Add together these answers: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 24, and 26. (your score will be somewhere between -39 and +39)
Add together these answers: 1, 2, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 21, 22, 23, and 25. (your score will be somewhere between -39 and +39)
The Need for Affect Scale-Scoring
Need to Approach—embracing emotions
Average college student score: +15.85
Need to Avoid—less need for emotion
Average college student: -9.24
The Need for Affect Scale-Scoring
The need for affect was positively correlated with:
Extraversion, agreeableness, and openness to experiences.
Intensity of emotional experiences.
Being more aware of emotions and thus more able to understand and utilize emotions.
The need of cognition (thinking).
Openness to uncertainty and tolerance of a lack of structure.
Negatively correlated to neuroticism.
Emotion can be defined as the “feeling” aspect of consciousness, characterized by three elements:
a certain physical arousal,
certain behaviors that reveals the feeling to the outside world,
and an inner awareness of feelings.
Three elements of Emotion
Emotions are a mix of
1. Physiology: Emotions and Autonomic Nervous System
During an emotional experience our autonomic nervous system mobilizes energy in the body and arouses us.
Physical arousal and emotion
Arousal helps determine emotional intensity as well.
Low arousal=milder emotions.
High arousal=high intensity emotions.
Annoyed……to irritation…..to anger……to rage.
Surprised…to apprehensive…to scared…to panicked.
Curious….to interested….to infatuated…to love.
Disappointed…to sadness….to despair.
Fear, anger and rage seem to travel along either of two neural pathways, depending on intensity. These emotions are felt directly through amygdala (a) or through cortex for analysis (b).
Physiological responses are pretty much similar across the emotions of fear, anger, and love. Heart rate, body temperature, and breathing do just about the same thing!
Excitement and fear involve similar physiological arousal. M. Grecco/ Stock Boston
2. Expressive Behaviors
Various ways emotions expressed thru behaviors
Display rules ( learned ways of controlling displays of emotion in social settings.)
Some universal facial expressions seem to have a biological basis (blind people have the same expressions)
Facial Feedback effect:
Proposes that expressions amplify our emotions by activating muscles associated with specific states (such as happiness) and the muscles signal the body to respond as though we were experiencing those states.
Saying ME ME ME….may put you in a better mood than saying YOU YOU YOU. Why?
Behavior Feedback phenomenon
Assumes that if we move our body as we would when experiencing some emotion, we are likely to feel that emotion to some degree.
Shuffling vs. long strides?
3. Conscious experience of emotion
This is what we usually think of as emotion—the conscious awareness of a feeling. It is very subjective—meaning, only we can label what we are feeling.
There is a “cognitive element” here because we are “thinking” about our feelings and telling ourselves things about our situation.
Theories of emotion
How and why do we feel emotion?
Which of the three elements is primary?
Does physiological arousal precede or follow your emotional experience?
Does cognition (thinking) precede emotion (feeling)?
Common Sense Theory of Emotion
Common Sense Theory of Emotion - a stimulus leads to an emotion, which then leads to bodily arousal.
Common sense theory of emotions
Interpreting subjective feelings
“ Common sense” theory
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
Physiological reaction leads to labeling of emotion
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
Physiological reaction and emotion occur at same time
Schacter-Singer / Cognitive Arousal Theory
Physical arousal AND labeling based on environmental cues occur before emotion
Cognitive arousal theory
Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer;
Also known as the Two Factor Theory .
Schachter and Singer’s Study
Male student volunteers were told that they were going to answer a questionnaire about their reactions to a new vitamin called Suproxin.
Participants were given epinephrine instead, which causes increased heart rate, rapid breathing, and reddened face.
Participants exposed to “angry” man interpreted their physical arousal as anger
Participants exposed to “happy” man interpreted their physical arousal as happiness
The Spillover Effect:
When arousal and cognition begin to merge unexpectedly…….
… ..Arousal response to one event spills over into our response to the next event.
Note: Arousal fuels emotion, but cognition channels it.
Because physiological arousal is similar for emotions, an emotion can quickly change with the next event (…however intensity is similar). Arousal from a soccer match can fuel anger, which can descend into rioting.
Cognitive Mediational Theory (Lazarus)
Cognitive-mediational theory: a stimulus is interpreted by the person, resulting in physical and emotional reactions.
Cognition and Emotion
What is the connection between how we think (cognition) and how we feel (emotion)?
Can we change our emotions by changing our thinking?
Common Cognitive Distortions in Our Everyday Self-Talk ( Taken from When Panic Attacks , by David D. Burns, Morgan Road Books, New York, 2006.)
All-or-nothing Thinking. You view things in absolutes, black-and-white categories.
Overgeneralization. You view a negative event as never-ending pattern of defeat: “This always happens.” .
Mental Filter. You filter everything through a certain mind frame. You may dwell on the negatives and ignore the positives.
Discounting the Positive. You insist that your positive qualities don’t count.
Jumping to Conclusions. You jump to conclusions not warranted by the facts.
Mind-reading . You assume the people are reacting negatively to you.
Fortune-telling. You predict that things will turn out badly.
Magnification and Minimization. You blow things out of proportion or shrink them.
Emotional reasoning. You reason from your feelings. “I feel like an idiot, so I must really be one.”
Should Statements. You use should, shouldn’ts, musts, oughts, and have-tos. I shouldn’t make any mistakes.
Labeling . Instead of saying “I made a mistake,” you say, “I’m a jerk,” or “I’m a loser.”
Blame. You find fault instead of solving the problem.
Self-blame. You blame yourself for something you weren’t entirely responsible for.
Other-blame. You blame others and overlook ways you contributed to the problem.
Self Talk Record – ABC Chart
A B C D
A ctivating event Beliefs, self talk, appraisal Consequences Different perceptions, truth Emotions & Behaviors (rate emotions 1-10)
Analyzing Emotion Analysis of emotions is carried out on different levels.