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2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan
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2001 Socialization Of Stress, Coping, & Adjustment In Japan

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Socialization of Stress, Coping, and Adjustment in Japan. 2001. A Power Point given as a doctoral dissertation research talk and an academic teaching/research job talk.

Socialization of Stress, Coping, and Adjustment in Japan. 2001. A Power Point given as a doctoral dissertation research talk and an academic teaching/research job talk.

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  • 1. Socialization of Stress, Coping, and Adjustment in Japan Don Kilburg, Ph.D. DePaul University Chicago, Illinois (2001)
  • 2. Why is Japan interesting for a study of stress and coping? <ul><li>Homogeneous population </li></ul><ul><li>Most technological non-Western nation </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional & modern culture side-by-side </li></ul>
  • 3. The basic socio-emotional clash between Americans and Japanese <ul><li>The Stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Americans: Japanese are robotic conformists. When they have intention it is devious and inscrutable. </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese: Americans are selfish individuals. When they have intention it is boisterous and overly direct. </li></ul>
  • 4. What are the implications of this Japan-U.S. clash? Reynolds: Americans are more accepting of activity directed toward changing objective reality and Japanese are more accepting of actively directed toward changing one’s inner attitudes toward or attention to objective reality (1976). American proverbs : “The squeaky wheel gets the oil”, “Don’t beat around the bush”, “Look ‘em in the eye”, “Don’t take ‘no’ for an answer”, “Don’t go behind my back”. Japanese proverbs : “The nail that sticks up gets hammered down”, “ By beating around the bush, one drives out the snake”, “Wear silk on your teeth”, “the cat that doesn’t ‘meow’ catches more mice”, “ A go-between needs a 1000 pair of sandals”.
  • 5. Speculation about the Japanese style of control/coping <ul><li>Watts: “{The Japanese} never tries to change things by asserting himself against them; he yields to their full force and either pushes them slightly out of direct line or else moves them right around in the opposite direction without ever encountering their direct opposition” (1958). </li></ul>Manifested in many martial, spiritual, & psychological “ products” of Japan, e.g. Aikido, Zen, Morita Therapy
  • 6. Primary & Secondary Control <ul><li>(Weisz et al., 1984) </li></ul><ul><li>Primary control : aimed at influencing existing realities (pervasive in America) [e.g. opening a window when hot] </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary control : aimed at accommodating to existing realities (pervasive in Japan) [e.g. taking off layer of clothing when hot] </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Primary control : influences existing realities – in a covert way (pervasive in Japan) [e.g., issuing subtle cues, using go-betweens] </li></ul>
  • 7. Broad Goals of my Research <ul><li>To begin empirical work on Japanese “indirect primary control” by way of examining the socialization of stress-coping-adjustment in Japan </li></ul><ul><li>To develop a set of measures for a future Japan-U.S. comparison </li></ul>
  • 8. What’s on Japanese peoples’ minds about children’s stress? <ul><li>Children are under a lot of stress </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline seems to be breaking down </li></ul><ul><li>Academic credentialism may be to blame </li></ul><ul><li>Rote learning system need overhaul? </li></ul>
  • 9. Japanese Kids’ Stress <ul><li>Open Questions about Age & Sex differences… </li></ul><ul><li>Some studies have found older children report more stress (Yamamoto & Davis, 1982; Kilburg, 1997) others have not (Nagane, 1991). </li></ul><ul><li>Some studies have found boys report more education-related stress (Yamamoto & Davis, 1982) others have not (Nagane, 1991; Kilburg, 1997). </li></ul><ul><li>Many studies have found girls report more stress for “health/fitness” and “peer relations” (sources above) </li></ul>
  • 10. Japanese Kids’ Coping <ul><li>Like in U.S., C oping depends on context (Ohsako, 1994) - e.g. w/ schoolwork: “info-seeking”, “social support”; w/ family: “patience”, “avoidance”. </li></ul><ul><li>Like in U.S., Girls report more social support use (Kilburg, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Un- like in U.S., Boys not report more more aggressi on use (Kilburg, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese kids are less aggressive than U.S. kids (Zahn-Waxler, et al., 1996) </li></ul>
  • 11. Japanese Kids’ Adjustment <ul><li>Like in U.S., whether coping is useful depend s on context (Ohsako, 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Like in U.S., not clear what strategies are best w/ what contexts & why (Kilburg, 1997) </li></ul>
  • 12. Maternal Socialization, in the U.S. and Japan <ul><li>Mothers’ a cademic expectations are higher in Japan than in U.S. (Crystal, et al., 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese Moms use more induction, less deduction, than U.S. moms (Zahn-Waxler, et al., 1996; Shwalb & Shwalb, 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>It’s not clear which maternal styles are best for kids’ adjustment (Kilburg, 1997) </li></ul>
  • 13. Some Hypotheses & Research Questions from my work <ul><li>Girls will report more stress than boys , for health/fitness and peer relations contexts (Kilburg, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Older kids will report more stress than y ounger kids, for an education context (Kilburg, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Girls will report more social support coping than boys (Kilburg, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>What kinds of coping categories will emerge? </li></ul><ul><li>Will there be sex & age differences on the basis of coping categories that emerge? </li></ul><ul><li>Will there be connections between the mother and child data? </li></ul>
  • 14. General Prediction: <ul><li>Data would suggest that the Japanese coping message is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Keep your anger to yourself, stay on task with the problem, and remain cheerful and courteous throughout.” </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. Research participants: Japanese Fuzoku Jr. High Fuzoku Elementary Kyohoku Jr. High Tsu Higashi High <ul><li>600 M-C pairs </li></ul><ul><li>grades 5, 8, 10 </li></ul><ul><li>(10-11, 13-14, 15-16) </li></ul><ul><li>Mie-Ken, Honshu </li></ul>Kids from Mie
  • 16. Where I collected data: Mie
  • 17. Materials <ul><li>Everyday Life Events Scale for Children (ELESC); 43 items </li></ul><ul><li>Children’s Inventory of Coping (CIC); 65 items </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization Inventory of Coping (CIC); 65 items (Analogue of CIC) </li></ul><ul><li>School Performance and Well-Being (Life Satisfaction); 10 items </li></ul><ul><ul><li>both kid and mom versions </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. A Look at 4 Stress-Coping Contexts: Coping with: “You had an argument with your sister or brother” Coping with: “Kids were mean to you” Coping with: “You got worried about having a lot of schoolwork to do” Coping with: “You were upset about your appearance or did not like how you looked” Context A: Peer Relations Context B: Family/Home Life Context C: Education Context D: Health/Fitness
  • 19. Sample Stress Item <ul><li>A. Did it B. How many C. How much stress happen times in the past did you usually feel </li></ul><ul><li>to you in the week did it when it past week? happen? happened? </li></ul><ul><li> (Circle one) (Circle one) (Circle one) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1. You and your sister </li></ul><ul><li>or brother disagreed Yes No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A Little Some A Lot </li></ul>
  • 20. Sample Coping Item <ul><li>When people have problems they do many different things. When you had the problem we just asked you about (kids were mean to you), about how much did you do each of the following things? (Circle only one answer for each question) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>0 1 2 3 4 </li></ul><ul><li> | | | | | </li></ul><ul><li>None A little A moderate Much Very Much </li></ul><ul><li>at all amount </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>11. I thought about all the things I could possibly do to fix the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>0 1 2 3 4 </li></ul>Mother version is analog
  • 21. Sample Adjustment Items <ul><li>1. How good is your attendance record for school? (Circle one) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>0 1 2 3 4 </li></ul><ul><li> | | | | | </li></ul><ul><li>Very Bad Bad So-so Good Very Good </li></ul><ul><li>5. How satisfied are you about how you look (your face, your body, etc.)? (Circle one) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>0 1 2 3 4 </li></ul><ul><li> | | | | | </li></ul><ul><li>Very Unsatisfied Neither Satisfied Very Satisfied </li></ul><ul><li>Unsatisfied Satisfied nor </li></ul><ul><li>Unsatisfied </li></ul>
  • 22. Design/Procedure <ul><li>2 (SEX: m/f) X 3 (GRADE: 5/8/10) X 4 (COPING CONTEXT: family/home life, health/fitness, education, and peer relations) </li></ul><ul><li>paper & pencil; kids complete at school, moms at home </li></ul>
  • 23. Statistics <ul><li>Used MANOVAs and T-tests to measure effects of Sex & Age on stress, coping, and maternal socialization of coping </li></ul><ul><li>Used Correlational analyses to measure connection between coping and adjustment, and socialization of coping </li></ul><ul><li>Used Factor Analyses to measure groupings in coping and socialization of coping </li></ul>
  • 24. Top 5 Daily Life Events, Stressors Results
  • 25. H 1. Girls will report more stress than boys for health/fitness and peer relations contexts ( SUPPORTED ) Health/Fitness Stress (p<.0001, Male M=.55, Male SD=.55, Female M=.90, Female SD=.59) and Peer Relations Stress (p=.005, Male M=.67, Male SD=.59, Female M=.87, Female SD=.65).
  • 26. H 2. Older kids will report more stress than younger , for the education context ( REJECTED ) 5 th Grade: .76, 8 th Grade: .89, 10 th Grade: .87 (No difference) BUT other differences were found… Eighth graders reported significantly more Family/Home Life Stress than both 5 th graders and 10 th graders (p=.004, p<.0001, respectively). Fifth graders reported significantly less Health/Fitness Stress than both 8 th graders and 10 th graders (p=.014, p=.023, respectively).
  • 27. Top 5 Coping Strategies
  • 28. H3. Girls will use more Social Support than Boys (Supported) <ul><li>Social Support Seeking (EF & PF) as a Function of Sex. To address the specific issue of sex differences in social support, a t-test was conducted. Girls reported significantly more use than boys did for the social-seeking/emotion-focused coping item of “I talked to someone – so I would feel better” (#18). Girls had a mean of 1.24 (SD=1.32) and boys a mean of .95 (SD=1.17). </li></ul>
  • 29. Exploratory Factor Analysis on Coping data: <ul><li>1) ANTAGONISM: encompasses anti-social, aggressive items. (e.g., “I tried to hurt someone”, “I tried to annoy someone”) </li></ul><ul><li>2) PROBLEM-SOLVING: includes the classic hallmarks of the planful, “working out” of issues. (e.g., “I tried to get more information”, “I thought about all the things I could do to fix the problem”) </li></ul><ul><li>3) CHEERFUL DEFERENCE: embodies coping that strives to present a joyful and respectful tone to others, perhaps to remedy an issue. (e.g., “I tried to be polite”, “I tried to be cheerful”) </li></ul>(Factor 1 Alpha = .9627, Factor 2 Alpha = .9055, Factor 3 Alpha = .7950; Total Var. Exp: 43%)
  • 30. Child Coping: No Age Differences, One Sex Difference A highly significant main effect was revealed for SEX, at p=.009 (F{3, 386}). The difference between males and females for Problem-Solving is significant at p=.017. Females reported more Use of Problem-Solving
  • 31. Mothers’ Encouragement and Discouragement of Coping by Child age: One effect for Antagonism There were no initial significant differences between the grades in the above chart. However, one univariate effect for Grade was detected between 5 th and 10 th for Antagonism (p=.001). Further, the overall trend of reduced encouragement and discouragement across age appears clearly in the graphic representation of the data. Difference between 5 th & 10 th Grade is significant for Antagonism: Discouragement of Antagonism decreases
  • 32. Mothers’ Encouragement of Problem-Solving & Child Use of Problem-Solving Maternal Discouragement/Encouragement of Problem-Solving was positively correlated with Child Problem-Solving (r=.10), at p<.05. Mothers who tended to encourage Problem-Solving had Children who tended to use Problem-Solving. Mothers who tended to encourage Problem-Solving More had Children who tended to use Problem- Solving more.
  • 33. Coping and Adjustment <ul><li>Out of the three coping types, only Antagonism was correlated with adjustment. Namely, Antagonism was negatively correlated with both School Performance (-.15) and Life Satisfaction (-.13), at the p=.01 significance level. </li></ul>
  • 34. Discussion: Stress Findings and Explanations <ul><li>Girls are under no less education stress than boys, perhaps due to shift in value of girls’ education </li></ul><ul><li>Girls are under more health/fitness & peer relations stress, perhaps due to universal sex-roles/expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Junior high may be a unique time of health/fitness and family/homelife stress, perhaps due to strain of the adolescence and unique aspects of Japanese Jr.High </li></ul><ul><li>That older kids did not report more education stress may be because of vocational high school? </li></ul>
  • 35. Basic Coping Findings and Explanations <ul><li>Girls use more Problem-Solving (reflective of female maturity rate?), but no sex dif. For Antagonism or Cheerful Deference (unique to Japan?) </li></ul>
  • 36. Basic Adjustment Findings and Explanations <ul><li>Antagonism was negatively correlated with School Performance and Life Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Kids who use aggressive types of coping appear to do poorly in terms of school attendance, grades, and satisfaction with multiple areas of life </li></ul>
  • 37. Basic Socialization Findings and Explanations <ul><li>Only 1 difference (for Antagonism) in how Mom’s treat their kids, for the exploratory categories – (mothers may have similar goals for boys/girls, or measures may lacked necessary connection, fathers could be different, generic social desirability responding?, etc. ) </li></ul><ul><li>Mothers encourage/discourage less for older kids, presumably a function of independence </li></ul><ul><li>Link between Mothers’ encouragement of Problem-Solving and kids use of it </li></ul>
  • 38. Basic Implications <ul><li>There is evidence that the Japanese coping message is: “keep your anger to yourself, stay on task with the problem, and remain cheerful/courteous throughout” (in line with overall implications of Indirect Primary Control and Japanese society/culture). </li></ul><ul><li>To what extent this is culturally unique would depend on comparison with American data – the next step </li></ul>
  • 39. The End

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