European Cultural History Mr. Johnson World Geography IB
First Europeans About 80 percent of Europeans arose from primitive hunters who arrived about 40,000 years ago, endured the long ice age and then expanded rapidly to dominate the continent, a new study shows. Researchers analyzing the Y chromosome taken from 1,007 men from 25 different locations in Europe found a pattern that suggests four out of five of the men shared a common male ancestor about 40,000 years ago. A research team co-directed by Erik Trinkaus, professor of anthropology at Washington University in St. Louis, has dated a human jawbone from a Romanian bear hibernation cave to between 34,000 and 36,000 years ago. That makes it the earliest known modern human fossil in Europe .
Christian churches appeared first in the major cities of the Empire and spread only gradually into the countryside, in part, due to the establishment of monasteries.
Charlemagne “ He was six feet four inches tall, and built to scale. He had beautiful white hair, animated eyes, a powerful nose ... a presence "always stately and dignified." He was temperate in eating and drinking, abominated drunkenness, and kept in good health despite every exposure and hardship.” — Eginhardt describing Charlemagne
The Silk Road was the caravan trade route that crossed Asia into Asia Minor and the Mediterranean Sea, with two routes bypassed either north or south of the Takla Makan desert, north via Karashahr and Aksu andsouth via Cherchen and Yarkand; the route then climbed the Pamirs into Afghanistan, and trailed across Persia to Antioch, in Syria, with offshoots from Bactria to Turkestan and India. It linked ancient China with the West, especially Rome, and later with Byzantium
Cultural exchange Under Mongol protection, the Silk Roads flourished, and during the Pax Mongolica under Chingis Khan's successors, people commonly traveled the full length of the Silk Roads, greatly increasing cultural exchange. In this atmosphere Europeans such as Marco Polo traveled to the East and returned with tales of the Mongol empire.
Unfortunately, the Silk Roads also allowed diseases to spread. The bubonic plague traveled from Yunnan and Burma eastward to China and westward to Europe along the roads of the Mongol empire.
Marco Polo China and Europe were strangers in AD1265. The Himalaya Mountains and the Gobi Desert were natural boundaries that were difficult to cross. Niccolo and Maffeo Polo were two Italian merchants from Venice. They made the five year journey along the Silk Road to China.
Renaissance In the 12th cent. a rediscovery of Greek and Roman literature occurred across Europe that eventually led to the development of the humanist movement.
Leonardo da Vinci From 1485 to 1490, Leonardo produced studies on nature, flying machines, geometry, mechanics, municipal construction, canals and architecture. His studies from this period contain designs for advanced weapons, including a tank and other war vehicles, various combat devices, and submarines.
Moorish influence The Muslims of the Iberian Peninsula, who ruled Spain between 711 and 1492 C.E., are commonly known as the Moors. Astrolabe , an extremely important navigation tool was one of the technologies introduced by the Moors. The influence of North Africa is to be seen throughout Southern Spain with this modern example of decoartive ceramic tiling maintaining the connection with Moorish art and design .
They called their land Andalus which in the early period of their history also included Portugal and southern France and in the last period only the Kingdom of Granada.
The arches of red-and-white stripes inside the "La Mezquita " in Córdoba, Spain represent some of the pinnacles of the Moorish architectures.
Martin Luther Martin Luther (1483 – 1546) was a German theologian and an Augustinian monk whose teachings inspired the Protestant Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines of Lutheran, Protestant and other Christian traditions. His call to the Church to return to the teachings of the Bible resulted in the formation of new traditions within Christianity and his teachings undoubtedly impacted upon the Counter-Reformation in the Roman Catholic Church. Luther's translation of the Bible helped to develop a standard version of the German language and added several principles to the art of translation. Luther's hymns sparked anew the development of congregational singing in Christianity. His marriage on June 13, 1525 to Katharina von Bora began the tradition of clerical marriage within several Christian traditions.
Romanticism Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. It stressed strong emotion, imagination, freedom within or even from classical notions of form in art , and overturning of previous social conventions, particularly the position of the aristocracy. There was a strong element of historical and natural inevitablism in its ideas, stressing the importance of "nature" in art and language. Wanderer over the Sea of Fog by Caspar David Friedrich
Age of Enlightenment <ul><li>The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy , and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason . </li></ul><ul><li>The term also more specifically refers to an intellectual movement, "The Enlightenment," which is described as being the use of rationality to establish an authoritative ethics , aesthetics , and knowledge . This movement's leaders viewed themselves as a courageous, elite body of intellectuals who were leading the world toward progress, out of a long period of irrationality, superstition, and tyranny which began during a historical period they called the " Dark Ages ". This movement provided a framework for the American and French Revolutions , as well as the rise of capitalism and the birth of socialism . </li></ul>
Steam engine James Watt was a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer, born in Greenock, who was renowned for his improvements of the steam engine. Watt's 1769 design soon became the dominant design for all modern steam engines and helped bring about the Industrial Revolution. First workable steam locomotive, George Stephenson’s rocket.
Social changes Acceleration of technical and economic development that took place in Britain in the second half of the 18th century. The traditional agricultural economy was replaced by one dominated by machinery and manufacturing, made possible through technical advances such as the steam engine. This transferred the balance of political power from the landowner to the industrial capitalist (for example, a factory owner) and created an urban working class. As the first country to have an industrial revolution, Britain for a while was the ‘ workshop of the world’. James Hargreaves’ spinning jenny (right) replaced the centuries-old spinning wheel (above) as the primary means of weaving fabric into textiles.
Industrial Revolution Britain changed more during this era than at any other time. People moved from the countryside to the new towns and cities. The way people worked changed, as did they way they lived - not always for the better. Britain became the world's biggest superpower with the huge increase in industrial production, and imperial expansion.
Child Labor When the industrial revolution first came to Britain and the U.S., there was a high demand for labor. Families quickly migrated from the rural farm areas to the newly industrialized cities to find work. Once they got there, things did not look as bright as they did. To survive in even the lowest level of poverty, families had to have every able member of the family go to work. This led to the high rise in child labor in factories. Children were not treated well, overworked, and underpaid for a long time before anyone tried to change things for them.
T m e i x l t l i l e This demonstrates how textile production has changed as a result of industrialization. In this modern textile mill, many machines whir busily in an initial stage of processing fiber into fabric. The process is almost entirely coordinated and controlled by computer, with a small staff of managers, inspectors, and technicians to ensure quality and efficiency.
Ironbridge Gorge The world’s first castiron bridge, spanning the Severn at Coalbrookdale, was built in 1779 using iron from furnaces owned by Darby; its scallops and intricate curves were designed by architect Thomas Pritchard. Ironbridge Gorge, considered the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution, had all the necessary ingredients for industrialization: coal, clay, ironstone, and limestone exposed at the surface; the Severn River, a vital transport link to major cities; and the ingenuity of men such as Abraham Darby. This area boasted more furnaces and forges along two miles of riverbank than any such stretch anywhere.
Soana layout A map from 1761 illustrates in very fine detail, a group of buildings settled on the right bank of the Soana torrent. By the mid-1700s, the blood-red skies above the gorge meant power and success to the pioneering industrialists. But the water was so polluted that it wasn’t fit to drink, life expectancy was low, and many of the children never made it out of infancy. Darby himself died at 39.
Iron If textiles fueled the Industrial Revolution, iron was the scaffolding on which it was constructed.Without iron, there could have been no meaningful industrialisation. It was needed everywhere, from the framework of spinning mules to the boilers and cylinders of steam engines, from the railway lines that criss-crossed the country to the metal skeletons of a thousand cotton mills and eventually, the iron ships that carried Britain's manufactured goods around the globe.
Colonization During the 19th century, new ethnic groups were created by European colonial governments in order to facilitate ruling their new indigenous subjects. This was the case in Australia and over much of Western North America where there had been small, independent bands of foraging societies. The bands were combined into larger political units by government officials in order to simplify the control of them. Indigenous leadership positions, such as chiefs, were created for peoples who previously did not have the concept of a leader who could act and speak for their societies. When Sir Edmund Andros arrived in Boston in 1686, he set himself to enforcing England's Navigation Acts on the traders who used the port of Boston.
The French Revolution The image on the previous slide represents the three estates during the French Revolution. The man holding the big rock represents the third estate which were the majority of the people, the armored man represents the noble class which made up only about five percent of the population, and the man with the fancy clothing represents the clergy which was the first estate and only had about two percent of the populace. Louis XVI and his wife, Marie Antoinette. Both were beheaded during the Reign of Terror.
La Guillotine Designed by Dr. Joseph Guillotine, a man described as kindly and who wanted to make execution more humane, the guillotine quickly became a symbol of tyranny during the French Revolution . Victims were placed on a bench, face down, and their necks positioned between the uprights. An estimated 40,000 people travelled on the tumbrils through Paris to die under Madame Guillotine.
Yugoslavia Yugoslavia is created at the end of World War II as a communist republic when a federation of six communist states replaces the monarchy. Marshal Josip Broz Tito, (left) a resistance fighter who led the underground against Nazi occupation, takes charge of the new republic -- a tenure that will last until his death in 1980.
Eastern Bloc During the Cold War , the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria , Romania , Hungary , East Germany , Poland , Albania , the Soviet Union , and Czechoslovakia . The Eastern Bloc is also often equated with the Warsaw Pact .
World economic growth The industrial revolution did not affect all parts of the world uniformly, nor is it doing so today. Based on per capita income data estimated is one way of illustrating the origins and the diffusion of the industrial revolution. To construct the figure, regions of the world were organized into 5 groups, ordered by their current per capita income levels. The huge increases in the post-WWII period were even more dramatic in Japan and Europe as the United States’ Marshall Plan helped rebuild these war-torn economies.