorism
    "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select--doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and, yes, even beggarman and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors" –John Watson, Behaviorism, 1930
  • Classical Conditioning
    Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Russian scientist
    1905 Won Novel prize for research into the digestive system.
    Led to work with dogs and their saliva secretion.
    Found that dogs “learned” signals that foods were coming and would salivate in anticipation.
  • Classical conditioning
    Learning to make an involuntary (reflex) response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the response.
  • Unconditioned (unlearned) stimulus (UCS):
    a naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary (reflex) response, such as food in the mouth.
    Unconditioned (unlearned) response (UCR):
    The involuntary (reflex) response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus, such as salvation when food is in the mouth.
  • Conditioned (learned) stimulus (CS):
    Stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned reflex response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus. A tone is paired to food.
  • Conditioned (learned) response (CR):
    Learned reflex response to a conditioned stimulus. A tone triggers salivation the same as food itself.
  • Example: Every time someone flushes a toilet in the apartment building, the shower becomes very hot and causes the person to jump back. Over time, the person begins to jump back automatically after hearing the flush, before the water temperature changes.
    Unconditioned stimulus (US)?
    Hot water
    Unconditioned response (UR )?
    Jumping Back
    Conditioned stimulus (CS)?
    Toilet flush
    Conditioned Response (CR )?
    Jumping back
  • Example: you eat a new food and then get sick because of the flu. However, you develop a dislike for that food and feel nauseated whenever you smell it.
    Unconditioned stimulus (US)?
    The Flu
    Unconditioned response (UR )?
    Nausea
    Conditioned stimulus (CS)?
    The new food
    Conditioned Response (CR )?
    Nausea
  • An individual receives frequent injections of drugs, which are administered in a small examination room at a clinic. The drug itself causes increased heart rate but after several trips to the clinic, simply being in a small room causes an increased heart rate
    Unconditioned stimulus (US)?
    The drug
    Unconditioned response (UR )?
    Accelerated heart rate
    Conditioned stimulus (CS)?
    Small room
    Conditioned Response (CR )?
    Accelerated heart rate
  • Suzie’s mom hates most animals. When little Suzie was in the backyard playing, a cat wandered into the yard. Suzie then saw her mom coming running to her, yelling and screaming, making Suzie cry. Now Suzie is afraid of cats.
    US?
    UR?
    CS?
    CR?
  • Conditioned emotional response
    Little Suzie’s phobia demonstrates an emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli, such as a fear of cats.
    Conditioned emotional reactions occur often. Think about:
    Commercials
    Test anxiety
    Animal training
    Sexual attraction
  • Other key points
    Acquisition: The initial stage in classical conditioning, the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response. It helps organisms prepare for good or bad events.
  • Extinction:
    The disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (in classical conditioning).
    Pavlov’s dogs stopped salivating when he repeatedly failed to present food with the CS.
    Suzie learns that cats aren’t so bad.
    After a few weeks, the person learns the shower doesn’t change temperature with a toilet flush.
  • Spontaneous recovery
    The reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred.
    Recovering Addicts seeing drug paraphernalia.
    Sudden response to an old phobia.
  • Stimulus Generalization:
    The tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response.
    Pavlov’s dogs would respond to tones other than the original tone.
    Little Albert became afraid of all small animals.
    Abused children can be extremely sensitive to angry faces and have stronger reactions to them than non-abused children.
  • Stimulus Discrimination:
    The tendency to stop making a generalized response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the similar stimulus is never paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
    The learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
    Pavlov could teach his dogs to respond to one tone and not another—to discriminate between stimuli.
    Most of us would respond fearfully to an angry pit pull, but not to a golden retriever.
  • Limitations to classical conditioning.
    Cognitive processes -- learning is more than mindless responding.
    Animals seem to develop expectancy.
    People are able to mediate with experience.
    Biological predispositions -- an animal’s capacity for conditioning is constrained by its biology. Each species predispositions prepare it to learn the associations that enhance its survival.
  • Conclusions
    Almost all organisms learn to adapt to their environment using classical conditioning.
    Pavlov’s experiments showed how a process like learning could be studied objectively.