“An African Photo Safari”
Copyright © 2014 Don Mercer, Rustic 41 Creations
Don Mercer
Rustic 41 Creations

Virginia Beach, Virginia
www.rustic41creations.com
Copyright © 2014 Don Mercer, Rustic 41 ...
Hampton Roads Digital
Shutterbug Club
January 15, 2014

Presented Considering Diversity
of

Experience and Equipment
Men

Of
Vision
And

In Memory
of

Regan Steelman
Special Thanks
to
Bill Connolly, M.D., & Lucia Zuccala
Larry & Betsy Jordan
Regan & Julie Steelman
Jim & Georgia Struhsake...
“Wildlife photography is
the ultimate catch and release!”
Don Mercer, Rustic 41
Rustic 41 Creations
www.rustic41creations....
Photography is All About Learning
My dad, who was raised on a farm in the Valley of Virginia, said:

“When you’re green, y...
Photography is All About Learning
My dad, who was raised on a farm in the Valley of Virginia, said:

“When you’re green, y...
Feedback
&
Constructive Criticism

Is
Welcomed and Solicited
Please Hold Any Questions
“An African Photo Safari”

Africa – The Continent
Currently Home to 53 Nations
This Evening’s Program

Overview of Photography & Bases for Analysis

Analysis of Published Images

Some Tips & Techniques
TIMER??

You will be admired and respected by our
fellow Club members!
The Bouncing Balls of Photography

Choices …Choices …Choices …
A Few of the Puzzle Pieces

fps
RAW

J
P
E
G

filters
TIFF
Tonight’s Program

“Like drinking from a fire hose!”
(USAF)

On the Internet = A Resource
“An African Photo Safari”
South Africa
Botswana
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Welcome to Africa!

“Here Kitty, Kitty!”
The Bad News:
They weren’t sedated!
The Great News: I left with all my body parts...
NOTE:
Be prepared to sign numerous waivers prior to, and during, such a trip. Some may
require you to sign off on not havi...
The majority of our time on photo safari with noted wildlife
photographer, Paul Renner, was spent in this nation.
Overview
of

Photography
&

Bases for Analysis
“There are always two people in every picture: the photographer and the viewer.”
Ansel Adams
“There are always two people in every picture: the photographer and the viewer.”
Ansel Adams

“Art is not what you see, bu...
What Photography Is to Me:
1. Selecting a location & planning
What Photography Is to Me:
1. Selecting a location & planning

2.

Applying technical elements
What Photography Is to Me:
1. Selecting a location & planning
2.

Applying technical elements

3.

Applying artistic creat...
What Photography Is to Me:
1. Selecting a location & planning
2.
3D

Applying technical elements

3.

Applying artistic cr...
What Photography Is to Me:
1. Selecting a location & planning
2.
3D

3.

Applying technical elements
Applying artistic cre...
What Photography Is to Me:
1. Selecting a location & planning
2.
3D

3.

Applying technical elements
Applying artistic cre...
What Photography Is to Me:
1. Selecting a location & planning
2.
3D

3.

Applying technical elements
Applying artistic cre...
What Photography Is to Me:
1. Selecting a location & planning
2.
3D

3.

Applying technical elements
Applying artistic cre...
What Photography Is to Me:
1. Selecting a location & planning
2.
3D

3.

Applying technical elements
Applying artistic cre...
What Provides Sense of Depth?

3D Scene

2D Image

3D Qualities

Light = The Essence of All Photography
What Provides Sense of Depth?

3D Scene

2D Image

3D Qualities

Light = The Essence of All Photography
Plan
What Provides Sense of Depth?

3D Scene

2D Image

3D Qualities

Light = The Essence of All Photography
Plan
Manage
What Provides Sense of Depth?

3D Scene

2D Image

3D Qualities

Light = The Essence of All Photography
Plan
Manage
Utiliz...
What Provides Sense of Depth?

3D Scene

2D Image

3D Qualities

Light = The Essence of All Photography
Plan
Manage
Utiliz...
What Provides Sense of Depth?

3D Scene

2D Image

3D Qualities

Light = The Essence of All Photography
Plan
Manage
Utiliz...
What Provides Sense of Depth?

3D Scene

2D Image

3D Qualities

Composition – Perspective
The Placement – Arrangement – o...
What Provides Sense of Depth?

3D Scene

2D Image

Lines – Illusion of Depth
Linear Perspective
Diminishing Perspective

3...
Many Times in Nature
&
Especially In Wildlife Photography

You Take Lines Any Way You Come by Them!
“Cat in the Grass!”
ISO 400, f/11, 1/320, -0.3 EV, 110mm, at 8:10 AM – Manual Focus
“A Lioness Stalking Impala!
What’s for Breakfast?”

Impala

Lioness
Impala
AKA
ISO 400, f/11,
1/250, -0.3 EV
80mm, at 8:13 AM

Breakfast
“Bending Down Is a Pain”
ISO 400, f/11, 1/250, 0 EV, 300mm, at 5:16 PM
What Provides Sense of Depth?

3D Scene

2D Image

Choice of Lenses

3D Qualities
What Provides Sense of Depth?

3D Scene

2D Image

3D Qualities

Choice of Lenses

Wide angle lenses:
Tend to emphasize co...
What Provides Sense of Depth?

3D Scene

2D Image

3D Qualities

Choice of Lenses
Telephoto lenses:
Tend to compress foreg...
Depth Through Aperture Control

Emphasis
on

Foreground?

Middle Ground?

Background?
What Provides Sense of Depth?
3D Scene

2D Image

3D Qualities

Contrast

EV = Exposure Valuation

HDR = High Dynamic Rang...
What Photography Is to Me:
1. Selecting a location & planning
2.
3D

Applying technical elements

3.

Applying artistic cr...
What Photography Is to Me:
1. Selecting a location & planning
2.
3D

Applying technical elements
2D 3D

3.

Applying artis...
Telling a story + Bringing Images to Life

While:

Collecting Memories
&
Recording History – Personal and Other
Breaking a cardinal rule of photographers:
“Show only your best work.”
Must show WIPs & DEMOs for others to learn
Breaking a cardinal rule of photographers:
“Show only your best work.”
Must show WIPs & DEMOs for others to learn

-------...
Most photographers note following
metadata:
ISO

Aperture or f/stop
Shutter speed

EV = exposure valuation
Focal length of...
Consider:
Adding Time in your analysis
Hour of day is critical in obtaining softer light
Best wildlife photography in earl...
ABCs of Ideal Wildlife Imagery
A. Tight head shot (telephoto mostly with larger animals –
especially predators, wide-angle...
ISO 400, f/7.1, 1/125, 0.7 EV, 21mm

12:18 PM
Harsh light with some shade from
trees

Note:
Wide-angle lens used, as an
ex...
ABCs of Ideal Wildlife Imagery
A. Tight head shot
1. Eyes = “Catchlight”
“Catchlights”
or
“Eye Lights”
=

Exceptional Highlights!

“Marabou Stork” – ISO 400, f/7.1, 1/640, 0.7 EV, 35mm – 12:04 PM
ABCs of Ideal Wildlife Imagery
A. Tight head shot
1. Eyes = “Catchlight”
2. Focus on “Eyes …
ISO 500, f/9, 1/125, -0.3EV, 300mm

10:53 AM
ABCs of Ideal Wildlife Imagery
A. Tight head shot
1. Eyes = “Catchlight”
2. “Eyes … Eyes ….
Note:

ISO 500, f/10, 1/2500, -0.3 EV, 170mm, at 11:23 AM
Lioness had been moving, so increased shutter speed; on down slo...
ABCs of Ideal Wildlife Imagery
A. Tight head shot
1. Eyes = “Catchlight”
2. “Eyes … Eyes …. Eyes …
ISO 500, f/20, 1/125, 0.3 EV, 300mm
4:14 PM = Golden Hours
Why f/20?
Wanted foreground, middle ground
with subject, and ba...
ABCs of Ideal Wildlife Imagery
A. Tight head shot
1. Eyes = “Catchlight”
2. “Eyes … Eyes …. Eyes …

And the rest will foll...
ABCs of Ideal Wildlife Imagery
A. Tight head shot
1. Eyes = “Catchlight”
2. “ Eyes! Eyes! Eyes! & The rest will follow!”

...
ISO 500, f/10, 1/3200, -0.3 EV, 300mm
Increased ISO to 500 for higher shutter speed (too high), as lion had been moving qu...
ABCs of Ideal Wildlife Imagery

A. Tight head shot
B. Full body shot – Don’t forget feet & tail!
(telephoto or wide-angle ...
Not optimum
“travel space”

ISO 500, f/10, 1/1250, -0.3 EV, 300mm at 11:34 AM
Harsh light, but increased ISO to err for fa...
ISO 500, f/10, 1/1250, -0.3 EV, 185mm, at 8:22 AM – Optimum result with manual focus
Increased ISO to obtain higher shutte...
ISO 500, f/9, 1/1250, -0.3 EV, 170mm, at 10:57 AM

Does this springbok have feet? … Poorly composed!
ABCs of Ideal Wildlife Imagery
A. Tight head shot
B. Full body – Don’t forget feet & tail!

C. Animal in habitat (wide ang...
ISO 500, f/10, 1/2000, 0 EV, 125mm, at 10:37 AM
Could have reduced ISO, but no noise with Nikon D7000 at this ISO setting
...
Landscape Photography:

At times, use sharp focus on

foreground subject(s) to draw viewer into
a more dramatic middle gro...
Analogy in Wildlife Photography:

Control aperture and areas of focus

Foreground – Middle Ground – Background
In order to...
ISO 400, f/11, 1/500, -0.3 EV, 400mm, hand-held, at 8:20 AM
Note: Softening in background using f/11
“Contemplation”

ISO – Note: “Softness,” or “Blur,” in middle ground and background
Did you notice the horizon?
ISO 400, f/10, 1/640, 0 EV, 300mm, at 3:20 PM
ABCs of Ideal Wildlife Imagery
A. Tight head shot
B. Full body – Don’t forget feet & tail!
C. Animal in habitat
1. Interac...
ABCs of Ideal Wildlife Imagery
A. Tight head shot
B. Full body – Don’t forget feet & tail!
C. Animal in habitat
1. Interac...
ABCs of Ideal Wildlife Imagery
A. Tight head shot
B. Full body – Don’t forget feet & tail!
C. Animal in habitat
1. Interac...
TRY NOT TO DISTURB WILDLIFE!
TRY NOT TO DISTURB WILDLIFE!

TAKE CARE WHEN IN CLOSE PROXIMITY TO ALL WILDLIFE

ANIMALS IN THE WILD ARE UNPREDICTABLE!
TRY NOT TO DISTURB WILDLIFE!

TAKE CARE WHEN IN CLOSE PROXIMITY TO ALL WILDLIFE

ANIMALS IN THE WILD ARE UNPREDICTABLE!
MO...
And Don’t Forget the Ds of Wildlife Photography!
Talons
Feathers – Texture, Colors, & Patterns
Fur – Texture & Colors

Sca...
ISO 800, f/5, 1/320, -0.7 EV, 103mm
At 5:11 PM in flat light
Above: Unedited JPEG conversion from RAW

Right: Edited with Aperture and iPhoto only
Approaches to Photography
1.

Shoot “Green” – Automatic = Give No Clues or Direction
Approaches to Photography
1.

Shoot “Green” – Automatic = Give No Clues or Direction
Point & Shoot (P&S) + DSLRs: Entry Le...
Approaches to Photography
1.

Shoot “Green” – Automatic = Give No Clues or Direction
Point & Shoot (P&S) + DSLRs: Entry Le...
Approaches to Photography
1.

Shoot “Green” – Automatic = Give No Clues or Direction
Point & Shoot (P&S) + DSLRs: Entry Le...
Approaches to Photography
1.

Shoot “Green” – Automatic = Give No Clues or Direction
Point & Shoot (P&S) + DSLRs: Entry Le...
Approaches to Photography
1.

Shoot “Green” – Automatic = Give No Clues or Direction
Point & Shoot (P&S) + DSLRs: Entry Le...
Approaches to Photography
1.

Shoot “Green” – Automatic = Give No Clues or Direction
Point & Shoot (P&S) + DSLRs: Entry Le...
Approaches to Photography
1.

Shoot “Green” – Automatic = Give No Clues or Direction
Point & Shoot (P&S) + DSLRs: Entry Le...
Shoot “Scene” – Some Examples
Portrait= Wide Aperture (i.e., f/5.6) for Shallow Depth of Field (DOF)
Not to be confused wi...
Shoot “Scene” – Some Examples
Portrait= Wide Aperture (i.e., f/5.6) for Shallow Depth of Field (DOF)
Landscape= Small Aper...
Shoot “Scene” – Some Examples
Portrait= Wide Aperture (i.e., f/5.6) for Shallow Depth of Field (DOF)
Landscape= Small Aper...
Shoot “Scene” – Some Examples
Portrait= Wide Aperture (i.e., f/5.6) for Shallow Depth of Field (DOF)
Landscape= Small Aper...
Many Others “Scene” Options in Some Cameras:
Panorama
Beach
Food
Snow
Pet Portrait
Underwater
Many Others “Scene” Options in Some Cameras:
Museum

Sunset
Dusk/Dawn
Fireworks
Night Landscape
Party/Indoor
Night Portrai...
Every Different Scene Selected
Changes
One or More Variable Settings:
ISO
f/stop
Shutter Speed
White Balance
Metering
Etc.
Learn to Shoot “Clean”

As in start from “Scratch”
Learn to Shoot “Clean”
Exert Control over Some, Most, or All Settings Available
Learn to Shoot “Clean”
Exert Control over Some, Most, or All Settings Available
ISO = Light Sensitivity
Learn to Shoot “Clean”
Exert Control over Some, Most, or All Settings Available
ISO = Light Sensitivity
Aperture = f/stop
Learn to Shoot “Clean”
Exert Control over Some, Most, or All Settings Available
ISO = Light Sensitivity
Aperture = f/stop
...
Learn to Shoot “Clean”
Exert Control over Some, Most, or All Settings Available
ISO = Light Sensitivity
Aperture = f/stop
...
Learn to Shoot “Clean”
Exert Control over Some, Most, or All Settings Available
ISO = Light Sensitivity
Aperture = f/stop
...
Learn to Shoot “Clean”
Exert Control over Some, Most, or All Settings Available
ISO = Light Sensitivity
Aperture = f/stop
...
Learn to Shoot “Clean”
Exert Control over Some, Most, or All Settings Available
ISO = Light Sensitivity
Aperture = f/stop
...
A Few Observations:
A Few Observations:
Camera Is Dumb < Input, Just Like a Computer
A Few Observations:
Camera Is Dumb < Input, Just Like a Computer

But then Cameras Today are Computers – Have Firmware!
A Few Observations:
Camera Is Dumb < Input, Just Like a Computer

But then Cameras Today are Computers – Have Firmware!
Al...
A Few Observations:
Camera Is Dumb < Input, Just Like a Computer

But then Cameras Today are Computers – Have Firmware!
Al...
A Few Observations:
Camera Is Dumb < Input, Just Like a Computer

But then Cameras Today are Computers – Have Firmware!
Al...
A Few Observations:
Camera Is Dumb < Input, Just Like a Computer

But then Cameras Today are Computers – Have Firmware!
Al...
Let’s

Dive
In!
Analysis
of
Published Images
Discussion of Some Photo Safari Images


The next eight (8) images were published in the “PSA [Photographic Society
of Am...
“Is He Going to Charge?”
ISO 400, f/8, 1/1000, -0.3 EV, 70mm
Taken at 4:46 PM with soft light. Note shadow of elephant’s e...
“A Lioness Eyeball to Eyeball at Fifteen Feet!”

ISO 400, f4.5, 1/500, -1.33 EV, 70mm
Image taken at 7:01 AM
Chobe Nationa...
Confrontation – Count the Whiskers!
“Beauty is In the Eye of the Beholder”
ISO 640, f/5.6, 1/400, -0.7 EV, 300mm, at 7:33 AM
“Time for a Yawn
A Hippo Basking on the Chobe River”

ISO 640, f/10, 1/1000, -0.3 EV, 300mm

at
3:47 PM
“Courtship Among Sables”
ISO 640, f/13, 1/500, -0.7 EV, 300mm, at 9:24 AM
“Colors Galore
A Lilac-Breasted Roller”

ISO 400, f/8, 1/2000, -0.3EV, 300mm
at
8:34 AM
“Show Me Your Teeth!”
ISO 800, f/5, 1/320, -0.7 EV, 102mm, at 5:11 PM
It was important to have two camera bodies at the re...
“A Hungry Looking Croc”
ISO 640, f/14, 1/250, 0 EV, 300mm, at 5:16 PM
Analysis of Images


Orientation – Landscape

6



Orientation – Portrait

2
Analysis of Images


Orientation – Landscape

6



Orientation – Portrait

2



ISO

–

400 (3)

640 (4)

–

800 (1)
Analysis of Images


Orientation – Landscape

6



Orientation – Portrait

2



ISO

400 (3)

–



f/stop

4.5 –

5.0 ...
Analysis of Images


Orientation – Landscape

6



Orientation – Portrait

2



ISO

400 (3)

–



f/stop

4.5 –

5.0 ...
Analysis of Images


Orientation – Landscape

6



Orientation – Portrait

2



ISO

400 (3)

–



f/stop

4.5 –

5.0 ...
Analysis of Images

 Focal Length

70mm (2)–

102mm

–

300mm (5)
Analysis of Images



Focal Length

70mm (2)–



Time of Day

AM:

7-8 (2)

PM:

3-4–

102mm

–

300mm (5)

–

8-9

–

4...
Analysis of Images
ABCs
Head

1 – Warthog, Hippopotamus

Body

5 – Elephant, Lioness, Roller, Lion, Crocodile

Habitat

1 ...
Analysis of Images
ABCs
Head

1 – Warthog, Hippopotamus

Body

5 – Elephant, Lioness, Roller, Lion, Crocodile

Habitat

1 ...
Analysis of Images
ABCs
Head

1 – Warthog, Hippopotamus

Body

5 – Elephant, Lioness, Roller, Lion, Crocodile

Habitat

1 ...
Analysis of Images
And Ds – Every image published contained a focused “D” element
Teeth

Hippo, Lion, Croc

Tusks

Elephan...
Analysis of Images
Composition – Rule of Thirds

“The guideline proposes that an image should be imagined as divided
into ...
Analysis of Images
Composition – Rule of Thirds

“The guideline proposes that an image should be imagined as divided
into ...
Eye on Upper Horizontal Power Line – Right Tusk on Right Vertical Power Line
“Center Power Frame”

My term used when deviating from generally accepted Rule of 1/3s – Especially in “Confrontation” ima...
Use of “Power Point”

Use of “Power Point”
Eye at Upper Right
Power Point
Body of Roller in
Center Power Frame
Heads in Center Power Frame
Head in Center Power Frame – Lower Teeth at Lower Left Power Point
Analysis of Images
Power Points

Warthog (2 – Tusk & Eye), Roller, Lion, Croc

Power Lines

Elephant, Hippo, Lion

Power F...
Analysis of Images
Power Points

Warthog (2 – Tusk & Eye), Roller, Lion, Croc

Power Lines

Elephant, Hippo, Lion

Power F...
Suggestions
Set grid lines on viewfinder/LCD to better consider Rule of Thirds
Suggestions
Set grid lines on viewfinder/LCD to better consider Rule of Thirds
However, frame image larger than desired to...
Suggestions
Set grid lines on viewfinder/LCD to better consider Rule of Thirds
However, frame image larger than desired to...
Overall Conclusions


Diversify image orientation:

Landscape versus Portrait
Overall Conclusions


Diversify image orientation:
Note:

Landscape versus Portrait

Most magazine covers use Portrait
Overall Conclusions


Diversify image orientation:
Note:



ISO:

Landscape versus Portrait

Most magazine covers use Po...
Overall Conclusions


Diversify image orientation:
Note:



ISO:

f/stop:

Landscape versus Portrait

Most magazine cov...
Overall Conclusions


Diversify image orientation:
Note:



ISO:

f/stop:

Landscape versus Portrait

Most magazine cov...
f/stop
Learn what every aperture setting

In each lens
With each camera body

Produces with respect to
“Blur” or “Softness...
What areas of whole composition are affected & how?

Study & Analyze DOF!
FAVOR UNDEREXPOSURE!
Overall Conclusions

EV:
All but one (1) image < 0 EV
Only one (1) @ 0 EV

FAVOR UNDEREXPOSURE!
Original unedited image – RAW converted to JPEG
ISO 400, f/4.5, 1/500, -1.3 EV, 70mm, at 7:02 AM – Captured in Flat Light ...
“Gym Kitty – Look at That Definition!”
Previous image cropped somewhat & edited in Aperture & Photoshop
Note cub in right ...
Rule of Thirds Grid Applied: Two Power Points – Shoulder and Head, with “Travel Space”
ISO 800, f/20, 1/160, -0.3 EV, 80mm, at 5:59 PM – RAW conversion to JPEG
Underexposure – One in a series for possible merg...
Previous image, with editing to remove shadows and enhance highlights
Underexposed RAW to JPEG – Taken as part of +/- EV sequence for HDR editing
Preliminary HDR Editing
Just having some fun!
Areas that are overexposed:
“White”
“Hot”
“Blown out”
_______________________
CANNOT BE RECOVERED!

Overexposed images lea...
What areas of entire composition are affected & how?

Manage and Control

DOF

Depth of Field
Aperture Management
1. Select aperture (f/stop) for desired DOF, using Aperture Priority
2. If shutter speed is sufficient...
Overall Conclusions
Shutter speed (SS)
Use higher SS only when needed, as requires more light & higher ISO
However, consid...
Overall Conclusions
1/250

Croc

Should have been higher due to potential motion!

1/320

Lion

Should have been 1/500

1/...
Overall Conclusions

Lens:
Invest in a long lens!

Prime versus Zoom considerations
Five (5) published images shot at 300m...
ISO 400, f/9, 1/160, 0.3 EV, 18mm, at 11:12 AM
ISO 400, f/9, 1/160, 0.3 EV, 18mm, at 11:12 AM

Note leopard on lower tree limb!
ISO 400, f/9, 1/60, 0.7 EV, 400mm, at 11:02 AM
Used tripod as monopod in vehicle, with engine turned off to negate vibrati...
ISO 400, f/9, 1/80, 0 EV, 135mm, at 11:12 AM – Using tripod as monopod
Edited in Aperture, Photomatix, & iPhoto – Work in ...
Overall Conclusions
Time of Day (TOD):
AM:

7 - 8 (2)

8 – 9 (1)
9-10 (1)
PM:

3-4 (1)
4-5 (1)
5-6 (2)
Overall Conclusions
Light is the final arbiter of all photography!
Overall Conclusions
Light is the final arbiter of all photography!

USE THE LIGHT!
Overall Conclusions
Light is the final arbiter of all photography!

USE THE LIGHT!
Optimum wildlife photography … Get up a...
Overall Conclusions
Light is the final arbiter of all photography!

USE THE LIGHT!
Optimum wildlife photography … Get up a...
Overall Conclusions
USE of LIGHT
Soft versus Flat
Soft:

Elephant, Warthog, Hippo, Roller, Sables, Croc – 6 = Majority!

F...
Overall Conclusions
USE of LIGHT
Soft versus Flat
Soft:

Elephant, Warthog, Hippo, Roller, Sables, Croc – 6 = Majority!

F...
Overall Conclusions

CATCH the MOMENT!

USE BURST!
Overall Conclusions

CATCH the MOMENT!

USE BURST!
All eight (8) published images were shot using burst!
Each image was on...
Use Burst – Continuous High, Sport Mode

For High fps (frame per second) Rate
To Capture Motion Sequences

Lilac-Breasted ...
ISO 400, f/5.6, 1/1600, 0.3 EV, 200mm, at 3:52:09 PM
ISO 400, f/5.6, 1/1600, 0.3 EV, 200mm, at 3:52:09
ISO 400, f/5.6, 1/1600, 0.3 EV, 200mm, at 3:52:09

Both captured in
same second:
3:52:09
Use Burst to Capture Quick Changes in Animal Behavior

ISO 400, f/8, 1/1000, 0.3 EV, 300mm
At 9:12:37 AM

This Image & The...
Use Burst to Capture Quick Changes in Animal Behavior

At 9:12:37 AM
At 9:12:38 AM
Use Burst to Capture Quick Changes in Animal Behavior

At 9:12:37 AM
At 9:12:38 AM

At 9:12:39 AM
Use Burst to Capture Quick Changes in Animal Behavior

At 9:12:37 AM
At 9:12:38 AM

At 9:12:39 AM

At 9:12:39 AM
Same Sequence of Four (4) Images with Preliminary Editing

9:12:37 AM
Same Sequence of Four (4) Images with Preliminary Editing

9:12:37 AM
9:12:38 AM
Same Sequence of Four (4) Images with Preliminary Editing

9:12:37 AM
9:12:38 AM
9:12:39 AM
Same Sequence of Four (4) Images with Preliminary Editing

9:12:37 AM
9:12:38 AM
9:12:39 AM
9:12:39 AM
Which image do you find the most appealing?
Which image do you find the most appealing?

By using burst, you have a choice!
Use Burst
To Improve Chances of
Capturing an image in sharp focus

ISO 6400, f/5.3, 1/30, 0 EV, 210mm

At 6:23 PM

Emphasi...
SOME TIPS
&
TECHNIQUES

Just a few as time is short!
When time & conditions permit:

Bracket EVs

Bracket f/stops
Practice
Manual Focus
For quick use, especially in conditions of wind effecting grass, brush,
etc.
Practice
Manual Focus
For quick use, especially in conditions of wind effecting grass, brush,
etc.

Do not waste time wait...
Consider using fewer than all focus points available

In your camera
Consider using fewer than all focus points available

In your camera

Selection of all focus points may result in points “...
Consider using a single focus point

In conjunction with “back button focusing”
Carry a Point & Shoot (P&S)

When more serious camera equipment is packed
&
To tell your story
Manage ISO
to

Obtain Optimum
Aperture
&

Shutter Speed
Seek Stability
Seek Stability
Breathing control
Seek Stability
Breathing control
Brace of any sort
Seek Stability
Breathing control
Brace of any sort
Tripod/Monopod – Use More!
Seek Stability
Breathing control
Brace of any sort
Tripod/Monopod – Use More!
Remote/cable release
Seek Stability
Breathing control
Brace of any sort
Tripod/Monopod – Use More!
Remote/cable release
Timer delay
Seek Stability
Breathing control
Brace of any sort
Tripod/Monopod – Use More!
Remote/cable release
Timer delay
Mirror Lock...
Greater Stability
=
Ability to use slower shutter speed

&/or
Ability to use smaller aperture

&/0r
Ability to use lower I...
When Birding
Larger birds usually have lower wing-beat frequency
=
Lower shutter speed required to freeze motion
_________...
“Cleared for Takeoff”
A Marabou Stork

ISO 800, f/5.6, 1/320, -1.3 EV, 230mm
At 5:46 PM
When Birding
Larger birds usually have lower wing-beat frequency
=
Lower shutter speed required to freeze motion
_________...
“Lilac-Breasted Roller”

ISO 400, f/7.1, 1/1600, 0 EV, 160mm, at 4:16 PM
When Birding

Exception to This “Rule”

When “Freezing” Motion of Other Elements Is Desired
“African Fish Eagle – Late for Breakfast: 10:44 AM”
ISO 400, f/5, 1/2000, 0.3 EV, 170mm – Water Droplets “Frozen”
Never Delete An Image in the Field!
Never Delete An Image in the Field!

Possibility of reformatting entire memory card!
Backup All Files

ASAP!
Use Filters for Effect
Two schools of thought:

1. Least glass between sensor and subject optimum

2. Use filter for effec...
Both images: ISO 400, f/10, 1/320, 1.7 EV, 110mm

CPL filter turned “off” – 8:41:47 AM

CPL filter turned “on” – 8:41:52
REMEMBER
Landscapes
“Draw In”
_________________________________
REMEMBER
Landscapes
“Draw In”
_________________________________
Wildlife
“Jumps Out!”
CLEAN!

CLEAN!

CLEAN!
PRACTICE!

PRACTICE!

PRACTICE!
The Ultimate Quest!
Whether Flying, Driving, Photographing …

Natural

Mechanical
The Ultimate Quest!
Whether Flying, Driving, Photographing …

Natural

Mechanical

WITH
PRACTICE!
Summation
Covered This Evening:

Overview of Photography & Bases for Analysis

Analysis of Published Images

Some Tips & T...
In Closing
If making a trip to the “bush” in Africa, you should be prepared to witness a
full range of animal behavior as ...
Credits
 Chillibreeze/ PointO: Maps of Africa & Botswana - Slides #14 & #25
http://www.24point0.com/


CanStockPhoto: S...
ISO 400, f/10, 1/800, 0.3 EV, 220 mm, at 8:01 AM

Thank You for Your Time and Attention!
Thanks Also
to

Ken Knight, President
and

Cathy Peyton, 1st Vice President

Hampton Roads Digital Shutterbug Club
“Any ?s”
Goodnight
“Sunset on the Zambezi”
ISO 400, f/9, 1/1000, -0.3 EV, 66mm, at 5:42 PM
THE END

“The Beauty of a Double Rainbow”
Colors over Victoria Falls – ISO 320, f/22, 1/125, -1.0 EV, 18mm, Tripod, at 9:4...
ENCORE!
“And When There Is No Game, What Do Photographers Do?
Take Photos of Other Photographers!”
"An African Photo Safari" - Presentation to Hampton Roads [Virginia] Digital Shutterbug Club on January 15, 2014
"An African Photo Safari" - Presentation to Hampton Roads [Virginia] Digital Shutterbug Club on January 15, 2014
"An African Photo Safari" - Presentation to Hampton Roads [Virginia] Digital Shutterbug Club on January 15, 2014
"An African Photo Safari" - Presentation to Hampton Roads [Virginia] Digital Shutterbug Club on January 15, 2014
"An African Photo Safari" - Presentation to Hampton Roads [Virginia] Digital Shutterbug Club on January 15, 2014
"An African Photo Safari" - Presentation to Hampton Roads [Virginia] Digital Shutterbug Club on January 15, 2014
"An African Photo Safari" - Presentation to Hampton Roads [Virginia] Digital Shutterbug Club on January 15, 2014
"An African Photo Safari" - Presentation to Hampton Roads [Virginia] Digital Shutterbug Club on January 15, 2014
"An African Photo Safari" - Presentation to Hampton Roads [Virginia] Digital Shutterbug Club on January 15, 2014
"An African Photo Safari" - Presentation to Hampton Roads [Virginia] Digital Shutterbug Club on January 15, 2014
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"An African Photo Safari" - Presentation to Hampton Roads [Virginia] Digital Shutterbug Club on January 15, 2014

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This Power Point program was used in my presentation on January 15, 2014, made to members of the Hampton Roads [Virginia] Digital Shutterbug Club. My comments expanded on the slides shown and included, as examples:

Reasons for shooting at particular ISO settings, f/stops, and shutter speeds with respect to some of the images depicted;

Shooting "green," "scene," and "clean” (my term – as in starting from scratch);

Along with a suggestion for those who are making the transition from "scene" to "Aperture Priority" ("clean");

And my use of "Power Frames" (a term that I use) when deviating from applying the generally accepted Rule of Thirds. I favor the "Center Power Frame" at times in my wildlife photography, especially when the image involves confrontation head on with an animal.

When beginning to shoot in Aperture Priority, the objective of which is to select your desired DOF, or depth of field, my recommendation is:

Set the ISO and WB at "auto" so that you only have to select the desired aperture, as the principal variable. In this manner, you avoid managing ISO and shutter speed while easing into shooting "clean." As a result, a photographer making the transition to shooting “clean” in Aperture Priority may begin to learn the “sweet spot” in any zoom lens used. The photographer may also begin to better identify the manner in which different areas of a composed image (foreground, middle ground, and background) are affected with different f/stops, both as to obtaining sharp focus, together with noting those areas that achieve “blur” or “softness.”

Focus points (pun intended) during the evening were: the prudent use of EV (exposure valuation) and bracketing EV; use of burst for several reasons presented in the slides; favoring the underexposure of images along with some basic editing comments; my use of Perfect Resize; bracketing f/stops when time and conditions permit; and some additional tips and techniques. I also discussed the somewhat counterintuitive use of underexposing to a greater extent in flat light or shade conditions so that more latitude is afforded when editing such images.

Numerous other comments were offered during the presentation, which are not conveyed in the slides. However, I advised the members that I would post the presentation so that they might have free access via my web site for further review of its content. I sincerely hope that the information passed along in our meeting was of use to some members' growth in the field of photography, as well as for anyone who may peruse this material.

“Wildlife photography is the ultimate catch and release!”

Don Mercer
Rustic 41 Creations

Published in: Education, Art & Photos, Business
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"An African Photo Safari" - Presentation to Hampton Roads [Virginia] Digital Shutterbug Club on January 15, 2014

  1. 1. “An African Photo Safari” Copyright © 2014 Don Mercer, Rustic 41 Creations
  2. 2. Don Mercer Rustic 41 Creations Virginia Beach, Virginia www.rustic41creations.com Copyright © 2014 Don Mercer, Rustic 41 Creations
  3. 3. Hampton Roads Digital Shutterbug Club January 15, 2014 Presented Considering Diversity of Experience and Equipment
  4. 4. Men Of Vision
  5. 5. And In Memory of Regan Steelman
  6. 6. Special Thanks to Bill Connolly, M.D., & Lucia Zuccala Larry & Betsy Jordan Regan & Julie Steelman Jim & Georgia Struhsaker Juan & Donna Zumbado Extraordinary Traveling Companions, Adventurers, and Photographers
  7. 7. “Wildlife photography is the ultimate catch and release!” Don Mercer, Rustic 41 Rustic 41 Creations www.rustic41creations.com
  8. 8. Photography is All About Learning My dad, who was raised on a farm in the Valley of Virginia, said: “When you’re green, you grow. When you’re ripe, you rot!”
  9. 9. Photography is All About Learning My dad, who was raised on a farm in the Valley of Virginia, said: “When you’re green, you grow. When you’re ripe, you rot!” Photography provides a platform for learning throughout your life!
  10. 10. Feedback & Constructive Criticism Is Welcomed and Solicited
  11. 11. Please Hold Any Questions
  12. 12. “An African Photo Safari” Africa – The Continent Currently Home to 53 Nations
  13. 13. This Evening’s Program Overview of Photography & Bases for Analysis Analysis of Published Images Some Tips & Techniques
  14. 14. TIMER?? You will be admired and respected by our fellow Club members!
  15. 15. The Bouncing Balls of Photography Choices …Choices …Choices …
  16. 16. A Few of the Puzzle Pieces fps RAW J P E G filters TIFF
  17. 17. Tonight’s Program “Like drinking from a fire hose!” (USAF) On the Internet = A Resource
  18. 18. “An African Photo Safari” South Africa Botswana Zambia Zimbabwe
  19. 19. Welcome to Africa! “Here Kitty, Kitty!” The Bad News: They weren’t sedated! The Great News: I left with all my body parts!
  20. 20. NOTE: Be prepared to sign numerous waivers prior to, and during, such a trip. Some may require you to sign off on not having all body parts available for shipment home! I did not tell them that I’m a dog person … Photo Credit: Emily, a groundskeeper at Rhino & Lion Park using my camera Outside Johannesburg, South Africa. Property Release: E. A. Hern, Owner, Rhino & Lion Nature Reserve – “Vaartjie” & “Medusa”
  21. 21. The majority of our time on photo safari with noted wildlife photographer, Paul Renner, was spent in this nation.
  22. 22. Overview of Photography & Bases for Analysis
  23. 23. “There are always two people in every picture: the photographer and the viewer.” Ansel Adams
  24. 24. “There are always two people in every picture: the photographer and the viewer.” Ansel Adams “Art is not what you see, but what you make others see.” Edgar Degas
  25. 25. What Photography Is to Me: 1. Selecting a location & planning
  26. 26. What Photography Is to Me: 1. Selecting a location & planning 2. Applying technical elements
  27. 27. What Photography Is to Me: 1. Selecting a location & planning 2. Applying technical elements 3. Applying artistic creativity
  28. 28. What Photography Is to Me: 1. Selecting a location & planning 2. 3D Applying technical elements 3. Applying artistic creativity
  29. 29. What Photography Is to Me: 1. Selecting a location & planning 2. 3D 3. Applying technical elements Applying artistic creativity 2D
  30. 30. What Photography Is to Me: 1. Selecting a location & planning 2. 3D 3. Applying technical elements Applying artistic creativity 2D 3D
  31. 31. What Photography Is to Me: 1. Selecting a location & planning 2. 3D 3. Applying technical elements Applying artistic creativity 2D Great Imagery!
  32. 32. What Photography Is to Me: 1. Selecting a location & planning 2. 3D 3. Applying technical elements Applying artistic creativity 2D Great Imagery! REQUIRES ARTISTIC INTENT!
  33. 33. What Photography Is to Me: 1. Selecting a location & planning 2. 3D 3. Applying technical elements Applying artistic creativity 2D Great Imagery! AVOID DISTRACTING ELEMENTS! LIKE THIS! REQUIRES ARTISTIC INTENT!
  34. 34. What Provides Sense of Depth? 3D Scene 2D Image 3D Qualities Light = The Essence of All Photography
  35. 35. What Provides Sense of Depth? 3D Scene 2D Image 3D Qualities Light = The Essence of All Photography Plan
  36. 36. What Provides Sense of Depth? 3D Scene 2D Image 3D Qualities Light = The Essence of All Photography Plan Manage
  37. 37. What Provides Sense of Depth? 3D Scene 2D Image 3D Qualities Light = The Essence of All Photography Plan Manage Utilize
  38. 38. What Provides Sense of Depth? 3D Scene 2D Image 3D Qualities Light = The Essence of All Photography Plan Manage Utilize Attempt to Control
  39. 39. What Provides Sense of Depth? 3D Scene 2D Image 3D Qualities Light = The Essence of All Photography Plan Manage Utilize Attempt to Control Play to Its Strengths! … AND YOURS!
  40. 40. What Provides Sense of Depth? 3D Scene 2D Image 3D Qualities Composition – Perspective The Placement – Arrangement – of Visual Elements
  41. 41. What Provides Sense of Depth? 3D Scene 2D Image Lines – Illusion of Depth Linear Perspective Diminishing Perspective 3D Qualities
  42. 42. Many Times in Nature & Especially In Wildlife Photography You Take Lines Any Way You Come by Them!
  43. 43. “Cat in the Grass!”
  44. 44. ISO 400, f/11, 1/320, -0.3 EV, 110mm, at 8:10 AM – Manual Focus
  45. 45. “A Lioness Stalking Impala! What’s for Breakfast?” Impala Lioness
  46. 46. Impala AKA ISO 400, f/11, 1/250, -0.3 EV 80mm, at 8:13 AM Breakfast
  47. 47. “Bending Down Is a Pain”
  48. 48. ISO 400, f/11, 1/250, 0 EV, 300mm, at 5:16 PM
  49. 49. What Provides Sense of Depth? 3D Scene 2D Image Choice of Lenses 3D Qualities
  50. 50. What Provides Sense of Depth? 3D Scene 2D Image 3D Qualities Choice of Lenses Wide angle lenses: Tend to emphasize converging lines Expand foreground to background
  51. 51. What Provides Sense of Depth? 3D Scene 2D Image 3D Qualities Choice of Lenses Telephoto lenses: Tend to compress foreground to background Subjects appear closer than in reality AKA “lens compression”
  52. 52. Depth Through Aperture Control Emphasis on Foreground? Middle Ground? Background?
  53. 53. What Provides Sense of Depth? 3D Scene 2D Image 3D Qualities Contrast EV = Exposure Valuation HDR = High Dynamic Range Principally Used in Landscape Photography by Merging Images Due to Motion in Wildlife Photography
  54. 54. What Photography Is to Me: 1. Selecting a location & planning 2. 3D Applying technical elements 3. Applying artistic creativity 4. Telling a story 2D 3D
  55. 55. What Photography Is to Me: 1. Selecting a location & planning 2. 3D Applying technical elements 2D 3D 3. Applying artistic creativity 4. Telling a story + Bringing Images to Life Attempting to Do Both – Actually All the Above!
  56. 56. Telling a story + Bringing Images to Life While: Collecting Memories & Recording History – Personal and Other
  57. 57. Breaking a cardinal rule of photographers: “Show only your best work.” Must show WIPs & DEMOs for others to learn
  58. 58. Breaking a cardinal rule of photographers: “Show only your best work.” Must show WIPs & DEMOs for others to learn -------------------------------------------------------- On some slides, did not adhere to “6x6 PP Rule”: 6 words per line & 6 lines per slide
  59. 59. Most photographers note following metadata: ISO Aperture or f/stop Shutter speed EV = exposure valuation Focal length of lens
  60. 60. Consider: Adding Time in your analysis Hour of day is critical in obtaining softer light Best wildlife photography in early AM & late PM = The Golden Hours
  61. 61. ABCs of Ideal Wildlife Imagery A. Tight head shot (telephoto mostly with larger animals – especially predators, wide-angle, and/or crop)
  62. 62. ISO 400, f/7.1, 1/125, 0.7 EV, 21mm 12:18 PM Harsh light with some shade from trees Note: Wide-angle lens used, as an exception, due to this being an orphan lion in close proximity
  63. 63. ABCs of Ideal Wildlife Imagery A. Tight head shot 1. Eyes = “Catchlight”
  64. 64. “Catchlights” or “Eye Lights” = Exceptional Highlights! “Marabou Stork” – ISO 400, f/7.1, 1/640, 0.7 EV, 35mm – 12:04 PM
  65. 65. ABCs of Ideal Wildlife Imagery A. Tight head shot 1. Eyes = “Catchlight” 2. Focus on “Eyes …
  66. 66. ISO 500, f/9, 1/125, -0.3EV, 300mm 10:53 AM
  67. 67. ABCs of Ideal Wildlife Imagery A. Tight head shot 1. Eyes = “Catchlight” 2. “Eyes … Eyes ….
  68. 68. Note: ISO 500, f/10, 1/2500, -0.3 EV, 170mm, at 11:23 AM Lioness had been moving, so increased shutter speed; on down slope of a hill & got better sun angle = softer light, as an advantage, but most of lion in flat light
  69. 69. ABCs of Ideal Wildlife Imagery A. Tight head shot 1. Eyes = “Catchlight” 2. “Eyes … Eyes …. Eyes …
  70. 70. ISO 500, f/20, 1/125, 0.3 EV, 300mm 4:14 PM = Golden Hours Why f/20? Wanted foreground, middle ground with subject, and background all in focus
  71. 71. ABCs of Ideal Wildlife Imagery A. Tight head shot 1. Eyes = “Catchlight” 2. “Eyes … Eyes …. Eyes … And the rest will follow!”
  72. 72. ABCs of Ideal Wildlife Imagery A. Tight head shot 1. Eyes = “Catchlight” 2. “ Eyes! Eyes! Eyes! & The rest will follow!” 3. Count the whiskers!
  73. 73. ISO 500, f/10, 1/3200, -0.3 EV, 300mm Increased ISO to 500 for higher shutter speed (too high), as lion had been moving quite a bit
  74. 74. ABCs of Ideal Wildlife Imagery A. Tight head shot B. Full body shot – Don’t forget feet & tail! (telephoto or wide-angle and/or crop)
  75. 75. Not optimum “travel space” ISO 500, f/10, 1/1250, -0.3 EV, 300mm at 11:34 AM Harsh light, but increased ISO to err for faster shutter speed in case cheetah ran
  76. 76. ISO 500, f/10, 1/1250, -0.3 EV, 185mm, at 8:22 AM – Optimum result with manual focus Increased ISO to obtain higher shutter speed, as warthog was digging hard with dirt flying
  77. 77. ISO 500, f/9, 1/1250, -0.3 EV, 170mm, at 10:57 AM Does this springbok have feet? … Poorly composed!
  78. 78. ABCs of Ideal Wildlife Imagery A. Tight head shot B. Full body – Don’t forget feet & tail! C. Animal in habitat (wide angle, occasionally telephoto with little to no crop)
  79. 79. ISO 500, f/10, 1/2000, 0 EV, 125mm, at 10:37 AM Could have reduced ISO, but no noise with Nikon D7000 at this ISO setting Also, first day of shooting – Began to reduce ISO as shoot progressed – Shutter speed > than needed
  80. 80. Landscape Photography: At times, use sharp focus on foreground subject(s) to draw viewer into a more dramatic middle ground and/or background composition
  81. 81. Analogy in Wildlife Photography: Control aperture and areas of focus Foreground – Middle Ground – Background In order to make some subjects Appear in even sharper focus
  82. 82. ISO 400, f/11, 1/500, -0.3 EV, 400mm, hand-held, at 8:20 AM Note: Softening in background using f/11
  83. 83. “Contemplation” ISO – Note: “Softness,” or “Blur,” in middle ground and background
  84. 84. Did you notice the horizon? ISO 400, f/10, 1/640, 0 EV, 300mm, at 3:20 PM
  85. 85. ABCs of Ideal Wildlife Imagery A. Tight head shot B. Full body – Don’t forget feet & tail! C. Animal in habitat 1. Interacting with other animals (natural)
  86. 86. ABCs of Ideal Wildlife Imagery A. Tight head shot B. Full body – Don’t forget feet & tail! C. Animal in habitat 1. Interacting with other animals (natural) 2. Interacting with habitat (natural)
  87. 87. ABCs of Ideal Wildlife Imagery A. Tight head shot B. Full body – Don’t forget feet & tail! C. Animal in habitat 1. Interacting with other animals (natural) 2. Interacting with habitat (natural) 3. Reacting to people and unusual behavior
  88. 88. TRY NOT TO DISTURB WILDLIFE!
  89. 89. TRY NOT TO DISTURB WILDLIFE! TAKE CARE WHEN IN CLOSE PROXIMITY TO ALL WILDLIFE ANIMALS IN THE WILD ARE UNPREDICTABLE!
  90. 90. TRY NOT TO DISTURB WILDLIFE! TAKE CARE WHEN IN CLOSE PROXIMITY TO ALL WILDLIFE ANIMALS IN THE WILD ARE UNPREDICTABLE! MOST ALL WILDLIFE PHOTOGRAPHERS CAN TELL A STORY OR TWO!
  91. 91. And Don’t Forget the Ds of Wildlife Photography! Talons Feathers – Texture, Colors, & Patterns Fur – Texture & Colors Scales – Patterns & Colors Teeth Fangs Tongue Feet & Paws
  92. 92. ISO 800, f/5, 1/320, -0.7 EV, 103mm At 5:11 PM in flat light
  93. 93. Above: Unedited JPEG conversion from RAW Right: Edited with Aperture and iPhoto only
  94. 94. Approaches to Photography 1. Shoot “Green” – Automatic = Give No Clues or Direction
  95. 95. Approaches to Photography 1. Shoot “Green” – Automatic = Give No Clues or Direction Point & Shoot (P&S) + DSLRs: Entry Level & Semi-Pro
  96. 96. Approaches to Photography 1. Shoot “Green” – Automatic = Give No Clues or Direction Point & Shoot (P&S) + DSLRs: Entry Level & Semi-Pro 2. Shoot “Scene” – Provide some Clues as to What Type Image Desired
  97. 97. Approaches to Photography 1. Shoot “Green” – Automatic = Give No Clues or Direction Point & Shoot (P&S) + DSLRs: Entry Level & Semi-Pro 2. Shoot “Scene” – Provide some Clues as to What Type Image Desired P&S + DSLRs: Entry Level & Semi-Pro
  98. 98. Approaches to Photography 1. Shoot “Green” – Automatic = Give No Clues or Direction Point & Shoot (P&S) + DSLRs: Entry Level & Semi-Pro 2. Shoot “Scene” – Provide some Clues as to What Type Image Desired P&S + DSLRs: Entry Level & Semi-Pro 3. Shoot “Clean” – Take More Control and Provide Direction as Desired
  99. 99. Approaches to Photography 1. Shoot “Green” – Automatic = Give No Clues or Direction Point & Shoot (P&S) + DSLRs: Entry Level & Semi-Pro 2. Shoot “Scene” – Provide some Clues as to What Type Image Desired P&S + DSLRs: Entry Level & Semi-Pro 3. Shoot “Clean” – Take More Control and Provide Direction as Desired My Term
  100. 100. Approaches to Photography 1. Shoot “Green” – Automatic = Give No Clues or Direction Point & Shoot (P&S) + DSLRs: Entry Level & Semi-Pro 2. Shoot “Scene” – Provide some Clues as to What Type Image Desired P&S + DSLRs: Entry Level & Semi-Pro 3. Shoot “Clean” – Take More Control and Provide Direction as Desired High End P&S + DSLRs: Entry Level, Semi-Pro, & Pro Equipment
  101. 101. Approaches to Photography 1. Shoot “Green” – Automatic = Give No Clues or Direction Point & Shoot (P&S) + DSLRs: Entry Level & Semi-Pro 2. Shoot “Scene” – Provide some Clues as to What Type Image Desired P&S + DSLRs: Entry Level & Semi-Pro 3. Shoot “Clean” – Take More Control and Provide Direction as Desired High End P&S + DSLRs: Entry Level, Semi-Pro, & Pro Equipment Note: Many Pro Model DSLRs Do Not Shoot “Green”
  102. 102. Shoot “Scene” – Some Examples Portrait= Wide Aperture (i.e., f/5.6) for Shallow Depth of Field (DOF) Not to be confused with Portrait Orientation versus Landscape Orientation
  103. 103. Shoot “Scene” – Some Examples Portrait= Wide Aperture (i.e., f/5.6) for Shallow Depth of Field (DOF) Landscape= Small Aperture for Greater DOF (i.e., f/18)
  104. 104. Shoot “Scene” – Some Examples Portrait= Wide Aperture (i.e., f/5.6) for Shallow Depth of Field (DOF) Landscape= Small Aperture for Greater DOF (i.e., f/18) Sport= Faster Shutter Speed – freeze motion, stop action
  105. 105. Shoot “Scene” – Some Examples Portrait= Wide Aperture (i.e., f/5.6) for Shallow Depth of Field (DOF) Landscape= Small Aperture for Greater DOF (i.e., f/18) Sport= Faster Shutter Speed – freeze motion, stop action Macro = The “Tulip” for subject to image ratio of > 1:1 Macro is generally viewed as “very close up” photography
  106. 106. Many Others “Scene” Options in Some Cameras: Panorama Beach Food Snow Pet Portrait Underwater
  107. 107. Many Others “Scene” Options in Some Cameras: Museum Sunset Dusk/Dawn Fireworks Night Landscape Party/Indoor Night Portrait
  108. 108. Every Different Scene Selected Changes One or More Variable Settings: ISO f/stop Shutter Speed White Balance Metering Etc.
  109. 109. Learn to Shoot “Clean” As in start from “Scratch”
  110. 110. Learn to Shoot “Clean” Exert Control over Some, Most, or All Settings Available
  111. 111. Learn to Shoot “Clean” Exert Control over Some, Most, or All Settings Available ISO = Light Sensitivity
  112. 112. Learn to Shoot “Clean” Exert Control over Some, Most, or All Settings Available ISO = Light Sensitivity Aperture = f/stop
  113. 113. Learn to Shoot “Clean” Exert Control over Some, Most, or All Settings Available ISO = Light Sensitivity Aperture = f/stop Shutter speed = Freeze Motion
  114. 114. Learn to Shoot “Clean” Exert Control over Some, Most, or All Settings Available ISO = Light Sensitivity Aperture = f/stop Shutter speed = Freeze Motion Metering = Area as to Determining Exposure
  115. 115. Learn to Shoot “Clean” Exert Control over Some, Most, or All Settings Available ISO = Light Sensitivity Aperture = f/stop Shutter speed = Freeze Motion Metering = Area as to Determining Exposure EV (Exposure Valuation) = Lighting & Contrast (“Steps,” not Stops)
  116. 116. Learn to Shoot “Clean” Exert Control over Some, Most, or All Settings Available ISO = Light Sensitivity Aperture = f/stop Shutter speed = Freeze Motion Metering = Area as to Determining Exposure EV (Exposure Valuation) = Lighting & Contrast (“Steps,” not Stops) White Balance = How White & Color Compare to That Seen in Different Conditions
  117. 117. Learn to Shoot “Clean” Exert Control over Some, Most, or All Settings Available ISO = Light Sensitivity Aperture = f/stop Shutter speed = Freeze Motion Metering = Area as to Determining Exposure EV (Exposure Valuation) = Lighting & Contrast (“Steps,” not Stops) White Balance = How White & Color Compare to That Seen in Different Conditions And More: File Format; File Size; … and the LIST Goes On!
  118. 118. A Few Observations:
  119. 119. A Few Observations: Camera Is Dumb < Input, Just Like a Computer
  120. 120. A Few Observations: Camera Is Dumb < Input, Just Like a Computer But then Cameras Today are Computers – Have Firmware!
  121. 121. A Few Observations: Camera Is Dumb < Input, Just Like a Computer But then Cameras Today are Computers – Have Firmware! Algorithms/Software Determine Settings Differ from Camera to Camera, Make to Make, Model to Model
  122. 122. A Few Observations: Camera Is Dumb < Input, Just Like a Computer But then Cameras Today are Computers – Have Firmware! Algorithms/Software Determine Settings Differ from Camera to Camera, Make to Make, Model to Model Thus, More Input, Direction, & Control = Improved Results
  123. 123. A Few Observations: Camera Is Dumb < Input, Just Like a Computer But then Cameras Today are Computers – Have Firmware! Algorithms/Software Determine Settings Differ from Camera to Camera, Make to Make, Model to Model Thus, More Input, Direction, & Control = Improved Results In General!
  124. 124. A Few Observations: Camera Is Dumb < Input, Just Like a Computer But then Cameras Today are Computers – Have Firmware! Algorithms/Software Determine Settings Differ from Camera to Camera, Make to Make, Model to Model Thus, More Input, Direction, & Control = Improved Results In General! Suggestion: Exhaust Capabilities of Your Existing Camera < Buying Up
  125. 125. Let’s Dive In!
  126. 126. Analysis of Published Images
  127. 127. Discussion of Some Photo Safari Images  The next eight (8) images were published in the “PSA [Photographic Society of America] Journal”  My article, “An African Photo Safari,” was published in April, 2013.  Images published are noted by :
  128. 128. “Is He Going to Charge?” ISO 400, f/8, 1/1000, -0.3 EV, 70mm Taken at 4:46 PM with soft light. Note shadow of elephant’s ear. What happened to his feet? … Travel space to the right.
  129. 129. “A Lioness Eyeball to Eyeball at Fifteen Feet!” ISO 400, f4.5, 1/500, -1.33 EV, 70mm Image taken at 7:01 AM Chobe National Park, Botswana Image > editing Image as captured in flat light Used wide aperture of f/4.5 due to proximity & to help soften background so that image might appear better focused using the contrast achieved. Note: Dirt kicked up by the kitty’s left paw!
  130. 130. Confrontation – Count the Whiskers!
  131. 131. “Beauty is In the Eye of the Beholder” ISO 640, f/5.6, 1/400, -0.7 EV, 300mm, at 7:33 AM
  132. 132. “Time for a Yawn A Hippo Basking on the Chobe River” ISO 640, f/10, 1/1000, -0.3 EV, 300mm at 3:47 PM
  133. 133. “Courtship Among Sables” ISO 640, f/13, 1/500, -0.7 EV, 300mm, at 9:24 AM
  134. 134. “Colors Galore A Lilac-Breasted Roller” ISO 400, f/8, 1/2000, -0.3EV, 300mm at 8:34 AM
  135. 135. “Show Me Your Teeth!” ISO 800, f/5, 1/320, -0.7 EV, 102mm, at 5:11 PM It was important to have two camera bodies at the ready, one wideangle and one telephoto, as proximity to animals changed from one moment to another.
  136. 136. “A Hungry Looking Croc” ISO 640, f/14, 1/250, 0 EV, 300mm, at 5:16 PM
  137. 137. Analysis of Images  Orientation – Landscape 6  Orientation – Portrait 2
  138. 138. Analysis of Images  Orientation – Landscape 6  Orientation – Portrait 2  ISO – 400 (3) 640 (4) – 800 (1)
  139. 139. Analysis of Images  Orientation – Landscape 6  Orientation – Portrait 2  ISO 400 (3) –  f/stop 4.5 – 5.0 – 640 (4) 5.6 – 8 (2) – – 10 800 (1) – 13 – 14
  140. 140. Analysis of Images  Orientation – Landscape 6  Orientation – Portrait 2  ISO 400 (3) –  f/stop 4.5 – 5.0 – SS 640 (4) 5.6 – 8 (2) – – 10 800 (1) – 13 – 1/250 – 1/320 – 1/400 – 1/500 (2) – 1/1000 (2) – 1/2000 14
  141. 141. Analysis of Images  Orientation – Landscape 6  Orientation – Portrait 2  ISO 400 (3) –  f/stop 4.5 – 5.0 – SS  640 (4) 5.6 – 8 (2) – – 10 800 (1) – 13 – 14 1/250 – 1/320 – 1/400 – 1/500 (2) – 1/1000 (2) – 1/2000 EV -1.33 – -0.7 (3) – -0.3 (3) – 0
  142. 142. Analysis of Images  Focal Length 70mm (2)– 102mm – 300mm (5)
  143. 143. Analysis of Images  Focal Length 70mm (2)–  Time of Day AM: 7-8 (2) PM: 3-4– 102mm – 300mm (5) – 8-9 – 4-5 – 5-6 (2) 9-10
  144. 144. Analysis of Images ABCs Head 1 – Warthog, Hippopotamus Body 5 – Elephant, Lioness, Roller, Lion, Crocodile Habitat 1 – Sables
  145. 145. Analysis of Images ABCs Head 1 – Warthog, Hippopotamus Body 5 – Elephant, Lioness, Roller, Lion, Crocodile Habitat 1 – Sables Also: Confrontation 3 – Elephant, Lioness, Crocodile
  146. 146. Analysis of Images ABCs Head 1 – Warthog, Hippopotamus Body 5 – Elephant, Lioness, Roller, Lion, Crocodile Habitat 1 – Sables Also: Confrontation 3 – Elephant, Lioness, Crocodile WARNING! USE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN CONFRONTING ANY ANIMAL, ESPECIALLY PREDATORS!
  147. 147. Analysis of Images And Ds – Every image published contained a focused “D” element Teeth Hippo, Lion, Croc Tusks Elephant, Warthog Hair Warthog, Hippo Whiskers Lioness Horns Sables Tongue Lion Feathers Roller (color & texture)
  148. 148. Analysis of Images Composition – Rule of Thirds “The guideline proposes that an image should be imagined as divided into nine equal parts by two equally-spaced horizontal lines and two equally-spaced vertical lines, and that important compositional elements should be placed along these lines or their intersections. Source: Wikipedia/Rule of thirds
  149. 149. Analysis of Images Composition – Rule of Thirds “The guideline proposes that an image should be imagined as divided into nine equal parts by two equally-spaced horizontal lines and two equally-spaced vertical lines, and that important compositional elements should be placed along these lines or their intersections. “Proponents of the technique claim that aligning a subject with these points creates more tension, energy and interest in the composition than simply centering the subject would.” Source: Wikipedia/Rule of thirds
  150. 150. Eye on Upper Horizontal Power Line – Right Tusk on Right Vertical Power Line
  151. 151. “Center Power Frame” My term used when deviating from generally accepted Rule of 1/3s – Especially in “Confrontation” images
  152. 152. Use of “Power Point” Use of “Power Point”
  153. 153. Eye at Upper Right Power Point Body of Roller in Center Power Frame
  154. 154. Heads in Center Power Frame
  155. 155. Head in Center Power Frame – Lower Teeth at Lower Left Power Point
  156. 156. Analysis of Images Power Points Warthog (2 – Tusk & Eye), Roller, Lion, Croc Power Lines Elephant, Hippo, Lion Power Frame Elephant, Lioness, Hippo, Roller, Sables, Lion
  157. 157. Analysis of Images Power Points Warthog (2 – Tusk & Eye), Roller, Lion, Croc Power Lines Elephant, Hippo, Lion Power Frame Elephant, Lioness, Hippo, Roller, Sables, Lion Note: When varying from “accepted rules,” Do So Boldly!
  158. 158. Suggestions Set grid lines on viewfinder/LCD to better consider Rule of Thirds
  159. 159. Suggestions Set grid lines on viewfinder/LCD to better consider Rule of Thirds However, frame image larger than desired to allow for some cropping Realize this approach will diminish file size
  160. 160. Suggestions Set grid lines on viewfinder/LCD to better consider Rule of Thirds However, frame image larger than desired to allow for some cropping Realize this approach will diminish file size Consider Perfect Resize (formerly Genuine Fractals) Excellent tool for enlarging images while preserving resolution
  161. 161. Overall Conclusions  Diversify image orientation: Landscape versus Portrait
  162. 162. Overall Conclusions  Diversify image orientation: Note: Landscape versus Portrait Most magazine covers use Portrait
  163. 163. Overall Conclusions  Diversify image orientation: Note:  ISO: Landscape versus Portrait Most magazine covers use Portrait Consider “noise” issues with higher ISO settings when purchasing
  164. 164. Overall Conclusions  Diversify image orientation: Note:  ISO: f/stop: Landscape versus Portrait Most magazine covers use Portrait Consider “noise” issues with higher ISO settings when purchasing 3 <f/8 2 @ f/8 3>f/8
  165. 165. Overall Conclusions  Diversify image orientation: Note:  ISO: f/stop: Landscape versus Portrait Most magazine covers use Portrait Consider “noise” issues with higher ISO settings when purchasing 3 <f/8 2 @ f/8 Consider “f/8 and be there” Technical: 3>f/8 (Attributed to Arthur “Weegee” Fellig) Learn the “sweet spot” of each lens Philosophical: “ … and be there” … in the moment!
  166. 166. f/stop Learn what every aperture setting In each lens With each camera body Produces with respect to “Blur” or “Softness”
  167. 167. What areas of whole composition are affected & how? Study & Analyze DOF!
  168. 168. FAVOR UNDEREXPOSURE!
  169. 169. Overall Conclusions EV: All but one (1) image < 0 EV Only one (1) @ 0 EV FAVOR UNDEREXPOSURE!
  170. 170. Original unedited image – RAW converted to JPEG ISO 400, f/4.5, 1/500, -1.3 EV, 70mm, at 7:02 AM – Captured in Flat Light < Sunrise
  171. 171. “Gym Kitty – Look at That Definition!” Previous image cropped somewhat & edited in Aperture & Photoshop Note cub in right background above mother’s face
  172. 172. Rule of Thirds Grid Applied: Two Power Points – Shoulder and Head, with “Travel Space”
  173. 173. ISO 800, f/20, 1/160, -0.3 EV, 80mm, at 5:59 PM – RAW conversion to JPEG Underexposure – One in a series for possible merging to achieve greater contrast - HDR
  174. 174. Previous image, with editing to remove shadows and enhance highlights
  175. 175. Underexposed RAW to JPEG – Taken as part of +/- EV sequence for HDR editing
  176. 176. Preliminary HDR Editing
  177. 177. Just having some fun!
  178. 178. Areas that are overexposed: “White” “Hot” “Blown out” _______________________ CANNOT BE RECOVERED! Overexposed images leave little to no room for editing!
  179. 179. What areas of entire composition are affected & how? Manage and Control DOF Depth of Field
  180. 180. Aperture Management 1. Select aperture (f/stop) for desired DOF, using Aperture Priority 2. If shutter speed is sufficient, as desired, leave ISO as is 3. If shutter speed is > needed, reduce ISO to reduce potential “noise” 4. If > shutter speed is needed, as desired for conditions, increase ISO, But Sparingly 5. TAKE TEST SHOTS ANY TIME THAT LIGHTING CONDITIONS CHANGE!
  181. 181. Overall Conclusions Shutter speed (SS) Use higher SS only when needed, as requires more light & higher ISO However, consider not only what the subject is doing; But what the subject is capable of regarding potential motion!
  182. 182. Overall Conclusions 1/250 Croc Should have been higher due to potential motion! 1/320 Lion Should have been 1/500 1/500 Lioness, sables OK ( unless the lioness jumped into our vehicle!) 1/400 Warthog OK 1/1000 Elephant, hippo OK, but could have been lower with hippo 1/2000 Roller OK, if not even higher If had it to do over: Would have considered using 1/500 for all but elephant & roller, due to potential for motion with those two animals
  183. 183. Overall Conclusions Lens: Invest in a long lens! Prime versus Zoom considerations Five (5) published images shot at 300mm!
  184. 184. ISO 400, f/9, 1/160, 0.3 EV, 18mm, at 11:12 AM
  185. 185. ISO 400, f/9, 1/160, 0.3 EV, 18mm, at 11:12 AM Note leopard on lower tree limb!
  186. 186. ISO 400, f/9, 1/60, 0.7 EV, 400mm, at 11:02 AM Used tripod as monopod in vehicle, with engine turned off to negate vibrations Edited in Aperture, Photoshop, Perfect Resize, Photomatix, & iPhoto – No stone unturned!
  187. 187. ISO 400, f/9, 1/80, 0 EV, 135mm, at 11:12 AM – Using tripod as monopod Edited in Aperture, Photomatix, & iPhoto – Work in Progress (WIP): Needs Photoshop editing
  188. 188. Overall Conclusions Time of Day (TOD): AM: 7 - 8 (2) 8 – 9 (1) 9-10 (1) PM: 3-4 (1) 4-5 (1) 5-6 (2)
  189. 189. Overall Conclusions Light is the final arbiter of all photography!
  190. 190. Overall Conclusions Light is the final arbiter of all photography! USE THE LIGHT!
  191. 191. Overall Conclusions Light is the final arbiter of all photography! USE THE LIGHT! Optimum wildlife photography … Get up and out early And stay out late!
  192. 192. Overall Conclusions Light is the final arbiter of all photography! USE THE LIGHT! Optimum wildlife photography … Get up and out early And stay out late! Use the soft light of the Golden Hours to your advantage!
  193. 193. Overall Conclusions USE of LIGHT Soft versus Flat Soft: Elephant, Warthog, Hippo, Roller, Sables, Croc – 6 = Majority! Flat: Lioness (early AM < sunrise), Lion (in shade) - 2
  194. 194. Overall Conclusions USE of LIGHT Soft versus Flat Soft: Elephant, Warthog, Hippo, Roller, Sables, Croc – 6 = Majority! Flat: Lioness (early AM < sunrise), Lion (in shade) - 2 ___________________________________ Catchlights: Warthog, Roller, Croc - 3
  195. 195. Overall Conclusions CATCH the MOMENT! USE BURST!
  196. 196. Overall Conclusions CATCH the MOMENT! USE BURST! All eight (8) published images were shot using burst! Each image was one of a sequence shot at high fps!
  197. 197. Use Burst – Continuous High, Sport Mode For High fps (frame per second) Rate To Capture Motion Sequences Lilac-Breasted Roller ISO 400, f/5.6, 1/2000, 0 EV, 250mm, at 3:49:46 PM
  198. 198. ISO 400, f/5.6, 1/1600, 0.3 EV, 200mm, at 3:52:09 PM
  199. 199. ISO 400, f/5.6, 1/1600, 0.3 EV, 200mm, at 3:52:09
  200. 200. ISO 400, f/5.6, 1/1600, 0.3 EV, 200mm, at 3:52:09 Both captured in same second: 3:52:09
  201. 201. Use Burst to Capture Quick Changes in Animal Behavior ISO 400, f/8, 1/1000, 0.3 EV, 300mm At 9:12:37 AM This Image & The Following Series of Three (3) Additional Images Are Unedited All Camera Settings, But for Time as Metadata, Are Identical
  202. 202. Use Burst to Capture Quick Changes in Animal Behavior At 9:12:37 AM At 9:12:38 AM
  203. 203. Use Burst to Capture Quick Changes in Animal Behavior At 9:12:37 AM At 9:12:38 AM At 9:12:39 AM
  204. 204. Use Burst to Capture Quick Changes in Animal Behavior At 9:12:37 AM At 9:12:38 AM At 9:12:39 AM At 9:12:39 AM
  205. 205. Same Sequence of Four (4) Images with Preliminary Editing 9:12:37 AM
  206. 206. Same Sequence of Four (4) Images with Preliminary Editing 9:12:37 AM 9:12:38 AM
  207. 207. Same Sequence of Four (4) Images with Preliminary Editing 9:12:37 AM 9:12:38 AM 9:12:39 AM
  208. 208. Same Sequence of Four (4) Images with Preliminary Editing 9:12:37 AM 9:12:38 AM 9:12:39 AM 9:12:39 AM
  209. 209. Which image do you find the most appealing?
  210. 210. Which image do you find the most appealing? By using burst, you have a choice!
  211. 211. Use Burst To Improve Chances of Capturing an image in sharp focus ISO 6400, f/5.3, 1/30, 0 EV, 210mm At 6:23 PM Emphasis on: 1/30, hand-held, no brace Flash not permitted “A Cat’s Curiosity”
  212. 212. SOME TIPS & TECHNIQUES Just a few as time is short!
  213. 213. When time & conditions permit: Bracket EVs Bracket f/stops
  214. 214. Practice Manual Focus For quick use, especially in conditions of wind effecting grass, brush, etc.
  215. 215. Practice Manual Focus For quick use, especially in conditions of wind effecting grass, brush, etc. Do not waste time waiting for autofocus to lock focus points and Miss a shot!
  216. 216. Consider using fewer than all focus points available In your camera
  217. 217. Consider using fewer than all focus points available In your camera Selection of all focus points may result in points “jumping” in some cameras with subject(s) in motion … Causing a missed shot or an out of focus image
  218. 218. Consider using a single focus point In conjunction with “back button focusing”
  219. 219. Carry a Point & Shoot (P&S) When more serious camera equipment is packed & To tell your story
  220. 220. Manage ISO to Obtain Optimum Aperture & Shutter Speed
  221. 221. Seek Stability
  222. 222. Seek Stability Breathing control
  223. 223. Seek Stability Breathing control Brace of any sort
  224. 224. Seek Stability Breathing control Brace of any sort Tripod/Monopod – Use More!
  225. 225. Seek Stability Breathing control Brace of any sort Tripod/Monopod – Use More! Remote/cable release
  226. 226. Seek Stability Breathing control Brace of any sort Tripod/Monopod – Use More! Remote/cable release Timer delay
  227. 227. Seek Stability Breathing control Brace of any sort Tripod/Monopod – Use More! Remote/cable release Timer delay Mirror Lock-up
  228. 228. Greater Stability = Ability to use slower shutter speed &/or Ability to use smaller aperture &/0r Ability to use lower ISO for less “noise”
  229. 229. When Birding Larger birds usually have lower wing-beat frequency = Lower shutter speed required to freeze motion ______________________________________________
  230. 230. “Cleared for Takeoff” A Marabou Stork ISO 800, f/5.6, 1/320, -1.3 EV, 230mm At 5:46 PM
  231. 231. When Birding Larger birds usually have lower wing-beat frequency = Lower shutter speed required to freeze motion ______________________________________________ Smaller birds usually have faster wing-beat frequency = Higher shutter speed required to freeze motion
  232. 232. “Lilac-Breasted Roller” ISO 400, f/7.1, 1/1600, 0 EV, 160mm, at 4:16 PM
  233. 233. When Birding Exception to This “Rule” When “Freezing” Motion of Other Elements Is Desired
  234. 234. “African Fish Eagle – Late for Breakfast: 10:44 AM” ISO 400, f/5, 1/2000, 0.3 EV, 170mm – Water Droplets “Frozen”
  235. 235. Never Delete An Image in the Field!
  236. 236. Never Delete An Image in the Field! Possibility of reformatting entire memory card!
  237. 237. Backup All Files ASAP!
  238. 238. Use Filters for Effect Two schools of thought: 1. Least glass between sensor and subject optimum 2. Use filter for effect& to better protect lens element
  239. 239. Both images: ISO 400, f/10, 1/320, 1.7 EV, 110mm CPL filter turned “off” – 8:41:47 AM CPL filter turned “on” – 8:41:52
  240. 240. REMEMBER Landscapes “Draw In” _________________________________
  241. 241. REMEMBER Landscapes “Draw In” _________________________________ Wildlife “Jumps Out!”
  242. 242. CLEAN! CLEAN! CLEAN!
  243. 243. PRACTICE! PRACTICE! PRACTICE!
  244. 244. The Ultimate Quest! Whether Flying, Driving, Photographing … Natural Mechanical
  245. 245. The Ultimate Quest! Whether Flying, Driving, Photographing … Natural Mechanical WITH PRACTICE!
  246. 246. Summation Covered This Evening: Overview of Photography & Bases for Analysis Analysis of Published Images Some Tips & Techniques
  247. 247. In Closing If making a trip to the “bush” in Africa, you should be prepared to witness a full range of animal behavior as occurs in the “wild:” animals being attacked; attacking; mating; bleeding, exhibiting injury, dying and death; animals eating other animals; birthing, depending on the season, etc. You learn to yield to mass, teeth, tusks, fangs, and more while in Africa! I omitted scenes that included blood and wounded animals lest anyone in tonight’s audience be offended. There is immense beauty to be seen in Africa, but there is also much to be seen of life as it is in the wild, as has occurred for millennia. **************************** Should anyone have questions, please feel free to discuss with me after tonight’s meeting or email me at: don@rustic41creations.com Thank you for your participation and interest! Feedback is both solicited and welcomed.
  248. 248. Credits  Chillibreeze/ PointO: Maps of Africa & Botswana - Slides #14 & #25 http://www.24point0.com/  CanStockPhoto: Stopwatch - Slide #16 https://www.canstockphoto.com/  Sweet Clip Art: Puzzle Pieces - Slide #18 https://www.sweetclipart.com  Apple iPhoto: Travel Maps - Slides #21 & #22  Wikipedia: Source Material - Slides #149 & #150
  249. 249. ISO 400, f/10, 1/800, 0.3 EV, 220 mm, at 8:01 AM Thank You for Your Time and Attention!
  250. 250. Thanks Also to Ken Knight, President and Cathy Peyton, 1st Vice President Hampton Roads Digital Shutterbug Club
  251. 251. “Any ?s”
  252. 252. Goodnight “Sunset on the Zambezi” ISO 400, f/9, 1/1000, -0.3 EV, 66mm, at 5:42 PM
  253. 253. THE END “The Beauty of a Double Rainbow” Colors over Victoria Falls – ISO 320, f/22, 1/125, -1.0 EV, 18mm, Tripod, at 9:42 AM
  254. 254. ENCORE! “And When There Is No Game, What Do Photographers Do? Take Photos of Other Photographers!”

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