Modern Africa
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Modern Africa

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An overview of African history

An overview of African history

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Modern Africa Modern Africa Presentation Transcript

  • Modern Africa Can it change soon enough to meet the needs of its people?
  • Colonial heritage Facing modern issues with a traditional mentality The legacy of colonialism resists modernization
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  • Struggling to be free Europe's colonization of Africa underdeveloped the countries. Having exploited the resources without making significant progress in developing the colonies it controlled, further impoverished countries without significant infrastructure improvements. The slave trade and virtual slavery in many of Europe’s former colonies in Africa, reduced the countryside labor needed to cultivate crops and develop education even after the African countries had gained their independence.
  • African issues Nearly 90 million Africans could be infected by HIV in the next 20 years if more is not done to combat the epidemic, the UN has warned. "Millions of new infections can be prevented if Africa and the rest of the world decide to tackle Aids as an exceptional crisis that has the potential to devastate entire societies and economies," said UNAids chief Peter Piot.
  • Global Warming Kilimanjaro's glaciers are disappearing. The ice fields Ernest Hemingway once described as "wide as all the world, great, high, and unbelievably white in the sun" have lost 82 percent of their ice since 1912—the year their full extent was first measured.
  • Desertification According to UNEP, about 36 million square kilometers, or 1/3 of the land on the earth, and one 1/4 of its total population is affected by desertification.
  • Humanitarian crisis In a message marking World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought, Kofi Annan warned that increasing land degradation is threatening food production and triggering humanitarian and economic crises.
  • Shrinking Lake Chad Once one of the continent's largest bodies of fresh water, it has decreased in size with climate change and heavier human demand for water.
  • Ardamata Camp - Sorghum Distribution: Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in Ardamata camp outside of Geneina in West Darfur receive sorghum provided by USAID through WFP. United States food aid to Sudan
  • Darfur debacle The conflict in Darfur, in eastern Sudan, began 2004 when black Sudanese rebels attacked government property, accusing the government of neglecting Darfur in favor of the Arab population in Sudan.
  • Thousands of Sudanese have been driven from their homes in Darfur by Janjaweed attacks. Salah Muhammad drives a dump truck for a new $89 million UN program, rebuilding the roads to Kenya and Uganda out of southern Sudan. The UN’s goal is to finish one kilometer of road each day.
  • In 2000 the United States began accepting 3,800 refugees from one of Africa's longest civil wars. They were just some of the thousands of young men, known as Lost Boys, who had been orphaned or otherwise separated from their families in the chaos of a brutal conflict that has ravaged Sudan since 1983. Santino Majok Chuor one month after arriving in Houston, Texas.
  • Ethiopia The famous "Face of Famine" shot of Birhan Woldu from 1984. (CBC/ Phillipe Billard)
  • Birhan Woldu Though by now internationally well known as "The Face That Changed the World" in the 1984 Ethiopian Famine, Birhan Woldu is quietly pursuing her dream of higher education in Ethiopia. Now aged 23, Birhan is in her second year of Agricultural College and she hopes to later combine this with a degree in nursing to prepare her for work among poor farm families in the largely impoverished northern provinces of Ethiopia.
  • Kenyan women build new lives Villagers and tourists performing traditional dances in Umoja. The women earn money by selling the bead necklaces they make. Residents of Umoja working on the roof for a new hut in their village, where about three dozen women live. Some of the women say their husbands forced them from their homes because they had been raped.
  • Trouser Police The Mungiki sect is blamed for the attacks A group of young men started assaulting women wearing trousers, stripping them naked in 2003. Women in Kenya held a demonstration in the western town of Eldoret demanding the government to take strong action to protect them.
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  • Black Hawk Down! This ill-fated 1993 U.S. Army mission in Somalia started when an assault force of Delta Force commandos backed up by U.S. Army Rangers were dropped by helicopter deep into Mogadishu to capture two senior lieutenants of a Somali warlord. The mission is successful and the wanted persons are captured and taken into American custody. However, when Somali militia armed with RPGs down two Black Hawk helicopters, a 30 minute mission becomes a pitched battle between the American forces and Somali militia. Michael Durant's helicopter heading out over Mogadishu on October 3, 1993. Canadian Military in Somalia 1992
  • Female Genital Mutilation
    • 135 million girls have undergone FGM in the world. About 6,000 procedures are completed daily.
    • It is mostly practiced in Africa and countries in the Middle East. It also occurs in parts of Asia, North and
    • Latin America, and Europe.
    • Reports show that FGM is
    • practiced in 28 African countries.
  • Critics ask why Washington did nothing to stop the genocide in Rwanda. In the campaign to create hatred and fear of the Tutsi, the Rwandan President played upon memories of past domination by the minority. It was only after the military had launched attacks with devastating effect on masses of unarmed Tutsi that civilian assailants, armed with such weapons as machetes, hammers, and clubs, finished the slaughter .
  • Some people become refugees in an instant, as a matter of life or death. The UN estimates 180,000 Rwandan Hutu refugees vanished in their trek across Congo.
  • Africa's first National Park is home to the endangered mountain gorilla. It is also the only source of hardwood in the war-ravaged region from which to make good quality charcoal. The charcoal manufacturers use the rebel occupation to conceal their business activities. Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, July 2007 Virunga National Park
  • Blood diamonds Half the size of Illinois, Sierra Leone is trying to recover from a devastating civil war also known as the “Diamond Conflict” which killed thousands and displaced 2 million people in 1991-93. This seventeen-year- old lost both hands to rebels’ machetes .
  • U.N Peacekeepers
  • Lake Nyos
    • Very rarely, CO2/CO emitted from volcanoes in high enough concentrations to kill people by asphyxiation
    • Sudden overturn of Lake Nyos, Cameroon, partially occuping a volcanic caldera, released dense cloud of gas that settled in nearby villages, killing 2000.
  • Ebola outbreak Two outbreaks of the ebola virus last year killed 70 people in Gabon, and health officials responsible for tracking and containing such things returned recently to the village of Mayibout, site of the first outbreak.
  • Sudanese slaves await redemption in Madhol, Sudan, in December 1997. An Arab trader sold 132 former slaves, women and children, for $13,200 (in Sudanese money) to a member of Christian Solidarity International. Mode rn slavery (AP Photo )
  • Zambia HIV/AIDS orphans The HIV/AIDS epidemic is ravaging Zambia. Nearly 1 million Zambians are HIV positive or have AIDS. An estimated 100,000 died of the epidemic in 2004. Over a half-million Zambian children have been orphaned. Life expectancy at birth is just under 40.
  • Traditions lost The Zulu of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa belong to the larger Nguni linguistic group whose origin is lost in an oral tradition that precedes recorded history.
  • Apartheid While its per capita income of about $3000 is the highest in Africa, the disparity between whites and blacks, a legacy of apartheid is glaring. Soweto slums
  • AIDS/HIV Even the young take part in HIV/AIDS awareness campaigns, as shown here in eastern Cape.
  • Standard of living is GDP per capita A broader meaning of the standard of living includes quality of life indicators such as those contained in the Human Development Index . Current development assistance supports current reforms to elicit the trade, investment, and entrepreneurial responses needed to provide Africans more widespread and lasting opportunities to improve their standard of living.
  • Links
    • National Geographic.com/news/2003/09/kilimanjaroglaciers
    • http://www.nordlys.net/travel/africa/natives/zulu-6.jpg
    • http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/default.stm
    • http:// www.csmonitor.com/world/africa.html
    • CNN.com/WORLD/africa/archive/index
    • Answers.com/topic/sudan